Toyota carina sa60 — a60 1.8 мануал

Это интересно

Содержание


Тема: Celica *A60\ Celica XX\ Celica SUPRA — История, вопросы, обсуждение.

Celica *A60\ Celica XX\ Celica SUPRA — История, вопросы, обсуждение.

В связи с появлением все большего числа людей владельцев III поколения Toyota Celica и II поколения Toyota Supra создал этот топик, по примеру топика о Skyline 30 =)

Попытка разложить по полочкам все модификации TOYOTA CELICA третьего поколения, в кузове *A6*

Итак…

CELICA

SA60 – Япония – 1S-U (1.8 л. 100 л.с.) кузов: КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, мод. SX/ST/SV. Выпуск 07.1981-07.1985

RA63 –*Япония — 18R-GEU (2 л. 135 л.с.)*Европа — 18R-G (2 литра,140 л.с.), кузов: КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК. Выпуск 07.1981-08.1982

TA63 – Япония – 3T-EU (1.8 л. 105 л.с.), кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, выпуск 07.1981-08.1983

TA63 – Япония — 3T-GTEU (1.8 л. 160 л.с.),кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, мод GT-T/GT-TR. Выпуск 10.1982-07.1985

TA61 – Япония — 2T-GEU (1.6 л. 115 л.с.), кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, мод GT/GT-Rally. Выпуск 07.1981-08.1983

AA63 — *Япония – 4A-GEU (1.6 л. 130 л.с.), *Европа – 4A-GE (20V) (1.6 л. 163 л.с.), кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, мод GT/GT-R (GT-S в европе). Выпуск 08.1983-07.1985

RA60(61) – *Европа, Восток. – 21R-U (2 л. 105 л.с.)*Австралия,Швеция,Швейцария – 21R-C (2 л. 90 л.с.)*США – 21R-E (2л. 116 л.с.), мод XT/ST (XT/GT). Выпуск 07.1981-08.1983

SA63 – Австралия – 2S-C (2 л. 120. л.с.), кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, мод XT/ST. Выпуск 08.1983-08.1984

RA64(65) — *США – 22R (2.4 л. 105 л.с.)*США, Австралия 22R-EC (2.4 л. 146 л.с.), кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, (GT/GT-S в США). Выпуск 08.1983-07.1985

TA60 – 2T (1.6 л. 102 л.с.), кузов КУПЕ и ЛИФТБЕК, мод ST/LT. Выпуск 08.1981-08.1983

ТА64 – Версия для WRC group B (граждансих выпущено 228 шт.) — 4T-GTEU (1.8 л. 180 л.с.)

После рестайла в 1982 году отказались от установки зеркал на передних крыльях. Так же после 1983 года на большинстве модификаций изменили принцип уборки фар головного света. Они стали закрываться вниз, и в закрытом положении не «смотрели» вверх, как на ранних версиях. Так называемая Black Mask. Тогда же, убрали повторители на передних крыльях. На версиях GT-S для «неяпонского» рынка были расширения колесных арок.

Так-же для внешнего рынка, кузовными ателье были выпущены Convertible версии.

Toyota Caldina 1999 — отзыв владельца

Двигатель: бензин, 1998 куб.см, 3S-FE

Расход топлива: трасса 8-8,5;город 9-13

Срок владения: С ноября 2008

Название: 2G 4WD

Цвет кузова: Белый

Цвет салона: Темно-серый — бежевый

Двигатель: 4 цилиндра, DOHC.

Здравствуйте, уважаемые любители универсалов, и, в частности, Калдин.

Собрался я покупать эту машину сразу, как узнал, что поднимутся пошлины на конструктора. Нужен был однозначно Вэдовый универсал фирмы TOYOTA. Рассматривались: Кволис(2.5Four), Калдина(2G4WD либо GT). Остановился на Калдине, т.к. при современных ценах на бензин, прокормить такой пароход, как Кволис, да еще с мотором 2MZ, да еще и Вэдовый, довольно не просто. Поэтому начал искать Калдину. Собрал все свежие объявы, начал звонить. Первой посмотрел GTшную Калдину. Но она не понравилась кузовом (видно было, что деланная), позвонил по второй объяве, встетились, посмотрели машину. По кузову вся целая, следов ржавчины нет, проехали — ничего не скрипит, движок работает ровно, обороты не плавают, стрелка быстро под ограничитель подскакивает, поддон под движком сухой, и под автоматом тоже, под головкой тоже все сухо, все двери закрывались с легкого толчка. Мелочи были – порваны два пыльника на задних стойках, не горела лампочка в переднем габарите, и в заднем. А так машинка понравилась. В общем, так и купил.

Теперь подробнее о машине:

Салон: по салону Калдинка почти в максимальной комплектации. Нет только люка, и бокового аэрбэга. СD, MD, кассеты, кондишка, климат-контроль, даже навигация была, но сняли монитор на таможне. Салон опрятный, не прокуренный. Немного пыли правда было на торпеде, на дверях, грязный нижний пластик (который светлый), но это мелочи. Сам пластик приятный на ощупь. На руле – кожаная оплетка. По дромовским каталогам смотрел – она даже как опция не идет к таким Калдинам. Сиденья задние в ровный пол раскладываются – очень удобно. Я туда во весь рост вхожу (172см). вдвоем спать легко! Тонировка задняя стандартная, причем не пленкой тонирована, а сами стекла темные. Хорошая штука – как пленку уже не покарябаешь. Багажник полкой закрывается, сам багажник очень понравился – куча всяких ящичков. Причем все почти как новое – не покарябанное, не протертое. Места в салоне достаточно. При полностью отодвинутых назад передних сиденьях, сзади можно сидеть с комфортом, по крайней мере людям со средним ростом. Минус универсала, который можно отнести и к плюсам – то что багажник в салоне – что нибудь остропахнущее т.к. объем его большой. Качество звука в машине среднее – слушать музыку можно, но наслаждаться прослушиванием не получится. Перед панелью приборов стоит датчик освещенности. Можно поставить автоматический режим вкл/выкл фар.

Кузов: Комплектация кузова тоже хорошая – стандартный обвес, туманки, оптика передняя черная, сзади на поворотниках, и заднем ходе — хрусталики (а они ставились с 1998 года на комплектации G(не все), GT и GTT). На крыше – спойлер, лыжи, рога стоят японские. Кузов снизу не гнилой, следов ржавчины нет.

Двигатель: Движок как известно – 3S-FE. У меня 135л.с. (на переднеприводных – 140л.с.). Эта движка имеет тип газораспределения DOHC, т.е. в головке работают два распредвала, что повышает коэффициент полезного действия двигателя. Простым языком – из 135 поников трудятся например, не 30, а 35. Хреново, что системы VVTi нет. Движка раскручивается быстро, работает ровно. Засекал, за сколько до сотни – примерно за 10-10.5 секунд получилось. На старте продирает (еле заметно) передними, потом задний мост подключается. Бензин я лью туда 92й, т.к. двига не форсированная, ей высокое октановое число не нужно. Но дружбан мне советует лить 95й. говорит жрет немного меньше, и едет лучше. Попробую, что выйдет незнаю, отпишу позже.

Ходовка: Комплектация ходовки – впереди и сзади – стабилизаторы поперечной устойчивости. Машина 4ВД. Система полного привода – V-Flex Fulltime 4WD. И пусть поклонники переднего привода кричат на всех перекрестках, что они проедут там, где пройдет такая же ВэДовая машина – я все равно с этим не согласен – сколько раз наблюдал во Владивостоке во время гололеда эту разницу. По расходу – что ВД прям таки пожиратель бензина – не согласен. При спокойной езде максимум разницы – 1.5 литра. Хотя от состояния двигателя тоже многое зависит. Это еще у честного Fulltime может быть больше разница. Несмотря на присутствие в названии слова Fulltime, машина остается переднеприводной, только при пробуксовке передних колес подключаются задние. Это конечно хорошо – расход меньше, но пока задние колеса подключатся, время пройдет, можно и «сесть» уже за это время. Хотя машина предназначена не для трофи-рейдов, поэтому все же такая схема на мой взгляд неплохая, особенно по части расхода топлива. Ездил на ней мой друг – сказал, что крены в поворотах у нее меньше, чем на его Филдере. Да и вообще она дорогу неплохо держит. Проехал я на ней по трассе 500км. После снега. Были участки — сплошная каша снега и песка, иногда приходилось медленно ехать, а так в среднем 90-120 держал. Расход 8,5 получился.

Что делал и буду делать:

Как только купил – поехал закрепил по кругу всю оптику. Когда щуп с автомата вытащил, увидел, что декстрон больше на похож «черную кашу»:)– поехал поменял. Купил зимнюю резину – 185/70/R14 Toyo б/у в Японии, но износ всего 5-10%. Хотел взять MZ-03 бриджстоновскую, но за нее ценник что-то заломили. Думаю, и на такой поезжу. Масло менял – 10W-40 Castrol синтетика. На лето хочу новые колеса поставить – литье на 15 и резину 205/60. Поменяю все фильтры, сделаю промывку топливной системы, поменяю свечи. В салоне буду менять акустику, поставлю сабвуфер. Тонировка передних боковых стекол – само-собой, на лобовое – непрозрачную полоску(козырек). В туманки желтые лампочки поставлю. Короче, машину делать буду под себя.

Вывод по машине – классный аппарат. Конечно, не ракета, но зато идеальная машина для повседневной эксплуатации. А 4ВезДе тоже хорошая штука – зимой можно и в горочку подняться на полноприводном автомобиле можно ездить круглый год, а на переднем или заднем это будет немного проблематичней.

Это мой первый отзыв, сейчас чувствую критики навалится – гора:). Всем удачи, думаю было приятно прочитать данный отзыв.

Toyota Celica

The Toyota Celica name ( the Celica was a personal car that emphasized styling and driving enjoyment. Japanese models were ET, LT, ST, GT, and GTV (which was introduced in 1972, the V standing for Victory).

For export markets, the Celica was offered in three different levels of trim; LT. ST and GT.

At its introduction the Celica was only available as a pillarless hardtop notchback coupe. The SV-1 liftback was shown as a concept car at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show. With slight modifications, this was introduced in Japan in April 1973 as the 2-litre RA25 and 1.600 it was available in both RHD and LHD forms in other markets. The RV-1 wagon was also shown at the 1971 Tokyo Motor Show but it did not reach production.

The Japanese GT models had various differences from the ET, LT and ST including the hood flutes, power windows, air conditioning, and specific GT trim, but shared a few things with the ST — a full-length centre console and oil pressure/ammeter gauges whilst the LT had warning lights for these functions.

There was also the GTV version, which differed from the GT with a slightly cut-down interior, and did not come standard with things like power windows, but they were optional. The GTV has firmer suspension.

The first generation Celicas can be further broken down into two distinctive models. The first of these was the original with slant nose (trapezoid-like shape front corner light). This is for Coupe model only, TA22, RA20, and RA21. These models were released from 1970 to 1975 and came equipped with the 2T, 2T-G 1.6-liter, or 18R 2.0-liter motor. They had a 95 inches (2,400500 and was known in Europe as the TA23. This facelift model appeared in Japan in 1974, but for export was the 1976 model year. The Japanese version had engines under 2.0 liters so as to conform to Japanese regulations concerning engine displacement size, thereby allowing buyers to avoid an additional tax for a larger engine.

In some markets, the lower-end LT was equipped with the single carbureted four-cylinder 2T engine displacing 1,600 while the ST came with a twin downdraft-carburetor 2T-B engine. The 2T-G that powered the high-end GT model was a DOHC 1,600 1971 ST was powered by 1.9-liter 8R engine. The 1972-1974 models have 2.0-liter 18R-C engines. For 1975-77, the engine for the North American Celica is the 2.2-liter 20R. The Celica GT and LT models were introduced in the U.S. for the 1974 model year. The top-line GT included a 5-speed manual transmission. rocker panel GT stripes, and styled steel wheels with chrome trim rings. The LT was marketed as an economy model. Mid-1974 saw minor changes in the Celica’s trim and badges and slightly different wheel arches. The A30 automatic transmission became an option on North American ST and LT models starting in the 1973 model year. For 1975, the 1974 body was used, but body-color plastic fascia and sturdier chrome and black rubber bumpers, replaced the chrome bumpers used in the earlier cars (in accordance with US Federal bumper laws). Unfortunately the early 8R and 18R series engines proved to be less than durable, with early failures common. The 1974 18R-C engine’s durability was improved somewhat, but the 20R introduced for 1975 proved to be a better engine in most respects.Template:Citation needed

1972 Minor Update

In August of 1972, the tail lights were updated from 1 piece tail lights (affectionately called 1tails) to tail lights with distinctive turn signals. The gas tank was moved from the trunk bottom to behind the rear seats; the gas filler was moved from a concealed location between the tail lights to the left C pillar.

1975 Facelift

The Liftback was introduced for Japanese market in April 1973, but not until 1976 for export models. Models for home market Liftback were 1600ST, 1600GT (TA27), 2000ST, and 2000GT (RA25 and RA28). The American Liftback is a GT (RA29) with a 2.2-liter 20R engine. All the Liftback models have flat noses. Although there is no B pillar in the Liftback, the rear windows do not roll down (as they do in the hardtop coupe). Although they looked the same, there were a few minor visible differences.

In October 1975, The entire Celica lineup was given a facelift, with a revised front bumper and grille arrangement. The new model codes for facelift hardtop coupe were RA23 for general worldwide market with 18R engine, or RA24 for the American spec with 20R engine. The Liftback were coded RA28 for worldwide or RA29 for US. Also available was the TA23, which was similar to the RA23, but with the 2T engine. The RA23 and RA28 had a more distinctive bulge in the bonnet, or hood, which was lacking in the TA22 or RA20 Coupe and in the TA27 and RA25 Liftback Celica. The TA22 Celica also had removable vents mounted in the bonnet, which the RA23 and RA28 lacked. The RA series also had an elongated nose to accommodate the larger engine. The door vents, fuel filler cap, and interior were also different between the TA and RA series.

For 1976-1977, the Liftback was released with the 18R-G Twincam engine (except US) with a Yamaha head and running gear. This engine produced significantly more power than the 18R-C. Peak power was about 100000 the Celica was first released in the 1.6 aucune incidence se le prix des voitures neuves !)

vitesse limit 30 km/h en zone pi 70 km/h en zone sans urbanisation (1.12)

Ceintures de s toutes les voitures sont con 2 Jean-Pierre Malcher (BMW 325iX), 3 Bertrand Balas (BMW M3)

1991 1 Maurice Chomat (Citro 2 Marcel Tarr 3 Fran 2 Jean-Pierre Malcher (BMW 325), 3 Bertrand Balas (Peugeot 205 Turbo 16)

1993 1 Dany Snobeck (Mercedes 190 16S), 2 Fran 3 Marcel Tarr 2 Fran 3 Maurice Chomat (Mega)

1995 1 Fran 2 Marcel Tarr 3 Dany Snobeck (Opel Astra)

1996 1 Yvan Muller (BMW 318 Compact), 2 Marcel Tarr 3 Fran 1er auto Vatanen sur Peugeot, moto Orioli sur Vagiva, camion Villa-Delfino-Vinante sur Perlini, 133 class V6 turbo 2458 cm 3 185 ch ailes avant et arri boucliers sp nouvelle monte pneumatique

ASTON MARTIN Virage. cabriolet Volante en 1992

Nouvelle AUDI 100 (Salon de Francfort, 09). Turbo D 5 cylindres injection directe en 1991

41.600 km en 26j 16 h (8)

BMW s spoiler, pare-chocs de la couleurs de la caisse, surbaiss jantes sp 4 cylindres 16S 136 ch

Nouvelle raison sociale BRIDGESTONE-FIRESTONE Inc

CHRYSLER Le Baron ; Cabriolet 2.5 11 CV et 3.0 14 CV

Concept-cars CHRYSLER Du concept car au show room. Durant les ann Chrysler pr tout comme le PT Cruiser et la Crossfire, r rapport de pont 18×77 (0,2337)

Rapports de bo 2-3 99-107, 3-4 139-150

CITROEN C15 Electrique (11.1990)

Comme Peugeot J5/Citro couple maxi 127 Nm maxi 4500 tension d’induit 90 V, tension d’excitation 80 V, intensit consommation

dimensions moteur L 380 mm, diam tension nominale 96 V, poids total 500 kg, tension nominale 96 V

DANGEL/PEUGEOT Projet V11 (4) Transmission longitudinale. Tube de faible diam sans liaison avec le soubassement

Avantages

Fiabilit 309 GTI, 309 GTI 16S

Fiat rach RFA, 5.1990) Tricycle, pr ing vendue 35.000 F.

ERAD Junior EL/E (Automobiles Erad, 59 Aniche), voiture sans permis.

Moteur Thrige Enco 4 kW levier inverseur marche AV/AR/point mort.

4 roues ind amortisseurs hydrauliques, direction pente maxi 20 Alain Prost en France (Paul Ricard, 8.7) En Formule 1, Alain Prost, nouveau pilote Ferrari impose la 641 derni arri charge utile 100 kg (March administrations).

Moteur 9.2 kW (12.5 ch), batteries au plomb (72 V, 350 kg) situ maxi 70 km/h, autonomie 70-100 km 3 soupapes/cylindre

Pi long r diminution du bruit et abaissement des co 11) 3 Kentucky ; commercialis NISSAN 300 ZX.

GENERAL MOTORS Impact (3.1990). voiture de sport plusieurs interrogations peuvent se peser. 1 au transport de personnes.

2 ou doit-on penser directement v en proposant un v destin rapide, d’un rayon d’action important et mue par des batteries scell car, afin de lutter contre la pollution, l’Etat de Californie a d et ce pour l’an 2000, d’ou la n pour le constructeur, de faire vite. C’est dans cet esprit que la General Motors a pr voiture encore exp mais con division de GM, a d dite de haute puissance, et enti soit 32 000 km, et rechargeable. Le dispositif de recharge est int Delco Remy, en collaboration avec GM, esp anim a des acc de 0 et atteint une vitesse maximale de 160 km/h, pour une autonomie de 200 km. Son plancher lisse, la forme lui assurent une efficacit ces pneumatiques sont gonfl au nombre de deux. entra ils d entra permettant ainsi au v contrairement les moteurs de l’Impact n’ont pas de bo d’o gr due permet une pour lesquels on n mais un couple moteur relativement r l’Impact n’utilise que 10 soit 8.5 kW. Le refroidissement des moteurs est assur en conditions normales, par des ou en fortes ascensions ou en cas de conduite sportive, un ventilateur dont la vitesse de rotation est r s’actionne et augmente le volume du courant d’air destin les batteries ont une dur mais les ing dans un proche avenir, porter cette dur d’une fa la puissance utile des moteurs. Des r d’o d’une tension de 10 volts chacune, sont coupl entra et l’ fabriqu sont scell et ne n ainsi, le co soit environ 8 000 FF. Si l’on consid les co en Europe, o les co effectivement, les ing les co

pour chaque moteur 159 A maxi — 400 V maxi,

puissance maximum 85 kW (2 x 42.5 kW) 128 Nm de 0

r

refroidissement forc (395 kg),

mont centre de gravit

tension unitaire 10 V, totale 320 V, capacit

dur 50 A maxi (charge compl tension maxi 400 V, r

r un moteur pour chaque roues avant,

bo

d

rendement de transmission 95 98 Cx 0.19.

Dimensions et poids. longueur 4.140 m, largeur 1.732 m, hauteur 1.207 m,

poids poids total admissible 1 157 kg.

Direction arri dimensions 165/65 R 14, pression d’air 4.5 bars.

Performances. acc 30

400 m d limit

Sur autoroute, 10

autonomie 120 miles

une place Importante est r ce qui r au contraire, s’est lanc la pollution en moins.

Les options techniques Cette traction avant est dot ce qui 5/1), et tension maxi de 400 V avec un r pour un poids l est capable de piloter des puissances largement sup avant de les transmettre, et notamment sa fonction est r normalement r lorsque les conditions de circulations deviennent s General Motors a au nombre de 32, sont r5 kWh (pour un r il y a quelques ann on admettait que des performances acceptables pour un v6 secondes. A 60 mph le r avec plaques positives tubulaires, capacit puissance massique 34 W/h/g en 3 h ou 38 W/g/h en 5 h.

Dimensions hors tout 317 x 185.5 x 250 mm.

Cr Loir et Cher) Fran prototype au salon de Paris 1990

fonde Hobbycar SA avec Serge Desmarais

G Claude poiraud (chef de projet produit), Philippe Beloou (responsable des reprise par la SANAM (Kawtar International Group-Arabie Saoudite et Machinery Company-Vietnam) le 9.5.1995 (5.6 millions de F pour l’ensemble des actifs, dont la marque, les mod 4 roues motrices suspension hydropneumatique

versions Hobbycar et Cortex (utilitaire plus puissant Val de Loire

voiture amphibie, d 4.1990) Rv 10.2, 150 ch (112 kW) 15 mkg gestion int lev 16 soupapes (Lev 200 ch, couple maxi 8000 tr/mn maxi (Mise en action entre 4800 et 5000 tr/mn).

24 heures de Spa, 7.1990. 15e Koentges-Fermine.

HONDA NSX (7) V6, 2977 cm 3. Rv 10.2, 274 ch 28.9 mkg injection s allumage 1 bobine par bougie, admission variable 1360 kg, 272 km/h, 0-100 km/h 78, 400 mDA 137, 1000 mDA 252, 80-120 km/h 4e 67, 5e 92, consommation 16.3 l

HYUNDAI Lantra (octobre 1990) berline 4 portes (L = 4,42 m / l = 1,70 m / h = 1,39 m) break 5 portes (L = 4,45 m / l = 1,70 m / h = 1,46 m)

1.5 (88 ch. / 6 CV) — 1.6 16 V (114 ch. / 8 CV), d’origine Mitsubishi, Diesel 1.9 (68 ch. / 5 CV) origine Peugeot

Traction avant, bo de la gamme de camions IVECO Euro Eurocargo 1991 (6-15 t)

Eurotech 1992 (transports lourds courte et moyenne distance)

Eurotrakker (chantier) et Eurostar (routier haut de gamme) en 05.1993

2e victoire de JAGUAR aux 24 h du Mans(circuit de 13.600 km)

KATAR (09.1990) Base CITROEN 2CV puis ARO

Moteur Renault 1.4 (62 ch 10 mdaN), ch 135 km/h

Pr version VT depuis 1991, roadster depuis 1993

berlinette ou roadster (L = 4,46 m / l = 2,04 m / h = 1,10 m)

5.7 V 12 (492 ch. / 28 CV)

Propulsion ou 4 roues motrices permanentes (VT), bo V12 610-620 ch, 4 soup/cyl

1991 F1. LAMBO 91 (Modena Team) et LIGIER JS 35/JS 35B ; Co Brun-Judd), pr Morbidelli)

VENTURI Larousse LC 92 (Programme Fondmetal-March). D 29 Bertrand Gachot, 30 Ukyo Katayama

LAND ROVER Defender Station Wagon

Pr appel88 m / l = 1,79 m / h = 1,96 m) — break 5 portes 9 places 110 (L = 4,60 m / l = 1,79 m / h = 2,04 m)

Diesel 2.5 Tdi (113 ch. / 9 CV)

4 roues motrices permanentes, bo 5.8)

Course la plus rapide. Michigan, Al Unser sur LOLA T90.00-Chevy 5.8)

Nouvelle LOTUS Elan (salon de Birmingham) pr 550 cm 3. 12 soup, 2 ACT, turbo, 64 ch, 72 Nm 0-100 km/h en 9, 400 mDA 165.

Type A (Portes papillons), Type B, Type C (Comp 1962 cm 3 (3924), Rv 9, 280 ch 41 mkg lumi injection 2 turbos s allumage bo pneus 225/50 VR 16, 1590 kg

250 km/h, 400 mDA 137

MAZDA MX-5 ; 1600 115 ch ; en 06.1994, 1800 130 ch (Mazda 323 GTi)

MCLAREN Champion F1. Ayrton Senna sur Mc Laren Honda et Mc Laren Honda (tous les r 4 RM 4 WD

Motos MuZ (Motorrad und Zweiradwerk) MZ privatis nouvelle usine (250 salari capacit 11 mod apr en d 3 litres, 4 ACT, 4 soup/cylindres, 2 turbos, 280 ch).

Moto NORTON F1 (moteur Wankel)

PEUGEOT 205 Electrique version commercialisable du prototype de 1984, grande s maxi 100 km/h, autonomie 100-120 km.

Voitures en essais 2337), pneumatiques 195/65 R 15

Refroidissement par 2337), pneumatiques 205/60 R 15

Rapports de bo 11.61 km/h) ; 2 21.30) ; 3 29.96) ; 4 40.36) ; Marche Arri 10.39)

Refroidissement par moteur Renault essence ou Diesel Turbo, freins Bendix, suspensions Record

moteur 2 l injection catalys 4 freins charge utile 1000 kg

PORSCHE 944 S2 (6) 4 cyl en ligne, 2990 cm 3 (104×88), 211 ch 28.5 mkg rv 10.9, 2 ACT, 4 soup/cyl

2 arbres d’ position M. Une impulsion vers l’avant (+) ou l’arri interdiction de s effet kick-down

En mode automatique, d passage des vitesses sous charge en 0.1-0.2 s

5 courbes caract de la position de la p du r des acc en cas de patinage, le rapport sup maxi 78.3) ; 2 131.2) ; 3 194.2) ; 4 256.0) ; R chutes de r 2-3 2200,

Performances (ntre parenth bo +24), prix 472.000 F (446.500, +25.500)

261 km/h (262)

400 m DA 142 (138), 1000 m DA 259 (253), 0-100 70 ; A partir de 40 km/h 400 m 144, 1000 m 263

40 4e 126, D 55 ; 80 4e 115, D 46

Consommation route 10.3 (9.0), autoroute 11.8 (11.7), ville 14.4 (12.7), sport 22.7 (21.5), UTAC 7.9/9.6/17.1.

Accords RENAULT-VOLVO (02) participations crois Volvo d Renault 8.24 25 sauf 1.1, avec catalyseur et injection

7.1993 pr capot, optiques et boucliers redessin type synchrone triphas gain de 1000 tr/mn (13.500/14.000 tr/mn).

Entra 216 Gsi, 216 GTi 130 ch 10.90, 216 GTi 3 portes 02.91

tous mod cabriolet 214/216 07.92

nouveau moteur 1.4 103 ch. coup SLi au lei de GSi, 216 an bo 39 j 23 h 35 mn

Moteur SARICH, moteur orbital de Ralph Sarich (Australie), Orbital Engine Company Accords sign production envisag 1.2 l, 95 ch 12.7 mkg poids 40 kg

V6, 2.8 l, 200 ch

FORD (11)

Moteur orbital 2 temps, injection, exp 23.10) projet depuis 1983

usine Saturn Tennessee), produisant 90 recrut mise en place de cercles de qualit dessin Bertone

Production des SKODA stopp 1994 cm 3. 200 ch, 16 soupapes, 2×2 ACT, turbo (Non import 1er Gr N (8e scratch) Duncan-Mehta

SUBARU Legacy Prodrive 4×4 Gr A (1990). 1994 cm 3 290 ch (Maxi FIA 300 ch), 4RM, bdv 6 rapports, 1130 kg

Pr d Alen-Kivimaki, moteur cass 2 portes (L = 3,63 m / l = 1,40 m / h = 1,67 m)

1.6 (81 ch. / 6 CV) — 1.6 16 V (95 ch. / 7 CV). Diesel 1.9 TD (75 ch. / 7 CV)

4×4 d bo 7.5 mdaN 8 places (L = 4,76 m / l = 1,80 m / h = 1,81 m)

Moteur 4 cyl 2.4 l 16S injection, 135 ch bo roues arri alternateur et pompe de direction assist 2 si la GL antivol etc.

novembre 1996. option GPL

juillet 1998. nouvelles puissances fiscales (10 CV en bo Electronic Controlled Transmission with an intelligent control system) int Sport) 29 kW

Moto TRIUMPH (Salon de Cologne) marque cr 1 France en 1992

versions Trident 750 et 900, Trophy 900 et 1200 (car Sprint 900 (t 230 km/h

TVR Speed 8. 2+2, phares r Chimaera en octobre 1992, Cerbera en octobre 1994

roadster Chimaera (L = 4,01m / l= 1,86 m / h = 1,21 m) — roadster Griffith (L = 3,89 m / l = 1,94 m / h = 1,21 m) — coup28 m / l = 1,86 m / h = 1,22 m)

4.0 V8 (238 ch. / 17 CV) — 4.0 V8 (274 ch. / 17 CV) — 4.2 V8 (349 ch. / 20CV) — 5.0 V8 (340 ch. / 20 CV)

Propulsion, bo 1800 cm 3 160 ch

VOLKSWAGEN Golf Country Fabriqu Autriche

Cadre tubulaire de 12 cm de haut int car tarages sp franchissement de pentes 2 embrayages, de part et d’autre du rotor; Zones urbaines, moteur Diesel coup autonomie 20 km (Consommation moyenne 2.5 l).

Pr Volvo d Renault 8.24 25 partie arri 3 litres (83×90), 24S 204 ch, 213 km/h

5 poids 182 kg

Bloc cylindres et carter inf possibilit faibles poids et encombrement r rendement sup Patrese puis Boutsen en Hongrie

Williams 4e au Championnat du Monde des Constructeurs.

1991

Immatriculation obligatoire pour toutes les voiturettes pour 20.000 km de routes goudronn 600 F si paiement sous 3 jours) pour des d 20 km/h pour les autres cas (-1 point de permis),

1300 suspension de permis et 5 jours maximum de prison pour les grands exc majoration en cas d’alcool limit le coefficient est de 1

un premier accident ne peut entra EDF, Poste, Conseil G

utilitaires urbains Elestra, Rocaboy ou Volta; 300 Peugeot 106 et Citro MERCEDES 300 SL 24 et 600 SE, PORSCHE 968.

Le v 6.1991) La sauvegarde de l’environnement est aujourd’hui un objectif prioritaire.

Les la d des constructeurs automobiles Fran collectivit si ce dernier le v mais inexploit deux types d’obstacles ont emp surtout, socio- tr depuis le premier choc p le v plusieurs dizaines d’exp des performances et de la fiabilit le contexte socio- confront mais aussi pollution sonore, qui est une des principale nuisance citadines.

L’adoption en milieu urbain d’un v non polluant, aurait donc pour cons bien entendu, qu’une part importante du parc soit convertie afin d’obtenir des r en r la France peut entretenir un parc important de v la dur pour l’usager, un plus robuste, le moteur devrait se situer en dessous de celui du v les fabricants de moteurs, de batterie et de mat ainsi que les instituts de recherche, ont permis de mettre au point un v recherches et exp les moteurs et les batteries. La recherche fondamentale porte sur la mise au point d’un moteur ultra-l nickel-fer, nickel-cadmium, et sodium-soufre), ainsi que le moteur

— soit la construction industrielle de quelques dizaines, voir de quelques centaines de v dans un premier temps, des flottes captives de v exp avant de penser A etc.) et municipalit Ch Tours, La Rochelle, Marseille, etc.) qui n’ont pas h NICHD Special Emphasis Panel, ZHD1 DSR-R (TW), 1/22/2001]

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??????????????

XIAMEN ZHONGXINDA AUTOMATION???????

(??????)

????:13338456272

??/TEL:0592-5856272 QQ:2314427473

??/FAX:0592-5856702(?????????(???)?,???????)

??:???????????18?B?

Nickel Metal Coil 201 heat# 16732 RM831000 .1570 resist.

NTN Roller Bearing race 1YTU5 LM104949 LM104911 1YTU6

Comtrol RocketPort PCI Universal OctaCable DB9 Male 990.

Piab 3222188/1 M20A6-BN 10-20B/5-20C NEW

Belden 8899 002 Red Wire 18awg 100ft hook up wire rubbe.

Kawasaki FJ180V Lawn Mower Vertical shaft Engine Motor

Subaki Connecting Chain Link Master RS60

Beck Switch Assembly 20-3200-02

SOLA Power Supply SDN 2.5-24-100 24vdc 2.5a DIN *NEW*

ARCOL HS100 10R Resistor 831499002 Chassis Mount Alumin.

Asco Redhat 8210G22 Solenoid Valve 302383 air gas water.

Advantech FPM-3120G-RAE Touchscreen Monitor Operator

Lebow 3274-20K Load Cell 20,000lbs sensotec honeywell 2.

Mac Pneumatic Valve 912B-PM-111CA solenoid Valve PME-11.

PepperL + Fuchs NJ2-C-US-1.025-?V93 Inductive Proximity.

IRKE91/16A 100a diode international rectifier 3G20A NEW

Grace Recept-SLC-RJ45 SLC-500 Programming Interface pan.

PHD 15561-002 Proximity Sensor Switch inductive NEW

Graftech Spreadershield Graphite Sheet SS450 Ultracell

Hubbell Strain Relief Conduit Grip insulated 1 1 07409.

Fanuc A16B-1211-0901 Memory ROM Card PMC-M NEW

Advanced Illumination CS100 Power Supply PS NEW

Parker Vacuum Pad PFTM-35-NBR-M10 suction cup NEW

Square D 9070T100D1 Control Transformer 220/440 230/460.

Dynamco D20S0K00 CD Valve NEW

Allen Bradley 100-C30ZJ00 Contactor NEW

Telemecanique Limit Switch XCS L764F3 — NEW

Bushjost Solenoid Valve 8497705.9163 102839 21v Norgren.

Square D MG26925 Auxiliary Switch Contact C60N 89217

Allen Bradley 1201-HCS1 Programming Terminal Programmer

Azbil Yamatake FL7M-3J6HD Proximity Switch N1012Kf 3J6H.

American Lefrance Clock firefighter hanging wall NEW

Phasetronics EP1-4825 SCR Power Controller Control Weld.

Kissling Relay Solenoid 29.511.11 500a 500 amps 9-16vdc

Valenite polycrystalline diamond insert carbide lathe

Sentrol 2302A-L 2302 Curtain Door Magnetic Contactor ma.

MAC 6312D-631-PM-M0?025 Pneumatic Valve 000 manual opera.

Cosmos Potentiometer RV30YN20S B302 994 pot resistor ca.

Ideal In-Sure 3 port Push In Wire Connector #12-#20 AWG.

McLean Midwest Air Conditioner AC 13-0116-G1014 M13 a/c

Siemens 3SE6 605-2BA magnetic switch reed safety 1s NEW

STI Stopper Station SS-2104 EX Emergency Exit button

Electro Dynamics hour meter totalizing miniature durant

Analog Devices WB Strain gage input 3B18-00 NEW

Telemecanique XS1 N08PA340 Inductive Proximity Switch S.

Omron DCN1-1 T-Port Tap DeviceNet DCN11 NEW

Wurth Female Spade Connector 0558 9962 4,0-6,0mm 6,3mm

Honeywell HC900 Controller 900H01-0102 card module NEW

Anvil Black Iron Cross Pipe 3/4 .75 4KVN3 0300108800.

Phoenix Contact PLC-BSC-5DC/21 pluggable relay optp NEW

Phoenix Contact HCB6-4XSACB Mounting base w Plug 6 pin

Crouzet 81521501 Pneumatic Logic Module Element Base NE.

Intermatic Photo Control K4023C 208-277v NEW

Milacron Cimform Grinding Wheel Pink 12A60-K6-VFM 5X1-1.

Ingersoll IMC SNH-34-001 IN2040 5820252 Carbide Insert.

Ingersoll Carbide Insert LNE324-0A2 IN6510 5803753 0700.

Fenwal Tempswitch thermostat TS0JB01A TSO TSOJB01A TSK

Taisei Kogyo Filter 40U 3J2D NEW

High Ace model 109-602 Axial Fan Sanyo Denki 200v cooli.

Balluff C04 T8R-PG16 PG 16 interface block micro 8 port

EDC F-EDC10201 Manganin adjustable shunt 250mv output

Sunx RT-410R 410T 410 B7 photoelectric photo switch NEW

Carlo Gavazzi IA12ESN04UC Inductive Proximity Switch IA.

Allen Bradley 1492-SM5X9 Markers Snap In 5mmx9mm marker.

Zeromax S065910 coupler coupling .375 3/8 C216P NEW

Joslyn Clark Timing Relay PMT 713UPD 7313 713UP Pneumat.

KCI HBC Crane Hoist Remote Control Radiomatic overhead.

W.E. Anderson V10 A24Q 119151-00 Flotect FLow Switch Se.

Weiler 6 abrasive nylon Nylox disc brush 80 grit 85996

Maxon DT-2RV49-B6 Auxiliary Signal Switch valve control

Parker 100-25-BX Filter Cartridges A403 filtration bals.

GE Fanuc A16B-1600-0080/?04A Input Module Card PCB NEW

TM Transmetrics P21BA pressure transducer 21 NEW

Simplex 4190-9012 Remote Fiber Optic audio Modem NEW

Dewalt 4 grinder gear case assembly 623586-00

Allen Bradley PowerFlex AC Servo drive 20AD022A3AYNANC?0

Allen Bradley 802T-A Oiltight Limit switch lever finger.

Golight 2049M 24v Radio Ray Remote Search light NEW

GE Fanuc A98L-0031-0011 PLC Battery Panasonic BR-AGCF2P

SUNX EX-13EB-PN F1 ultra-slim photoelectric sensor NEW

Parker K142175 manifold assembly valve pneumatic NEW

GE Fanuc A63L-0001-0234/?S2524M Connector NEW

Allen Bradley 1786-TNCJ4/A ControlNet IP67 jack to jack

Fisher Scientific 13-620-296 AccupHast Electrode NEW

Modicon DTA 201/AS-HDTA-201 Secondary Subrack 5 slot PL.

Norgren R68G-NAK-RLN Pressure Regulator 0-125psi NEW

SDDA-01 ATA Adapter solidstate drive PCS 04560OLAY pcmc.

Telemecanique control relay CA3 DN22 ca3dn22bd 24v NEW

Martin D40B13H Sproket gear chain NEW 113 teeth NEW

Omega solid state relay SSR ED-62150-4 output 62138-72g

Yaskawa CDBR-4045B Braking Unit 18a DC 510-660V Input m.

Baldor Tool rest toolrest HA6106A01 HA6101 NEW

Meteorlite 12-72 vdc strobe light blue CL915240 NEW

10 Ten bag Roto Bore Rotobore .318 drill bit boring NE.

Kay-Ray G-Series Transmitter GLT-30AD level explosion p.

ITT T-5R-24V Solid State Time Delay Relay McDonnell

Advance Ballast RCN2S8635M F96T8/HO High Output T8 120v

641-201 DC Milliamperes Meter MR46W001DCMAR PRD27 8518

Yale 3301 Non Hold Door Closer Norton NEW

Rees 00662-002 2.25 Red Plastic Mushroom Push Button e.

Taisei Kogyo Hydraulic Suction Filter SFN-03-150K NEW

Honeywell TG511A 1000 Universal Thermostat Guard w lock.

Condor Power Supply HA24-0.5-A+ SL Electronics PS 24v 2.

Garlock Compression Packing 41300-1008 1/8 .125 1lb

Koyo flange bearing F209 UK F 209 UK209UCS09 ball NEW

Omron E3S-AR61 Photoelectric switch sensor w/reflec NEW

Canary MTX-1070 10Base-T Transceiver

Allen Bradley 700-CF400ZJ Control Relay Contactor NEW

Allen Bradley 500F-BOD930 Starter Contactor 500 Line Mo.

Allen Bradley Photoswitch Mounting Bracket Swivel Mount.

Telemecanique XES.D 1281 XES D1281 Push Button Switch N.

Sony LH51-1 Display Unit 100-120v Digital absolute incr.

EasySeal Muffler Clamp 40EST 4 exhaust flat band 304ss

GE Fanuc A20B-2901-0960/?05C Memory Module Daughter Card.

Allen Bradley 280D-FN-10-C 280D-F12Z-10B-C?R DeviceNet C.

Ground Connector TA-250 4/0 wire lug ILSCO AL9CU 250MCM

Yaskawa Memocon-SC JAMSC-B2902V

PepperL 000lb honeywell.

Square D FHP Manual Starter 2510 KG-1 starting motor sw.

Powerex PRX 163182-8 11414 Power Diode SCR

SLD15L5 Caddy Speed Link LD 1.5mm x 5m Galv Wire cable.

GE Fanuc A16B-2201-0311 PC Power Supply NEW!

Telemecanique LA8 DN11 Lateral Contact Block 076796

Square D Q0290 Plug On Circuit Breaker 90 amp 90a 2p NE.

Turck Connector RKF106-1M 14.75 npt RKF 106 U0938-15

Span Indicating Pressure Transmitter 1863020 IPT122-300.

Faraday XHFA-33N4 Adalet PM3823 explosionproof Firealar.

Allen Bradley 802M-AY5 Oiltight Limit Switch XY5 NEW

Allen Bradley 140M-C-AFA11 Auxiliary Contact 140 NEW

Allen Bradley 1494V-FSR266 Trailer Fuse Block Kit 31-60.

Allen Bradley 700-N201A24 Control Relay 24v type N encl.

Haichuan HC-A CSNJJ SOHU Q/0KQN002-2005 Overload Device.

Trantorque GT Fenner drives 6202568 Lock keyless bushin.

Allen Bradley 802DN-AD5 DeviceNet Limit Switch Lever Ty.

Brady Wire Marking Labels WML-211-292-75 label roll NEW.

Square D Fuse Holder fuseholder 9080 FB1211R 9730 C NEW

Fuji Auto Breaker BZ-CG20B SA33B 10a disconnect NEW

Allen Bradley 871A-TS4-NM3 Straight Male PG16 Plug NEW

Allen Bradley 42SML-7100 Photoelectric trans beam NEW

Electrocube RG1986-7 STi ARC Suppressor Snubber 43127-0.

Vigodrive reducer planetary fanuc K150S RV-250-171 gear

Tregaskiss Tough Gun cable 513-204 TRE-512 500 amp robo.

Honeywell MC1194 microswitch micro switch BZ-RW8435-A2

Allen Bradley 1492-N47 End Anchor Terminal wiring wire.

Mac manifold valve assembly MRM-35A-BAE-DDA?J-1KE NEW

Lumberg RKC 30/13.5 13.5 Connector Female 12a lager 117.

Romheld 4 passage coupling rotary 9284-006 Roemheld NEW

Banner OLM8 27099 0LM8 Delayed one shot logic module

GE Fanuc A20B-3300-0241 Servo Card 8 Axis NEW

IFM Efector 0G5056 OG5056 OGTLFPKG photoelectric sensor

Telemecanique XS1-D08 PA140D XS1-L/D/M XS2-D Inductive.

Square D EK300-1 Electrical Interlock Switch Latch NEW

Kawasaki 8KAXS.9992CA FXT00V-BS00 DFI Engine lawn mower

PHD 17533-00-05 Cordset

Gould Shawmut Large PDB Cover 08590 thomas Betts T5-G08K-AN6X 4671050 Proximity Switch NEW

Asco Redhat Valve 8223G3 120v Brass RPLS 8223A3 PRFX 20.

Xycom automation industrial PC 1500 computer rack NEW

Asahi Sunac AG Gun airless automatic AG-3 valve NEW

Allen Bradley 1756-ENET/A Ethernet TCP/IP interface PLC

A-Tech Instruments 3010AM fitting new

Symbol 50-04000-030 Power Supply 120vac 8vdc

Chelsea Parker 328924-12X electronic overspeed control

Norgren F46-801-MODA Oil Removal Filter Coalescing NEW

Lumberg RKWT 8-187/5M cord connector female right angle

Square D 9001BW146 Surface Mount Pushbutton Start nema.

Turck Ni2-Q6,5-AP6-0,?2-FS4.4X3/S304 1650047 Inductive P.

Yokogawa AC100V Power Supply ELHW Toline-Fii 8S toho NE.

Marathon Heavy Duty Terminal Block 1612 DJ 12 pin NEW

Turck Ni40U-CP40-AP6X?2/S10 1623602 proximity switch NEW

Heidenahain Rotary Encoder ROD 260 10000 02S12-03 331 8.

2 Allen Bradley 1772-MS8 Memory Segment module card 819.

Allen Bradley Power Flex AC Motor Drive 22A-D4P0N104 4a.

Siemens Simatic FS400 Light Curtain Transmitter 3RG7845.

Modicon DTA 200/AS-HDTA Subrack rack back plane 5 NEW

Bosch Rexroth Ceram Valve GS-030042-02626 pneumatic NEW

Hardy Instruments Controller HI Weigh weight 2151/30WC-.

Turck Ni3-EG08-AP6X proximity switch sensor 4602740 NEW

Fluitek Fluilton Filter Element P 038094-3U71X hydrauli.

Siemens OPM2 6SE3290-0XX87-8?BF0 Keypad Clear Text Displ.

Allen Bradley 100-A18NJ3 AC Contactor NEW

IFM Efector OGH500 0GH500 OGH-FPKG/US100 Diffuse Reflec.

Efector IM5078 IMC4020BCPKG inductive proximity switch

Turck Bi15U-CK40-ADZ3?0X2-B3131 proximity switch sensor

Siemens 3SB35 00-1QA11 mushroom pushbutton black 60mm

V3L-2435 microswitch snap action lever honeywell NEW

Sick KD5-RIM125 7020681 4 pin wire 90 degree connector.

Allen Bradley 800FM-LE5 Illuminated push button yellow

Seepex Temperature Controller SGRTSE 115V NEW

Hydac Hycon Hydraulic Filter 01253038 0060D003 BH4HC R.

Chromalox cartridge heater CIR 240v 150w 150 watts NEW

IFM Efector IZ5035 IZB30 proximity switch sensor NEW

Allen Bradley 800H-BP6 Red Push Button BP6#

Toshiba Strata HCOU line card interface board *NEW*

Killark Electric VCGP-100 Glass Globe Heat Resistant pr.

Mitel DCR1475SY2626 9816 dynex Thyristor SCR puck phase

Allen Bradley 700-HB33A1 relay 10a 3PDT120v ac 120 NEW

Square D Overload relay Thermal unit B32 58757 B45 NEW

Efector IFM E21003 OJ rail mount sensor lens mounting

Efector IFM E21003 OJ rail mount sensor lens mounting

Saddle Kit delivery tube 1 1/2 400964 drill thru NEW

Saddle Kit delivery tube 1 1/4 400964 drill thru NEW

Saddle Kit delivery tube 3/4 400963 drill thru NEW

Gates Polyflex Belt 7M850 NEW

The Watt Stopper B277E-P Power Pack 277v NEW

SKF SNL Seal TSN516L TSN 516 L SNH 70mm 2.75 shaft 3/4

Banner 38193 mounting bracket hardware mount NEW

Omron D4A-0300N Limit switch SPDT neon lamp 125v NEW

SMC D-A73C reed switch sensor CQ2 NCQ2 rail mount

Graco 218966 98 C97A Color Change Valve Rebuild kit NEW

495-0243 Digital Camera PCI Communications Board PCB Pe.

Miller KP1973-1 Nozzle Tip .375 S13763 lincoln NEW

Char-Lynn Eaton Hydraulic Pump 1011002-009 5-98 charlyn.

Efector Pressure Sensor PB4213 — NEW

INA DRS35110 001501089 11-0270 seal carrie k05.122.0003

Fanuc Servo Amp A06B-6058-H005 A20B-1009 0090 1003 NEW*

White Hydraulic Pump HB18595570 293.07

Crown Engineering Igniter spark plug CA470 Auburn NEW

PepperL + Fuchs NJ4 12GM50-WS 026579 Proximity Sensor

Back Crane Control Button 20-3200-01 Switch Assy Assemb.

Nikon lens optical comparator holder frame reflective

Thomas Betts BX Flex Connectors squeeze XC-201 1/2 .5

Daytronic 3378 Strain Gage Indicator Controller NEW

Martek Power Supply Mahr Federal EPW-1096 PER-48-111 9v.

Salisbury Lineman’s Glove kit GK0011R/11H AZMC size 11

Fan 6U USON Filter Mechatronics E1225M05B 5V Hammond

Allen Bradley 1492-HJ86 Terminal Block NEW

Allen Bradley 505-B0d B0* Reversing Starter *NEW*

MP Master Pneumatic MRS100-8 Exhaust Air Reclassifier S.

Fuji AR30B0R-22B AR30 mushroom button switch black AR30.

Watt Stopper RT-50-LA 7 button Count down time switch

Euchner 074308 TZ2LE024PGVAB Safety interlock switch TZ

American Weldquip AW 75010228T 10′ welding liner .045

Panasonic Welding Liner TDT-00057 matsushita 1-1.4mm 3m

Federal Signal LSL-120G Green 120v light stack grn NEW

Century Diaphragm 27-3 Teflon 3

MT50QG Control Transformer 240v 24v NEW

Kussmaul Auto Interlock 091-134 Automatic Power Relay

Siemens 6ES7 392-1AJ00-0AA0 Simatic Connector NEW

Kawasaki FR691V 24hp 24 horsepower Engine Motor Mower

PepperL Fuchs NBN 8-18GM50-E0-V1 084196 Proximity nbn8

Parker PK152HLL01 1.5 1 1/2 Bunan piston seal kit

Marposs A90 Touch Probe Cable 4159116610

Conery Float Valve NO 2900-B3S4C3-20′ pump down NEW

Intermatic K4521 Photo Control 120v

Lumberg 0322-12 watertight locking plug connector male

Span LFP410 30in 600psi 1/4npt npt 316SS vacuum pressur.

GE General Electric 575A Vacuum Tube

Allen Bradley 6690DS3 6690-DS3 440067006 Comm board NEW

Hoseline Line Voltage Thermostat M600MC 600N6028 NEW

Kawasaki FX801V-AS00 29hp vert shaft engine motor NEW

Maxitrol RV61 Pressure Regulator Gas Air 9218-4 NEW

Nibco Bronze Check Valve T-413B 1.25 1 1/4 Horizontal.

Lenze Electric Motor Geared gear AC 3P3185203M63B4/?SSN4.

Mitsubishi memory sun server MH8M144DTJ-6 128mb 60ns

Efector IFM IG5221 Proximity Switch IGB3005-BPKG NEW

Siemens 3RB2056-1FW2 3ZX1012-0RB20-1?BA1 Overload Relay.

Hubbell SP-100 Cir-Chek open circuit detector 110v NEW

3 Burndy YA34A3 500MCM 500 mcm AL9Cu-HV lugs terminal

Efector IFM Micro-AC-X/X-R0?L-PUR-5M W80170 3 pin cable

Mitutoyo Height gage gauge 40/1000mm Digital vernier

Century Diaphragm 27-1 1 Teflon RX valve regulator

Kawasaki FS730V-AS00 26hp 26 horsepower vert engine NEW

Tregaskiss Tough Gun welding nozzle 651-6-62 weld 5/8.

Square D Mag-Gard Motor Circuit Breaker 400a 3p LAL3640.

Fisher Emerson FS3722-5 Valve POSTTTIONer Converter type.

Flex Cable 98-310-1074 750MCM-32 Spot Weld Welding wire.

Allen Bradley 700-NA40 contact block front deck NEW N

Omron H7CX-AWD1 Digital Counter 12-24vdc NEW

Dayton AC Axial Fan 4WT46 computer 120v NEW

Sony LT20-101B Display Unit Magnescale 1 axis LVDT comp.

Namco Proximity switch sensor EE510-73422 WFISCP NEW

Allen Bradley 700-F400A1 Type D Control Relay

Siemens Simatic FS400 Light Curtain Receiver Rx 3RG7845.

AutoTran Auto Tran Pressure Transducer model 600D-237

Banner Mini Screen System 44896 MSDINT-1 Light Curtain.

Condor DC power supply 5vdc 5 vdc RPS410305 5v plug in

Sensotec TJE/1149-02TJA Amplified Transducer pressure

Schneider Modicon PC-A984-145 984 PLC CPU COMP NEW

Allen Bradley Pressure Control 836-C4 switch 30 vac 45.

Speaker Board Assembly 565-919 federal signal NEW

Allen Bradley ArmorStart Drive 280D-FN-10-C 284D-FHD6P0.

Dynapar H42-0060 Encoder rotary H420060 Pulse Generator.

Omron E3R-R2E4 amplified Photoelectric sensor NEW

TCI KLR3CTB Sine Guard Line Reactor KLR-18 NEW

Tamura Electric Works E-9610 Counter Totalizer 6 digit

SKF 22210 CCK C3W33 ball Bearing roller Spherical NEW

NSK MC-SR03-02 UT6232 1404 1605 001 000 FR03-02 Switch

Dodge Pillow Block Bearing 1 1/4 1.25 P2BSC104

Federal Signal Division 131DST-120B Strobe Light 120vac.

Escort Memory Systems Passive Reader Writer LRP75 long.

Allen Bradley 77135-166-51 Mounting Kit versaview panel

Stanley phi 2103 emergency panic bar door opener NEW

Stegmann T11101001110 1024 Pulse/rev Encoder rotary Cor.

Allen Bradley 2711-K6C8L1 PanelView 600 Operator Termin.

Canfield Connector switch 8000 610 000 004 reed SPST

Poly Conn Polyconn PCSN-30-3W solenoid valve 7019-9AA

Poly Conn Polyconn PCSN-31-3W solenoid valve 7019-9AA

Festo JH-5-1/8 8823 FD02 FN02 Pneumatic Valve NEW

Racal Filter TWP24960 S2350010 odor charcoal NEW

Amphenol 10-825816-08P 97-36-8p Connectors plug

Allen Bradley 1336S-B025-AN-E?N-HAP-L4 AC Motor Drive 25.

Allen Bradley 800E-A6PR2 black button protective ring

Square D SAG12V02 AC Magnetic Starter Enclosure 8536 1.

VS5000027 0-52808 OLVA card

T-CD411699 CC410889 POW-R-BLOK Diode Isolate Module NEW

Numatics Pneumatic Valve L23BB452B000061 solenoid pilot

Ross Pneumatic Solenoid Valve 2773B2001 3/2 NO pilot

Vickers Pump Cartridge Kit H 95 0 TNTB RMFD 576210

Telemecauique contactor LC1D09BL LC1D09 BL 24vdc NEW

Siemens 3VU13 00-1MG00 circuit breaker 3VU1300 1.6a NEW

Parker skinner valve 72218BN3TN00 72218BN3 TN00N0C NEW

Square D 8502SC02V02S AC Contactor size 1 8502 starter

Siemens 02705 S89R11APP1-120 Potter Brumfield Relay 120.

Sunx RT-410R 410T 410 1G photoelectric photo switch NEW

Allen Bradley 800MS-CPA16GAS CPA16S square illuminated

Allen Bradley 700-HAX2Z24 Relay 24v 24 24vdc dc coil DP.

GE Fanuc A20B-2000-0360/?03B 0270 Pendant PCB Control Bo.

Allen Bradley 2090-CPWM6DF-16?AA15 Cable Wire Connector.

Hot Wire Anemometer Real Time Data Logger

Allen Bradley 800MR-B9AK B9 Yellow small round button

Fuji AR30G4L-10E4G E4 Push Button Switch green momentar

Omron S3200-COCF62F-2?662

Telemecanique ATV31HU22N4A AC Speed drive inverter NEW

Rexroth Clavette Connecting Flange C15 5351-026-072 NEW

Hubbell HBL25415B 25415B HBL Locking Plug 4p 30a NEW

Sunx SH-31R 31rp 31rd photoelectric photo switch NEW

Allen Bradley 1784-PCIDS devicenet PCI I/O scanner card

Microbus MP7-237010B MAT915 P3/700 MPV7V-10 NEW

ADDI Data APCI 1500 Optically Isolated I/O Board PCI ca.

Allen Bradley 284D-FHD4P0Z-10?-CR ArmorStart Drive and B.

Bosch Rexroth HMS01 1N-W0020-A-07-N?NNN 1001476807 R9112.

GE Magnetic Starter CR306E004LRE Starter Contactor size.

Mitsubish FR-F720-00630-N?A Inverter F700 Motor Variable.

Westinghouse Type DS Disconnect Switch DS262R 60a 600v.

Red Lion 5001000 RPGD Rotary Pulse Generator NEW

Mitutoyo connection cable 936937 guage gage height NEW

Thermocouple board assembly P402-2947

Allen Bradley 871TM-DX15 sealed limit switch wired NEW

Electronics 399A-1.25-.6-4-?TS 999245.1 Flow Switch Sens.

Siemens 3RH1911-2FC22 Contact Block auxiliary furnas au.

Hydac Ball Valve graco P8618344 C07063 020714 704867

GE Fanuc A20B-2000-0840/?09D A350-2000-T844/?06 CNC CRT M.

Emerson 200RB 3T3 PCN 049609 Refrigerant Solenoid Valve.

Idec ABW211-Y Push Button yellow pilot switch NEW

Omron E2EC-C3D1 Proximity Switch NEW

Numatics I13BA43AM017N Pneumatic Valve solenoid I12BA40.

Mac Pneumatic Valve 82A-AC-000-TM-D?FFP-1DA DFFJ NEW

Schneider TSX Momentum communication adapter 170 LNT810

Turck Ni6U-EG08-AN6X-?V1131 4600630 proximity switch NEW

Allen Bradley Glass Fiber Optic Cable 99-540-1

IDC Danaher IM-LMT42 Impulse Stepper Motor Drive NEW

AC Tech Q14005B Variable Speed Motor Drive 5hp 460v 3p.

Square D 9016GVG1J09F Vacuum Switch 9016 GVG1J09F

ESS Base Drive board 560478.18 560478-18 NEW

Turck Bi10U-MT30H-AP6?X2-H1141

Siemens ITE FCRK206 Fuse Clip kit switch accessory NEW

Square D 9001KM35LR Led Light Module BSD-1318-6UR Lamp.

Siemens 3SB35 00-1QA11 3SB3500 mushroom button black

Bk Mikro BK4SC TK4K.02 Leukhardt Scanner Control NEW

Furnas 14DSE32AA Contactor ESP100 14DS 32A 7.5hp NEW

Keyence LG-81 Laser Gage gauge NEW

Vickers Hydraulic Pump Cartridge 11 gallon 11gal 11g V1.

Turck Banner Bi2-G12-AZ33X 7M proximity switch sensor

Timken 07000LA 902A1 Tapered Roller Bearing NEW

Square D EDB34050 50 Amp Circuit Breaker 50a 3p 480v NE.

Bosch Rexroth Z2S 6-1-64/V Check Valve Flow hydraulic *.

Allen Bradley 1492-CAM1 Terminal Blocks NEW

Yaskawa CIMR-G5M40P4 Varispeed GPD 515/G5 Servo Drive m.

Ross 2751A2908 Single Pilot Operated Check Valve NEW

Balogh GIE931/8K GIE 931 RFID tag Enhanced Speed NEW

Asco Red-hat 218931 218 931 cap repair kit cover clip

Widia HC-P20-M 9ZE5577D1 Carbide Insert W6-63 103171704.

Allied Control valve rebuild kit 32003 09902 flowmation

Solid State Current Detector F-EDC 10134 EDC10134

BK Micro BK4110 Controller 6304200 MSC Rudolf Diesel St.

Sof-Touch ST-1000 Push Palm Start Run Operator button S.

Square D EDB34015 Circuit Breaker 15a 15 amp 15amp 480v.

Vickers Directional Hydraulic Valve DG4S4LW 012A B60 01.

Yaskawa ServoPack Yaskawa CACR-SR10SZ servo motoman NEW

Siemens CRHOH Compact Rotary Handle

Dwyer Pressure Switch 1823-1 NEW

PepperL 000 lb Load Ce.

Sprecher+Schuh connection kit 22.941.501-01 ca6-180-vl

Sunx NX-51 51R Photoelectric Beam Sensor switch NEW

Mitutoyo IDU25 0.01-25mm digital indicator 575-113

Master Pneumatic MRS100-6 Filter Regulator Silencer Rec.

Banner VTBP6QPMA12 Optical Touch Button Palm NEW 74089

Burndy BDB-11-2/0-3 Versi-Pole 002761 03328 Power Block

Siemens AC commutation choke 1P 6SE6400-3CC01-0?BD0 NEW

Balluff BAW M18ME-UAC50B-BP?00-GS04 proximity switch NEW

Tolomatic tol-o-matic Axidyne DC stepping motor control

Daihen OTC L9155B00 Cable Cord line NEW

Norgren F17-800-M1DA Filter regulator oiler 1

Keyence BL-V35E Barcode Display Interface NEW

Banner 61669 QS18VN6RB Photoelectric Sensor QS18 NEW

Mac 180002-122-0003 Pneumatic Valve

Mac valve 6323D-000-PM-59?1DA 63230 pneumatic air 24vdc

Allen Bradley 1734-FPD 1734FPD Point I/O module Sealed!

Allen Bradley 700-P800A2 230-240v Control Relay NEW

Vigodrive reducer planetary R380-7Y0028 RV-380-141 gear

Omron E3S-CR11 Photoelectric Switch reflector NEW

Buss FRS-150-R FRS150R fusetron cooper bussman fuse NEW

Numatics Pneumatic Valve Solenoid 031SA4002011B30 237-9.

Honeywell BZE6-2RQ2 Microswitch Limit Switch Micro Leve.

Toshiba VFS9-4037PL-WN(?1) 3ph Transistor Inverter Ampli.

PepperL 5-e C1 400/500 1070077583-102 output module

Spot Welding weld 504873 electrode bar holder tip arm

PMI motion C-77-10032-002 Transformer XFMR T-26-8 NEW

Yaskawa Memocon-SC Program Loader M302 robot plc teach

Square D Sy/Max Class 8005 DN-108 symax input NEW

Allen Bradley 1336-L5 Drive Assessory PCB Logic NEW

Hydromatic Pump Submersible SHEF40A1 52608-005-7 cast i.

Newport Micro Infinity ICN77333 temperature controller

Pyles 23600-202 Graco glue heat control controller NEW

Control Concepts 1652-48-70 Solid State Relay SSR NEW

GE Fanuc 44A730219-G01 OPNA1 1793 VA-5 board pcb NEW

Banner 58752 SI-LS83MRHE Machine Safety Switch Lock NEW

Cutler Hammer Reed Relay D40RPB switch NEW

CCS 604GX11 J H Bennett SJ02107-A01 Pressure switch NEW

Efector 0G5042 0GS-00KG photoelectric sensor switch NEW

Mac Pnuematic valve 180003-123-0003 air directional NEW

Festo Pneumatic Oder Block OS-PK-3-6/3 0S

Lubriquip L05 MXP-100S Divider Valve Lubricator oiler

Turck BI10-G30-AP7 Proximity Switch Sensor NEW Bi 10

Banner 46722 SI-LS31PKVD Machine Safety Switch NEW

Ranco 016-503 High Pressure Control Valve NEW

Yokogawa YCA 251 251444PZSJ AC Volts 0-600 meter NEW

Omron WLCA2-2N Roller Limit Switch NEW

Omron WLG2-LD Roller Limit Switch NEW

Yamatake HP100-P1-CT photoelectric sensor retro switch

GE General Electric TC0K265 2P Circuit Breaker Lug kit

Banner BM 752P 17245 fiber optic cable sensor glass NEW

Spectronics ADS-O1B #91-107-86 input module fire alarm

The Watt Stopper Power Pack BZ-480-E external fixture

EDC F-EDC10202 Manganin adjustable shunt 300mv output

EDC F-EDC10204 Manganin adjustable shunt 600mv output

Vickers DGMA-3-C1-11 crossover plate eaton DGMA3C111

GE CR305X112P Panel Mount Amplifier Control NEW

Honeywell C437K 1007 Gas Air Pressure Switch NEW

Promess PPM Electronics V1.2 8500300102 Refurbished

Allen Bradley F-11089 Arc Hood Cover size 3 starter NEW

Siemens 3SB3 500-4DD01 Keyed Selector Switch NEW

Sunx SU-7PJ fiber optic sensor amplifier SU-7 NEW

Sunx SU-7PJ fiber optic sensor amplifier SU-7 NEW

SMC EVP342R-5YO-02F?A EVP0AA22E EVP3 42R solenoid valve

Mac Pnuematic Valve 225B-116AA 16aaaa NEW

Mitsubishi A6TBXY36 terminal block board sink NEW A6T

Gemini Valve 4GP 4 way pilot GP SC07D-120 125psi NEW

Red Lion PRA13011 PRA1 Pulse Rate Analog converter NEW

Siemens 3RB1025-1SB0 overload relay sirius 3R 3-12a NEW

Control Concepts B1000591A Model 5021 True RMS Current.

Fanuc A05B-1302-D002 Limit Switch Matsushita AZ7311

Barksdale D1T-H18SS Pressure Vacuum Actuated Switch NEW

Powerex CM400HA-24H IGBT 400a 1200v switching diode NEW

Banner 23395 53SMETAM600 Fiber optic cable sensor NEW

Allen Bradley 800E-1P Plastic Enclosure Grey button NEW

Analog Devices 3B39 Isolated Current Output gage NEW

Rexroth Bosch 0 820 023 002 Pneumatic Valve

Omron E2EQ-X3D1 Proximity Switch NEW

Leece Neville alternator 4867JGH 270 amp 270a 14v NEW

Trane CNT00607 high pressure cutout PS80 cnt607 New

DR62.0X80-2/AST?O AST0 Gear motor reducer Gehause Dunker.

Schmersal Omron AZ 16 zi D4DS-35FS safety interlock NEW

Siemens 3SE3 242-0XX POSTTTION switch safety lock NEW

GE Fuji AF-300 Mini Drive 6KXC123F50X9A1 1/2hp .5hp 230.

Square D 9999TC10 SPDT auxiliary contacts contact kit

Graco Trabon 563354 KF10A Pump Assy Fixed Output AL-25.

Yaskawa SGM-04AW14B AC servo motor motoman robot

Square D 9007 C52A Turret POSTTTION Switch lever Limit

Analog Devices 3B46-03 Isolated Frequency Input NEW

Phoenix contact CIM systems station connector NEW

Mac 82A-FC-CKA-TM-D?AA6-1DA TM DAAP 120v Pneumatic valve

Amphenol VN02 025 0031 machined contact connector 16awg

Allen Bradley 700-RT00N000A1 Solid State Timing Relay

Siemens circuit breaker 3VU1300-1MK00 4-6a 6 amps NEW

UE J400 452 9518 Pressre Switch United Electric NEW

Siemens 3UA59 00-2d overload relay 20-32a amps 32 NEW

GE Fanuc IC697ACC723A Clear Plastic Doors box of 6 NEW

Siemens 3RU1146-4KD0 overload relay 57-75a sirius NEW

PPT Vision 431-0159-10 21737 camera cable connector NEW

Wago 750-970 profibus fieldbus connector D-sub bus db9

Allen Bradley 509-A0D AOD Full Voltage Starter size 0 C.

Allen Bradley 109-A09BG3-B42 Motor Starter 100-A09NG3

Siemens Micromaster 4 gland plate 1P 6SE6400-0GP00-0?BA0

GE Fanuc A06B-6050-H303

Mitsubishi MR-H-D01 I/O Option Card PLC Module melservo.

Thomas 000lbf 15,000 NEW

GE Fanuc A16B-1212-0531/?06B PS Power Supply Board NEW

Graco 918512 Dispense Valve 918-512 NEW

Fasco D294 fan blower motor double shaft S88-659 E0207

Reliance Electric Brush Monitor system motor ESP E.S.P

SMC pneumatic solenoid valve NVFS2310-3DZ VFS2L67U NEW

Harmonic Drive CS-65-104-2A-GR?-SP speed reducer motoman

Cutler Hammer KD3125 Circuit Breaker 125a 125 amp eaton

Allen Bradley 1336F-BRF75-AN-?EN VFD Adjustable Frequenc.

Herion Norgren 9202800 0701.024.00 NBR SPR 2/2 valve

Allen Bradley 1792D-CBFM ArmorBlock maxum I/O base NEW

amphenol solder connector machined VN01-025-0032-1?C 14

Banner RPBR 26132 Power Block RWB4 maxi beam wiring NEW

Asco 8215C63 304691 1.25 1 1/4 120v Solenoid Valve NEW

IFM Efector PN7302 Pressure Sensor PN-100-SBU76-QF?RKG N.

Wanner C24ACBVSSNH C24 HydraCell Industrial Valve bypas

GE Fanuc A20B-2900-0480 2mb Flash NEW

VWR Humidity Meter gauge gage tester

Square D KAL361251021 Thermal Magnetic Circuit Breaker.

Square D 8903LO40V02 4 pole Lighting Contactor 8903 LO4.

Schneider Lexium Stepping Motor ILS1B853S1460 IFS93 006.

Red Lion IMI04167 Apollo Intelligent Meter IMI Digital.

Parker D3W4CNYCH Hydraulic Valve directional 5000psi NE.

Newport Digital Gauge 205-PA1-R-CO Display 98-245-6226.

Mitsubishi FR-A5NC CC Link Communication Option NEW

Microflex HA46A6B212 Danaher 20 hour timer NEW

Marposs AF050 Probe 3419830500 3441552000 0499SC1533 LV.

Heidenahain Rotary Encoder ROD 420.000B-600 295 281 56

GE General Electric Overload Manual Reset Relay RTN3D 9.

GE General Electric Magnetic Contactor CR305E002AAL CR3.

GE General Electric Circuit Breaker Frame TJK436F000 Li.

Eagle Signal Timer 4K65 HE63A6 60 minute min 60m NEW

Ametek 851FG0100NHSCN 0-100 PSI Guage gage pressure 690.

Abar Ipsen S-328-0001 Termocouple Vacuum Gauge

Vickers EEA-PAM-568-A-3?2 Hydraulic Amplifier Card EE-04.

SMC VZ3120-3LZ-M5 VZ3K30 pneumatic valve solenoid NEW

Mitsubishi Compact Size Inverter FR-A024-0.75K-U?L FR-A.

Minarik SCR Filtered Series MM21051C Shunt Wound Motor.

Johnson Controls VG7241GS+8122G0 VA-8122 Proportional V.

Boston Gear Speed Reducer F7107.5KB4J6 Nema 42CZ 7.5 ra.

Schneider TSX Modicon AS WBXT 201 Bus Extension Cable

Mitsubishi MR-J2-10A1 MR-J Series AC Servo Amplifier Dr.

Omron E2EZ-X4B1 Proximity Switch Sensor NEW

Square D KR1U Universal Push button guard 9001 9001KR1U

Granzow 21WN4K0B130 1/2 .5 9-232psi solenoid valve NEW

Omron H7CX-R11 Tachometer 30hz counter NEW

Efector PN4222 PN-SBN14-HFBOW Pressure Sensor NEW

Cutler Hammer HMCP070M2C Circuit Breaker motor protect

DVT Legend 500 542CW 542C SmartImage Sensor Camera colo.

Hauhinco HFA valve directional control 6546811 NEW

B06C111-2 B06A111-2S 80-3802 board card NEW

Omron CA2-2N Limit Switch WLCA2-2N lever roller NEW

Bimba 12/24DCO-10DC 12/24DC0 NEW

Allen Bradley 509-B0D-A2E motor starter 592-A2EA 1.6-5a

Omron E5AK-AA2-500 Digital Controller NEW

Telemecanique LC2D09REQ3827G1 Reversing Contactor LADN0

Euchner safety TZ interlock TZ1LE024BHA-C19?02 TZ1-LE024

Sensotec load cell 060-A276-01 41/572-01-06 2000lbs NEW

Allen Bradley 1756-ENBT Communications Bridge Card Ethe.

Federal Signal LSB-120 Litestak Base A2 120vac NEW

Honeywell Sensotec LFH-71/280-08-0?1 060-0280 2000lb loa.

Asco Redhat 8210B020 302270 Valve water solenoid brass

SMC LC1-1B2H1-N5 Controller LC Linear Actuator Construc.

GE Fanuc A16B-2200-0690/?10B Axes Control Card Board NEW

Parker Hydraulic Valve PRDM2PP06SNS Pressure reducing r.

Square D 972320 20a 20 amp Circuit Breaker 3p 3 phase 2.

4 — GE THQL2115 15amp 15a Circuit Breaker 2 pole THQL2.

Mac 6316D-000-PM-59?1DA9 PR63D-23BA-9 Pnuematic Valve

Mitsubishi Melsec A1S61PN Power Supply 5vdc NEW

Allen Bradley 800E-P45 Plastic enclosure reject red NEW

Sony SR33-017AM Scale Unit Linear magnescale

GE Fanuc A05B-2301-C371 Teach Pendant NEW

Truck-Lite Ultraflash solid state flasher 97297 NEW

DDK electric socket solder connectors CE01-16S-2024 awg

Wittman Water Flow Regulator serie series 401 control 4.

Yaskawa G7 Varispeed CIMR-G7B4011 Servo Drive Inverter

CSi ICP Accelerometer A0322R1-1

Fanuc A16B-1500-0010 PMC controller S-628889 A320-T016

Allen Bradley 20AD011A3AYNADC?0 Power Flex 70 PF70 NEW

Siemens Micromaster AC output choke 6SE6400-3TC01-0?BD0

Bryant CS8464-N Locked Connector 50a 50 amp 2 pole NEW

Bryant CS8465-N Locked Connector 50a 50 amp 2 pole NEW

GE Fanuc IC693CPU374-GP CPU 374 Plus PLC

Cutler Electrical Interlock Kit DS200EK1 10316H89A NEW

Square D FA32020 Circuit Breaker 30 amp 30a 240V NEW

Sof-Touch ST-1000 Palm push button start stop go green.

NLB Gardner Denver L-901-WG Wing Guided Valve L-332A 33.

Brown 000

Mimatic driven toolholder turret EMAG VL 5 VSC 200/250

Siemens size 3 Contactor 40HP32AA 50hp 3p full volt NEW

Fuji Electric AF-300 Micro Saver II 6KM$243001N1A1 300M.

Honeywell Sensotec Amplified Transducer FPA/E507-03 p/n.

Honeywell Sensotec FPG/G524-01 100PSIG Amplified Transd.

Flowtronics FTH-150-502 Proportional Valve Control Card

PepperL Fuchs IVI-KHD2-4HRX Identification module Contr.

Fanuc A16B-2200-0431 Allen Bradley 96635301 960210 NEW

Datasensor S50-PR-5-A01-PP photoelectic sensor NEW

Escort Memory Systems HS500E Read/Write Antenna RFID

Allen Bradley 700S-CF350DJC Guard Master 700-CF310Z NEW

Barksdale pressure switch 0428-001 SW2000 digital NEW

Zoltman VED20020CA servo drive driver board

Microstar Laboratories MSXB 038 MSXB038 expansion board

Yaskawa Memocon-SC JAMSC-IF64 link module card

Ashcroft B424B XFSJK Pressure differential switch NEW

Square D I-line Plug on Lugs 225A I-Line SL225 NEW

Dynapar 52301201608 encoder NEW

Micro Tas Plus 99382533 99382541 ingersoll rand IR

Unico 00018673 313-571 400-142 PCB board NEW

Unico 311082 Serial Data Interface Card 4000 NEW

Barber Colman Digital Interface A-12353-1 2595 33-1272

Sunx LA-A1P PNP amplifier 300 310 305 NEW

Siemens 3RT1045-3A 3AM20 motor starter contactor NEW

Allen Bradley Speed Switch 808-R4 NEW

Unico drive 317879.017 board pcb NEW

Murr Elektronik 55696 ASI Programmer New

Square D 9001BW151 stop button control station enclosur

303-006 303006 Module serial data interface pcb refurb

GSE Inc. PC644C 40-20-18918 angle board control NEW

Peco Hydraulic Thermometer VPR-75E temperature 20-0097

Rexroth 4WRE 6 W32-12/24K4 900499564 Proportional Valve

Fanuc 44A736290-002R1?2 IC660ELB922M dual channel PCIM

Sony Linear Scale Encoder SF108-065 NAE 065NAE NEW

Link Belt Pillow Block Bearing PKB22443H 2 11/16 ball

Square D FAL34060 Circuit Breaker 60a 60 amp NEW

Toshiba Strata HCBU5 HCBU auxiliary cpu board *NEW*

Viatran 344X378A 344ACVX378A Pressure Transducer NEW

Saftronics FPC5010 GP10 Vector AC drive FN4005-10S NEW

Unico 316-732 drive board pcb NEW

DINnectors DN-FM6 fuse terminal block ferraz shawmut

Festo CPU ISF60-03 0288 Devicenet slc control block NEW

GE Fanuc IC693MDL310D Output Card 120v 120vac 12pt NEW

Pall RC861CZ084HYT 1321173 Aeropower Pressure switchNEW

Bosch 0 608 701 003 590000031 Servo Motor EC-4E510 510

Electro-Sensors DR-1000 DR1000 110v 750-040400 Killark

Grayhill 70MRCK24-HS Relay Board NEW

Moore Industries EPTCX Thermocouple Transmitter p1024 R

Rexroth 4WRE 6 E08-11/24Z4 4WRE6E16 Proportional Valve

Robicon 362720 PC board 371304 9747

Robicon PCB 471222B r8486 467145 05 9415 SCR control

Siemens Simatic S5 100 U 6ES5315-8MA11 Interface Module

Square D 2510 KW2 Manual Motor Starting Switch type 4

True Blue N.C. Valve EASMT5V16W20-PP 3/4 Plast 0 Matic.

Fire Sentry PCI-24 Firebus RS-232 detector

Telemecanique Interlock Switch XCSL764F3DA — NEW

Waco Giken AC Hi Servo ASP16-R1-75 — NEW

Balluff BTA-D11-200 parallel output card micropulse NEW

Cypress CCK-1101 Digital Clock 1 LCD numeral NEW

Rofin Sinar Power supply 581008 BV090987

Welding Technologies 900-8113 Network Card BD# 8113-2 m.

Hastings Vacuum Gauge model 760 Teledyne Raydist

Warner Swasey Personality module 8100-0273 WS278629K

Microscan barcode scanner UPC laser MS-810 FIS-0810-004

Quatech DS-100 2 Channel Asynchronous adapter 100S card

Daytronic 3530 LVDT Conditioner gage display NEW

EL02012 Hydroform board pcb addison tube PMF0013826

Fenwal Temperature Controller series 193 ac360 refurb

GE Contactor CL03-45 CL45A Reversing relay 480v NEW

Promess PPM Electronics 8500300103 monitor panel meter

Yaskawa Memocon-SC JRMSP-PS22 power supply PS

Eagle Signal HA44A608 Microflex Controlflex timer NEW

Eagle Signal HA499S40A6 Microflex Controlflex timer NEW

Omron C200H-0D218 PLC I/O module output unit 24vdc NEW

Paragon 500-132-00 Automatic Reset control timing NEW

Siemens ITE Circuit Breaker 50a 50 amp 480 ED43B050 NEW

Sumtak Optcoder MGX-10BL 100p NEW

Turck BIM-IKM-AP6X2-H?1141 Cylindrical POSTTTION Sensor

Efector PN5200 PN-400-SBN14-HF?PKG pressure sensor NEW

Efector PN5206 PN-2,5-RBN14-HF?PKG pressure sensor NEW

HP Agilent 35670A UK4 option microphone adapter PSU

Sprecher+Schuh contactor relay CA7-43-10 PA 120v NEW

Square D Pressure switch Interruptor 9012 9915 GEW-2

Siemens 6SC6500-0NA02 Simodrive 6SC 6500 drive board

Acuity Vision AS-MS20-301 IVS Cimatrix camera sensor

Balance Engineering BEBMIA-104 PCB board card NEW

Convergent Energy G72023 G72020 Single Loop Regulator

Danfoss Starting Torque Limiter TCI 25 037N0048 NEW

Technifor CN1-17 Mem2 ELE02/203 Memory Card NEW

Applied Robotics Quickstop QS-400NP-CR quick stop NEW

Efector IFM PN3222 100PSBN14-KFPKG pressure sensor NEW

Load Sentinel 2200-40A monitor 40 overload protection

Yaskawa G7 Varispeed CIMR-G7B4015 Servo Drive Inverter

Yaskawa G7 Varispeed CIMR-G7B4022 Servo Drive Inverter

Sensotec WD-TJE/2356-01 50psid Amplifed transducer 0-50

Sensotec WD-TJE/2356-01T?JD 5psid Amplifed transducer

Fanuc AC servo motor A06B-0288-B011 30Kw ais200 2500

Honeywell FF-SRE3081E emergency stop module expansion

Omron Sysmac PLC C200HW-C0M02 programmable controller

EFD 68507 Float switch power supply MC686 MC685

AdaptaBeacon 53G-G1 Orange rotating light 24vdc lamp NE

AdaptaBeacon 92A-N5 Amber Strobe Light edwards 92AN5

IMO Barksdale Pressure Transducer 305T2-14CG-11-L

Parker Pneumatic Valve 61SADX TA14 Stainless 06PM NEW

Square D 70a Circuit Breaker FAL340701021 magnetic NEW

Fuji BU-ESB3050L 50a 50 amp Circuit Breaker 3p NEW

Nir-Or Israel DU12 1606-530 display LTP Z245C-D NEW

Taiyo AND Unit AU-DC24 parker NEW

Square D 8536 SCG4V02 Motor Starter nema 1 SCG 120v NEW

Newport Quanta Q2040-AVR1 DCV RoHS display voltage NEW

Danfoss Starting Torque Limiter TCI 25 037N0048 NEW

Square D 400a Mag-Gard 400 Motor Circuit Protector NEW

Unico Keypad 315925.004 touchpad control drive motor

Balluff Micropulse BTL5-A11-M0508 linear transducer NEW

BK Mikro 8 BK824-128 SB control scanner object monitor

Convergent Prima 2120a PCB board NEW

Escort 00-1011 Multi-port Serial card MPSC

GE General Electric RTN3B Overload Relay 55-80a amp NEW

GE General Electric RTN3B Overload Relay 55-80a amp NEW

Cutler Hammer IDT 40-13820-01 Interface Panelmate NEW

Leeson Adjustable AC Motor Control 174914.00 .5hp NEW

Newport Quanta DCV digital Panel Meter 92040-AVR1 NEW

Sensortronics 65059-1K 65023-1K-0107 1000lbs load cell

Sick Stegmann DFS60B-T5EK0000?9 Rotary Encoder NEW

3 Square D Q0320 Plug On Circuit Breaker 20a 20 amp NEW

Mitsubishi FX2-16MS PLC Programmable Controller Melsec

Siemens 3RB1055-2FG0 Overload relay 50-200a 200 amps

Siemens ITE JD62T200 Sentron MCCB trip unit 200a 2p NEW

Symbol LA-3021-502 wireless LAN adapter spectrum24 NEW

Festo CPV-14 CPV14-GE-MP DQ385 Pneumatic Valve NEW

Townsend Riveter 42561 clutch assembly finger dog

Leukhardt BK Mikro 5-RL scanner controller module NEW

Square D Circuit Breaker FHL360201212 20a 20 amp NEW

Siemens ITE motor circuit interrupter CED63A025 breaker

PepperL Fuchs KHD2-IVI-AB1 Ident-I I/O node bus coupler

Dynapar Danaher H58 H582500001220 rotary encoder NEW

Go Switch Topworx 76-13527-DBD NEW

Piab M20 M20A6-B2N Mini Vacuum pump filter kit PPX10RE

International rectifier vishay SCR thyristor 301RC30

Bosch CL500 CL 500 064719-103 AG/Z-S 1070064719-103 NEW

Fireye D series Amp 72DUVS4 amplifier module UV ss NEW

Fuji 1DI300Z-120 300a Power Transistor 1200v NEW

IFM Efector ST0533 SCN12ABAAK0W SCN12ABAAKOW NEW

Princo Prob-A-Larm Level Control sensor switch L2510

Proportion-Air CB1E100 CB Servo Control Valve NEW NIB

B NNB

TECH-MOTIVE IN-LINE ELECTRONIC NUTRUNNER TORQUE TOOL T0.

MITSUBISHI A700 400V INVERTER DRIVE FR-A740-00170-N?A

THERN INC 4WS6M12-4000-30?-E-0 HEAVY DUTY POWER WINCH.

FANUC CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-2200-0431/?03A

TECH-MOTIVE IN-LINE ELECTRONIC NUTRUNNER TORQUE TOOL T0.

ALLEN BRADLEY 110/120V COIL 110A CONTACTOR STARTER 100-.

ADVANCE RELB-2S40-SC 120 VOLTS RAPID START ELECTRONIC B.

AERO-MOTIVE JB07000 CAPACITY 60-70 lbs BALANCER

GROUPE SCHNEIDER NUM 200 204 156 64 INPUT / 48 OUTPUT

ARO PD20A-AAP-KTT METALLIC DIAPHRAGM PUMP, 2, Ratio 1.

FANUC LTD AC SERVO AMPLIFIER UNIT A06B-6089-H209 D

AMERICAN INSULATED WIRE CORP 14039 12 AWG 4/3 CONDUCTOR.

BUSSMANN 30AMP LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LP.

TECH-MOTIVE IN-LINE ELECTRONIC NUTRUNNER TORQUE TOOL T0.

ALLEN BRADLEY REMOTE I/O ADAPTER MODULE 1771-ASB/E G02.

SYLVANIA QTP3X32T8/UNV PSN-SC 120-277V 3-LAMP ELECTRONI.

PARKER 421-6 NO-SKIVE HIGH PRESSURE HYDRAULIC HOSE, 3/8.

AEG MODICON MODEL 685E PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER MODULE P.

SQUARE D 8738 SCA14 F4T FUSIBLE DISCONNECT SWITCH COMBO.

RBC B10 WIR207B / OR306 THREE PIECE ROLLER BEARING 2 7/.

GOULD SHAWMUT 600V 30A 3-POLE CLASS R FUSEHOLDER 60328R.

BUSSMANN 20AMP LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LP.

RELIANCE ELECTRIC 7476060-001 AUTOMOTIVE INDUSTRY AC MO.

WEIDMULLER 600V 35A MAX 26-10AWK FEEDTHROUGH TERMINAL B.

PANAFLO 24V DC BRUSHLESS COOLING FAN FBK-09A24M *LOT OF.

TELEMECANIQUE 12-24VDC PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR XUM H703535

BALDOR EM3212T SUPER E GENERAL PURPOSE AC MOTOR, FRAME.

BALDOR ECP3885T-4 MARINE DUTY CHEMICAL PROCESSING MOTOR.

SQUARE D 400A CIRCUIT MAG-GARD LAF3640036MV102?7

CLUTER-HAMMER 3-POLE 250A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER JD.

TELEMECANIQUE 12-24VDC PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR XUM H703535

TELEMECANIQUE 25A 24V COIL CONTACTOR LP1 D0901 *LOT OF.

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 100A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER FD.

FUJI ELECTRIC 200-240V COIL 35A MAGNETIC CONTACTOR 4NC1.

HONEYWELL W7100A1053 AIR TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER, NIB

NUMATICS F624C-16ADU 300 PSIG AIR FILTER, NEW

SIEMENS SIMATIC S7 24VDC DIGITAL INPUT MODULE 6ES7 321-.

PIAB VT-1AGM #1015 X-DRILLED VACUUM/BLOW OFF, NEW SEALE.

WEIDMULLER WSI FUSE HOLDER TERMINAL WSI 6/2 *LOT OF 25*

EAGLE SIGNAL CONTROLS 120V 0-30 MINUTE RESET TIMER BR19.

ALLEN BRADLEY ControlLogix 17 SLOT CHASSIS 1756-A17/B.

GAST 4AM NRV 55 A PNEUMATIC AIR MOTOR 1.7HP 3000RPM

ALLEN BRADLEY 24VDC FLEX I/O DEVICENET ADAPTER 1794-ADN.

CAMCO 601RDMBH24-270 ROLLER GEAR INDEXING DRIVE, 1/3 HP.

THERMAL CERAMICS FIBER BLANKET CERABLANKET 300 L, 24.

ALLEN BRADLEY 9 SERIES 10kW SYSTEM MODULE CNC INTERFACE.

CAMCO 601RDMBH24-270 ROLLER GEAR INDEXING DRIVE, 1/3 HP.

OKUMA MACHINERY WORKS LTD INDUCTOSYN POWERAMP DRIVE AMP.

OKUMA MACHINERY WORKS LTD 75 AMP SERVO DRIVE BL-D75A

OKUMA MACHINERY WORKS LTD 30 AMP SERVO DRIVE BL-D30D

ALLEN BRADLEY FLEX I/O 24VDC SINK INPUT 1794-IB16 W/ 24.

SEW EURODRIVE KAF77DT90L4BMG2?HR HELICAL-BEVEL GEARMOTOR.

TECH MOTIVE TORQUE TOOL CONTROL MODULE 49-4100-03C5 REV.

OHIO GEAR U2325FMC140 UNILINE 2000 GEAR REDUCER, RATIO.

GOULD SHAWMUT 600V 60A CLASS R FUSEHOLDER 60658R *LOT O.

SNAP-ON CG95A STEERING WHEEL LOCK PLATE REMOVER, NEW

BUSS 30A 600V CLASS R 3 POLE FUSEHOLDER R60030-3PR *LOT.

HYDAC CHARGING AND TESTING UNIT FOR ACCUMULATOR, HOSE A.

FUJI ELECTRIC 100-110V COIL 35A MAGNETIC CONTACTOR SC-2.

FANUC ROBOTICS VERTICAL 5-SLOT PLC BACKPLANE ABU05B A03.

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS CORP PRO-FACE DIGITAL TOUCH SCREEN.

SOLA T5H15S SHIELDED GENERAL PURPOSE TRANSFORMER, 15 kV.

WEIDMULLER CONNECT POWER 24V 6.5A DC POWER SUPPLY 16170.

SOLA CUSTOM RECTIFIER 24V 10A DC POWER SUPPLY 86-24-310

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V REVERSING CONTACTOR 104-A09ND3 W/ OV.

HARMONIC DRIVE SYSTEMS AccuDrive PLANETARY GEARHEAD HPG.

SMC PNEUMATIC MIST SEPERATOR AFM40-03C

FANUC LTD OPERATOR’S PANEL A05B-2301-C003

FANUC AC SERVO MOTOR a2/3000 TYPE: A06B-0373-B175

ALLEN BRADLEY 110/120V COIL 60A 100A CONTACTOR W/ OVERL.

SMC PNEUMATIC MICRO MIST SEPERATOR AFD20-01B

OMRON IEC255 RELAY, NNB

MARATHON 600V 760A 3 POLE POWER DISTRIBUTION BLOCK 1453.

ALLEN BRADLEY CONTACTOR SERIES C 100-A38N*3

ADVANCE ICF-2S42-M2-LD PROGRAMMED START ELECTRONIC BALL.

ALLEN BRADLEY 128 POINT 24VDC I/O MODULE 1791-IOBX

FANUC POWER SUPPLY PCB A16B-1212-0871

ALLEN BRADLEY TLS1-GD2 SAFETY INTERLOCK SWITCH W/ GUARD.

ALLEN BRADLEY 24VDC FLEX I/O DEVICENET ADAPTER 1794-ADN.

ALLEN BRADLEY RELAY 700-HB33A1 WITH BASE 700-HN154 *LOT.

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 500 13 SLOT RACK 1746-A13 SER A W/ PO.

WAGO DEVICE NET I/O SYSTEM 750-306 W/MODULES *LOT OF 2*

THK HSR20 TR BALL RAIL BLOCK

MORSE 127714 40R 10FT ROLLER CHAIN, NIB

KOOLANT KOOLERS INC HCV-3000PR-MB AIR COOLED CHILLER

OMRON H3DR-A TIMER, NIB

GREENLEE 409 POLYPRO GENERAL PURPOSE ROPE, NIB

MANNESMANN DEMAG AF12-B-5-0-85-3 CONICAL-ROTOR OFFSET G.

CAMCO 601RD10H24-270 ROLLER GEAR INDEXING DRIVE. 37 k.

METALLICS INC. RCT26 1/4-20 STEEL HEX ROD COUPLINGS, LO.

WILKERSON WRD100A-1 REFRIGERATED AIR DRYER

ALLEN BRADLEY CompactBlock SAFETY I/O PLC UNIT 1791DS-I.

ALLEN BRADLEY DeviceNet PRESET SPEED CONTROLLER 160-BA0.

HARMONIC DRIVE SYSTEMS AccuDrive PLANETARY GEARHEAD HPG.

KENNAMETAL MCLNR164D KENLOC TURNING TOOLHOLDER, NIB

MILWAUKEE 1151 1/4 CLASS 150 BRONZE GATE VALVE, NEW

THK HSR30 LINEAR BEARING BLOCK, SEALED, NEW

IAI CORPORATION SUPER SEL TYPE G ACTUATOR CONTROLLER SE.

HOFFMAN A1412CHQR TYPE 12 HINGED-COVER JUNCTION BOX, NN.

GATES FLEX MULTIPURPOSE HOSE, 3/8X500′, NEW

CUTLER-HAMMER WESTINGHOUSE 150A 600VAC 3-POLE CIRCUIT B.

ALLEN BRADLEY 77131-055-02 HALOGEN LAMP NEW IN BAG

BROWNING VS-232 MOUNTED BALL BEARING INSERT, SET SCREW.

CHERRY E13 SWITCH, LOT OF 4, NEW IN BAG

BODINE ELECTRIC 42R5BFC1-E3 GEARMOTOR, NO BOX

FANUC SERVO BOARD PCB A20B-1003-0090/?02/07B W DAUGHTER.

OTTO CONTROLS P1-90007 PUSH BUTTON, NNB

FUJI ELECTRIC 100-110V COIL 26A MAGNETIC CONTACTOR 4NC0.

THK BLK1616-3.6ZZ 034 BASE 142MM BALL SCREW, NNB

HONEYWELL UDC2000 MINI-PRO TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER DC200.

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V COIL CONTACTOR 700-F400A1 SERIES C *.

CROUSE-HINDS / COOPER QE52 RECEPTACLE DOOR ASSEMBLY, NN.

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V COIL 12A REVERSING CONTACTOR 104-A12.

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V AC POWER SUPPLY MODULE 1771-P4S/B E0.

FANUC ROBOTICS SERVO AMPLIFIER UNIT A06B-6089-H105 D *R.

MCGILL MR-24-SS ROLLER BEARING, 2 1/8 OD, 1 1/2 ID, N.

AMPHENOL-TUCHEL CO91 CONNECTOR LOT OF 2 NEW IN BAG

HYDROFOAMER 481 FOAMING SPRAYER 96OZ, NIB

HONEYWELL R7290A1001 PLUG-IN ULTRA VIOLET AMPLIFIER NIB

SQUARE D SY/MAX PLC CLASS 8030 OUTPUT MODULE ROM-221 SE.

TRUPAR AMERICA WOL752R DMAK-1398 LEVER, LOT OF 2, NEW

CUTLER-HAMMER CONTACTOR HEATER COIL H1037 *NEW, LOT OF.

SMC AMG 850-N20D-X221 COMPRESSED AIR AMBIENT DRYER, 145.

SQUARE D 24VDC CLASS 8501 RELAY WITH BASE KPD12V53 *LOT.

GOODYEAR 569-012-254-002?00 HORIZON AIR 0-160 PSI, NNB

INDRAMAT RECO INTERBUS 24VDC OUTPUT MODULE RMA12.2-16-D.

MEDAR CABLE ASSEMBLY 205-12121/2

SANREX DF20AA160 POWER DIODE MODULE, THREE PHASE BRIDGE.

TORRINGTON RC-121610 BEARING, 1 BORE, 3/4 SHAFT, LOT.

REELCRAFT 82100-OLP HEAVY DUTY SPRING RETRACTABLE REELS.

PARKER X171P-6-4 FLUID CONNECTORS, LOT OF 10, NIB

PARKER X170P-4-4 FLUID CONNECTORS, LOT OF 10, NIB

SQUARE D 200A 600VAC CIRCUIT BREAKER KAL36200

ABB CONTROL SIZE W5 600VAC 350A WELDING ISOLATION CONTA.

JESCO PRODUCTS CO INC N-2655 APPLICATOR VALVE, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 500 REMOTE I/O SCANNER 1747-SN SERIES.

HONEYWELL LSZ1A MICRO SWITCH, NIB

GE FANUC WHEDCO TARGET AUTOMATION SYSTEM RACK / BLACKPL.

ADVANCE ICN-4P32-SC 120-277V INSTANT START ELECTRONIC B.

WOODHEAD ENS2115M160 16M ETHERNET MALE TO MALE CABLE, N.

RIDGID 450 PORTABLE TRISTAND CHAIN VISE

STATIC CONTROLS CORPORATION LED DISPLAY BOARD PCB AD-09.

ALLEN BRADLEY PANELVIEW 900 OPERATOR INTERFACE 2711-K9A.

PARKER X170P-6-4 FLUID CONNECTORS, LOT OF 10, NIB

XYCOM INDUSTRIAL COMPUTER OPERATOR INTERFACE 3512 KPM

KENNAMETAL LNA204M LOCKNUT FOR TENSION ONLY COLLET CHUN.

HONEYWELL / MICRO SWITCH LYS02C-2S PROXIMITY SWITCH, 0.

ALLEN BRADLEY POINT I/O DEVICENET ADAPTER MODULE 1734-A.

TECH MOTIVE TORQUE TOOL CONTROL MODULE 49-4100-03C5 REV.

EAGLE 1924 FLAMMABLE LIQUID SAFETY STORAGE CABINET, SEL.

23X18X35

NUMATICS 226-952B 24 VDC 4.5 WATTS 15-120 PSIG PILOT PR.

BERGER LAHR STEPPER MOTOR MOTION CONTROLLER SD326DU25S2

MERLIN GERIN 5A SINGLE POLE CIRCUIT BREAKER C60N 17414.

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 500 DIRECT COMMUNICATION MODULE 1747-.

ALLEN BRADLEY DeviceNet STARTER AUXILIARY 100-DNY42R

HARMONIC DRIVE SYSTEMS AccuDrive PLANETARY GEARHEAD HPG.

SCHNEIDER MODICON REMOTE I/O PROCESSOR MODULE AS-P890-0.

PNEUTRONICS ANALOG CIRCUIT BOARD 990-4763-008

ALLEN BRADLEY 3-POLE 40A CIRCUIT BREAKER 1492-CB3 G400.

TOBUL ACCUMULATOR, INC 3.2AT50-1 HYDRAULIC ACCUMULATOR.

FUJI ELECTRIC 100A 200V COIL MAGNETIC CONTACTOR SC-3N *.

OPTO 22 PB4R CLASSIC STANDARD RACK, NIB

ROLLED TENSION 500PC SPRING PIN KIT, NEW

EQUIPTO 10 DRAWER STORAGE CABINET, 25? X 27 X 57

INDRAMAT MAINSPINDLE AC MOTOR DRIVE TDA 1.3-100-3-A00

MCLEAN 115V SIDE MOUNT FILTER FAN FF-1016-003

FUSETRON FRN-200 250V CLASS K5 DUAL-ELEMENT TIME DELAY.

COPELAND 6RT1-3000-FSD RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR, REMAN

STAR 1824-321-10 RUNNER BLOCK, SIZE 35, 5 1/2 X 2 3/4.

T.B. WOODS RC80 Roto-Cone Variable Speed Sheave, NIB

BANNER MINI-SCREEN LIGHT CURTAIN CONTROLLER GMMSDINT-1L.

FANUC MEMORY BOARD A16B-1211-0090/?10D

WESTINGHOUSE 3-POLE 50A 600VAC CIRCUIT BREAKER FB3050L

ALLEN BRADLEY 3.7-12A TRIP CLASS 10 OVERLOAD RELAY 193-.

HAMMOND MANUFACTURING 120/240V TO 24V STEP DOWN TRANSFO.

PHOENIX CONTACT 50-PIN BREAKOUT BOARD FKLM 50/LA

TELEMECANIQUE CONTACTOR LP1 D0910 *LOT OF 10*

TRERICE BX9140307SPB 30-240F INDUSTRIAL THERMOMETER NIB

SQUARE D MPZ15T2F 15 kVa 3 PHASE MINI MPZ POWER ZONE, N.

INDRAMAT RECO PLC INTERBUS COMMUNICATION MODULE RMK12.2.

MASTER PNEUMATIC SERV-OIL A6100-1CM MULTIPLE POINT LUBR.

A-JAX TRANSFOMER T8-134 10 kVa TRANSFORMER

SQUARE D 80A 3-POLE THERMAL MAGNETIC CIRCUIT BREAKER FA.

DATALOGIC ESCORT MEMORY SYSTEMS HS200R SERIES RF TAG HS.

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 40A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER FD3.

WARNER ELECTRIC 90V DC CLUTCH / BRAKE CONTROL MODULE CB.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1746-LP153 PROCESSOR UNIT SER. C

HEVI-DUTY 240/480V TO 120/240V 1PH, 1.5kVA, 60Hz, STEP.

HITECH INSTRUMENTS 805-9200A OXYGEN ANALYSER

DeZurik 9353612 12 PLUG VALVE W/ MANUAL ACTUATOR, NNB

BUSSMANN SAMI-21 INDICATING FUSE COVERS, 600V, LOT OF 3.

G E 25T7DC/25T8DC APPLIANCE AND INDICATOR LAMPS LOT 0F.

ZOELLER 10-0225 SWITCH MATE FLOAT SWITCH, NIB

OMRON G3NA-21OB RELAY NIB

CUTLER-HAMMER WESTINGHOUSE 125A 600VAC 3-POLE CIRCUIT B.

ALLEN BRADLEY SINGLE POLE 2A CIRCUIT BREAKER 1492-CB1 G.

NUMATICS 228-703B 120V SOLENOID CAPSULE, NNB

TELEMECANIQUE LC1 D2510 CONTACTOR, NNB

EAGLE SIGNAL PCC 6 DIGIT COUNTER NIB

FEDERAL SIGNAL 302GC 24 VAC/VDC SERIES D SELECTONE, NEW

ALLEN BRADLEY PRE-WIRED LIMIT SWITCH 802M-AY5 *NEW IN B.

BUSSMANN 626 FUSE REDUCER, NIB

BUSS R60030-3PR 3A-600V FUSEHOLDER, NNB

JOHNSON CONTROLS S-232-1 SELECTOR SWITCH, NNB

LINEAR SYSTEM / NB KB-50GUU LINEAR BALL SLIDE BUSHING.

TELEMECANIQUE ABE7 H16R50 INTERFACE MODULE, NIB

TDS UNIVERSAL 3451686 ACURA-GRIP NIB

SANREX TRANSISTOR DF20CA160

POTTER NIB

PARKER X172P-6-4 FLUID CONNECTORS, LOT OF 25, NIB

WESTINGHOUSE 3-POLE 250A 600VAC CIRCUIT BREAKER TYPE KB.

INA NKX30 174653 MACHINE NEEDLE ROLLER BEARING 1 5/8 O.

REXROTH VT3006 SERIES 3X AMPLIFIER, NIB

HARMONIC DRIVE SYSTEMS PRECISION PLANETARY GEAR HEAD HP.

FANUC AC SERVO MOTOR A06B-0113-B075#?0008 ?0.5/3000

ALLEN BRADLEY 100-C23D01 CONTACTOR, NIB

TELEMECANIQUE 70A 600V 24V COIL CONTACTOR W/ ATTACHMENT.

WESTINGHOUSE 15 AMP CIRCUIT BREAKER HFD3015L

ALLEN BRADLEY 800R-2TZ SERIES T ENCLOSURE, NIB

NACHI TS4507N8036E200 AC SERVO MOTOR

TELEMECANIQUE 120V COIL 70A 600V CONTACTOR LC1 D5011 W/.

LINEAR SYSTEM / NB KB-50GUU LINEAR BALL SLIDE BUSHING.

PARKER 052 LIQUID LINE FILTER DRYER

DANFOSS CYCLETROL 150 1/8-2HP ADJUSTABLE SPEED 0-180VDC.

MARATHON 2 POLE FUSEHOLDER GF30A2B 4100031 *LOT OF 3*

BUSSMANN 70AMP LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LP.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1492-CB1G150 CIRCUIT BREAKER 15A LOT OF 2

HYDROFOAMER :481*0431 FOAMING SPRAYER 96OZ CAPACITY NIB

MGE UPS SYSTEMS ULTRA-ISOLATION TRANSFORMER 91092-31T

McGILL CF 1 SB CAM FOLLOWER, NIB

NELES — JAMESBURY EU-50-01-Q ACTUATOR AND 2 NPT BALL V.

FANUC ROBOTICS SERVO AMPLIFIER MODULE A06B-6096-H105 E

ADVANCE 71A5750-001D CORE NIB

RELIANCE ELECTRIC P14H1447T DUTY MASTER A-C MOTOR, 1.5.

WESTINGHOUSE MOMENTARY PUSHBUTTON PB1E MODEL B *LOT OF.

BRAD HARRISON 1A3000-34 ATTACHABLE FEMALE STRAIGHT CONN.

SQUARE D 9007C52E LIMIT SWITCH, NIB

SMC PNEUMATIC PRECISION REGULATOR IR1010-01B-X1

BALDOR VM3546 1HP 56C FRAME 208-230/460V PHASE 3 MOTOR

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-FXTD4 PUSH BUTTON, NO BOX

VICKERS V10 1P2S 1A20 FIXED DISPLACEMENT VANE PUMP, 250.

LINCOLN ELECTRIC MOTORS D-2C2154 Frame 215 5 Hp SEVERE.

SMC PRESISION AIR PRESSURE REGULATOR WITH GAUGE AR20-01.

MAC TM-DAAJ-1DA 110/120 VOLTS 50/60 HERTZ 25-150 PSI SO.

ALLEN BRADLEY 120/220V AC POWER SUPPLY CAT: 1771-P7 B

HUBBELL 15360ZBRD GYRALITE NIB

ATLAS COPCO TC 52P-N POWER MACS CONTROLLER 4240 0410 80

SOLA 183-00310-0300-?12 DC POWER SUPPLY, NIB

METRAFLEX MSRDEE0200 METRASPHERE RUBBER EXPANSION JOINT.

GSE TECH-MOTIVE TOOL CONTROLLER BACKPLANE PCB PC806B 42.

HOFFMAN E-3PB PUSHBUTTON ENCLOSURE, NO BOX

MODICON MEMORY EXECUTIVE MODULE AS-E908-016 *NEW IN BO.

OKAYA NOISE FILTER SUP-G5H-EPR *LOT OF 4*

ASHCROFT 25W1005PH 02L 160# PRESSURE GAUGE 0-160 PSI, N.

NB TWA 20 LINEAR BEARING SLIDE UNIT / BALL BUSHING, 1 3.

KENNAMETAL MCLNL165D KENLOC TURNING TOOLHOLDER, NIB

ADAPTIVE MICRO SYSTEMS 86108A BETABRITE CLASSIC LED SIG.

OMRON SAFETY RELAY UNIT G9S-2001

SQUARE D 25A 600VAC 3-POLE CIRCUIT BREAKER FHL36025

FISCHER FW-G-50-025-C-R?—0-30 FLOW SWITCH AND VALVE, 3/.

UNGAR UTC-100 120VAC SOLDERING SYSTEM WITH SOLDERING IR.

HONEYWELL DC300C UNIVERSAL DIGITAL CONTROLLER, REMAN

SUNX GD-C1 DOUBLE FEED DETECTOR, NIB

HONEYWELL R7289A1004 PLUG IN REC AMPLIFIER 2-4 SEC RESP.

BANNER Q25AW3FF50Q1 FIXED-FIELD SENSOR AC NIB

KENNAMETAL MCLNR165D KENLOC TURNING TOOLHOLDER, NIB

TORRINGTON / FAFNIR 3MM9111WI DUL SUPER PRECISION BEARI.

MARATHON 250V 30A 2 POLE FUSEHOLDER F30A2B 4100008 *LO.

FANUC CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-1211-0860/?05A

SMC NARM3000-A-N03 ARM MANIFOLD REGULATOR ASSEMBLY OF 8.

POTTER NIB

SICK WTB4-3P2161 PHOTOELECTRIC PROXIMITY SWITCH NIB

FEEDRAIL FR780 3 POLE 600 VDC 250 VAC TROLLEY ASSEMBLY.

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 100 PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER 1745-E101.

TOYOOKI HFK2H-A-40-S-02?5B-D2 HYTEGRA VALVE 05D1, 24 V D.

ALLEN BRADLEY 10 TO 30 VDC INPUT MODULE 1771-IBD 961344.

AEG MODICON TSX COMPACT DISCRETE INPUT MODULE DEP-220 /.

BUSSMANN 60A 500V FUSE FWH-60B *NEW, LOT OF 5*

COUTANT LAMBDA DC POWER SUPPLY OMEGA MML400 E25551

METRAFLEX MSRDEE0200 METRASPHERE RUBBER EXPANSION JOINT.

RHP 7024CTDULP4 SUPER PRECISION BEARING SET, NIB

SOLA SLT-24-30530-05?T POWER SUPPLY

HYDAC TECHNOLOGY 00715033 / W110-Z4 COIL KIT, LOT OF 2

BENSHAW 30HP AC DRIVE HDDCB3-30-480-1?2

SEIMENS SITOP POWER 40 24V DC POWER SUPPLY 6EP1437-3BA0.

GOULD SHAWMUT 225AMP TRI-ONIC TIME DELAY FUSE TRS225R

LIQUATITE LA-14 FLEXIBLE ELECTRICAL CONDUIT, JACKETED M.

DATAFORTH DSCA ISOLATED ANALOG SIGNAL CONDITIONING MODU.

SQUARE D 8030 ROM-121 SY/MAX ANALOG

ALLEN BRADLEY 110/115-120V COIL DIRECT DRIVE AC RELAY 7.

ITS LC2-8 LED LANE CONTROL SIGNAL

WILKERSON F33-080-000 EXHAUST MUFFLER, NIB

BERGER LAHR CONTROLLER. KSO30

PHOENIX CONTACT 2962492 MODULE, NIB

BANNER T186EQ OPPOSED MODE SENSOR NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 800H-NP20 SER A, HEAVY DUTY ENCLOSURE ACC.

BANNER PBA 16384 3 NIB

NOOK INDUSTRIES D3188-01-00 ACTIONJAC WORM GEAR SCREW J.

RIDGID 455 1/2 THROUGH 1 FLARING TOOL

ALLEN BRADLEY 24VDC PLC I/O BLOCK MODULE 1791-16BC SER.

SCHUMACHER 400V-230V STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER ST-S 0,4 / 4.

GOULD MODICON 115 VAC OUTPUT MODULE PCB B804-000 REV B.

ALLEN BRADLEY TYPE N 110/120V COIL AC RELAY 700-N400A1.

HONEYWELL 14002695-008 VALVE REPACK NEW

GENERAL ELECTRIC 75C142444G805 FLEX-A-PLUG BUS PLUG, 20.

NUMATICS 228-703B 082SA415M011B 100-115/50 110-120/60 S.

RED HAT / ASCO 8030G13 SOLENOID VALVE, NIB

SQUARE D 3-POLE 90A 600V CIRCUIT BREAKER FHL36090

SQUARE D G2-BA SERVICE FITTING, NIB

SMC VP7-8-FG-D SOLENOID VALVE, NNB

MYRON ZUCKER KID43002X-3 480 VOLTS PHASE 3 DRYMOUNT SER.

ALLEN BRADLEY 100-C23ZJ200 CONTACTOR, NIB

BUSS LOW-PEAK 600VAC DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LPJ-8.

GRACO D63331 SERIES J97E ? 715 HUSKY DIAPHRAGM PUMP, N.

FIROMATIC B300F BRASS OIL CHECK SAFETY VALVE 3/4 NPT X.

VALENITE TEG-2.521 J VC3 CARBIDE INSERTS, 9 PIECES, NEW

PARKER PK100MP001 100 MM NITRILE PISTON KIT, NIB

GE TECL 36015 CURRENT LIMITER

LITTLEFUSE 600V 30A CLASS R 3 POLE FUSEHOLDER LR60030-3.

MARINCO 3D41-360-0-500K 20A 250V 5000W CORD SET, NNB

SUMITOMO SM-CYCLO CNHMS02-5085-35 GEAR REDUCER, Ratio 3.

BUSS 600V-100A 3 POLE FUSE BLOCK CLASS J J60100-3C0R

OPW 241TPS TWO PLANE SWIVEL CONNECTOR 3/4 NPT, 50 PSI.

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V COIL CONTACTOR 700-F400A1 SERIES B *.

SICK 24VDC 50W POWER SUPPLY PS 50W-24V

IFM EFECTOR 18-30VDC LEVEL SENSOR LK8023

PARKER 4-8 FTX -SS MALE CONNETOR, TRIPLE-LOK. , LOT O.

PEPPERL+FUCHS IA40-FP-I3-P2-B?HMSP4 INDUCTIVE ANALOG SEN.

FESTO MTH-5/3E-7,0-S-?VI PNEUMATIC VALVE, NNB

PILZ SAFETY RELAY PNOZ X3P 24-240VACDC 3N/O 1N/C 1SO

FALK 2050Y3-LD RIGHT ANGLE SHAFT HIGH THRMAL CAPACITY G.

HECHO E102470 10 AWG MTW OR THHN OR THWN GASOLINE AND O.

CUTLER-HAMMER AN16DN0AB SIZE 1 STARTER, NIB

ACME T-2A-79331-1S 6 kVa GENERAL PURPOSE TRANSFORMER

ALLEN BRADLEY 802T-CWP OILTIGHT LIMIT SWITCH, SERIES H.

SQUARE D NQOD30L225 PANELBOARD INTERIOR, NEW

PEPPERL + FUCHS K-SYSTEM RELAY BARRIER KFA5-SR2-Ex2.W

GOULD ULTRASAFE 600V, 60A 3 POLE FUSEHOLDER US6J31

TURCK BI 4-M12-AP6X-H114?1 PROXIMITY SENSOR, NEW

TEKTRONIX 016-1660-01 FUSER, NIB

TRANE COMPRESSOR GP673-LM4-G5 SEMI-HERMETIC COMPRESSOR.

ALLEN BRADLEY 8 POINT DISCRETE I/O SIMULATOR MODULE 177.

FANUC EE-0989-315-001 19P FEMALE CABLE ASSEMBLY

LISTA 6 DRAWER CABINET W/ WOODEN TOP

FANUC CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-1211-0030/?04A

IFM EFECTOR 500 PN5002 PRESSURE SENSOR, NIB

POTTER NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY 1336S-EN4 SERIES A AC DRIVE, NNB

NUMATICS 122BA400R0B1D PNEUMATIC VALVE, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 500 PROCESSOR UNIT 30 I/O 1747-L30A

NSK 7012CTRDULP4Y SUPER PRECISION BEARING SET, NIB

AEG MODICON ANALOG INPUT MODULE ADU 205 / AS-BADU-205 0.

TELEMECANIQUE 600V 50A CONTACTOR LP1 D32 10

WOLTER RPC 537 COMP ACAL OPERATOR PANEL

ALLEN BRADLEY 2112B-CDBD-9-21?-25R-44-97U-900?8 COMBO STA.

CENTERLINE 2100 MOTOR CONTROL CENTER

KELE VTI-1 VOLTAGE LOT.

ALLEN BRADLEY 300A 600VAC 24VDC COIL SAFETY CONTACTOR 1.

SWAGLOK SS-12MO-SET FERRULE-PAK, FRONT AND BACK FERRULE.

TOYODA TP3967-1 TEMPERATURE REGULATOR CONTROL, NNB

J.B. WEBB 0151-270J OVERHEAD CONVEYOR CHAIN, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY FLEXIBLE INTERFACE MODULE 2760-RB/A SERIE.

EIZO FlexScan L362T 15 COLOR TOUCH PANEL LCD MONITOR O.

PRESSURE GUAGE 0-6000 BAR? MAKE AN OFFER.

SCHNEIDER TELEMECANIQUE 600VAC MAX 420A CONTACTOR LC1 F.

XYCOM HIGH-PERFORMANC?E ANALOG INPUT MODULE XVME-566 705.

DAYKIN 480V TO 120V SINGLE PHASE STEP-DOWN DISCONNECT T.

UNICO 316-466 MODULE, NNB

METROLOGIC IS8000 HOLOTRAK MOUNTING BRACKET, POWER SUPP.

ALLEN BRADLEY 3.8 kW 3000RPM AC SERVO MOTOR 1326AB-B3E-.

SWAN HYDRO-AIRE INDUSTRIAL AIR AND WATER HOSE. X500′.

PARKER 04F48S2106ACFWB?05 SUBMERSIBLE VALVE, NEW

SIEMENS ITE SENTRON SERIES 600A 600VAC CIRCUIT BREAKER.

ALLEN-BRADLEY 1332-AAB ADJUSTABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE

ALLEN BRADLEY 845H-SJ0L25CRY1 ENCODER

LUMA ELECTRIC CO 115 DEMAGNATIZER RNB

SEW-EURODRIVE INC. DFT71D4BMG05HFI?S .5 HP APPROX 1/2 S.

BOSTON HUTF-5/8-B 208-230/460 VOLTS 3.6-3.4/1.7 AMPS, N.

FANUC CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-1211-0062/?06B

NELES-JAMESBURY CLASS 150 92356 200 PSIG 316 STAINLESS.

SEW EURODRIVE KAF67DT80N8/4BM?G05HRTF 108.03:1 RATIO GEA.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-FXTD4 PUSH BUTTON, NO BOX

CLECO GARNER DENVER 15PTHFB30Q 3/8 HEX PISTOL GRIP SHU.

ASCO RED HAT 8210G26 120/60 VAC 3/4 PIPE 2-WAY SOLENOI.

SMC EXHAUST CLEANER AMC510-06

BUSSMANN 60A 500V FUSE FWH-60B *LOT OF 3*

ALLEN BRADLEY 849-Z0D33 PNEUMATIC TIMING RELAY, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 1326-CPB1-015 SERIES B CABLE ASSEMBLY, NN.

FANUC EMERGENCY STOP UNIT A05B-2452-C471

FANUC ROBOTICS 3-SLOT RACK W/ CPU A16B-3200-0040 / PSU.

INTERMEC TECHNOLOGY SERVICES EASYCODER PX6i THERMAL LAB.

PXB01000030000?20

NILE AIR TOOLS RH 80 SINGLE BLOW RIVET SNAPS, 650 CM3/S.

E.P. CO 204 MOTOR BRUSH, NNB

TELEMECANIQUE 70A 600V 24V COIL CONTACTOR W/ ATTACHMENT.

SCANNING DEVICES, INC PX-T-AC OPTOISOLATOR SENSOR, NIB

LESLIE 1-1/2 VALVE W/ DIAPHRAGM ACTUATOR, NIB

TURCK RKC 4.4T-2-WSC 4.4T/S622/SV 300V CORDSET

ALLEN BRADLEY 700-HN 103 SER B RELAY BASE LOT OF 3 NIB

MARSH M88FX-YP INDUSTRIAL MARKER YELLOW LOT OF 12 NIB

COMAIR ROTRON TYPE 213 FEATHER FAN, NIB

ALCO MANITOWOC 76-2251-3 EXPANSION VALVE, NEW

ALLEN BRADLEY 150-C9NBD SERIES A SOFT STARTER, NIB

TIMKEN H247535 TAPERED ROLLER BEARING, NNB

GOULD C231 INPUT/OUTPUT PLC UNIT C231-1054-100-A?D

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSERVO 750W AC SERVO DRIVE MR-J2S.

DAIKIN AKZ328 INVERTER OIL COOLING UNIT

GENERAL ELECTRIC 35-967410-51 IGNITOR REPLACEMENT KIT.

ALLEN BRADLEY LINE TERMINAL GUARD 1494V-DS30 SER. A WIT.

ALLEN BRADLEY 60A 600VAC 120V COIL CONTACTOR 100-A60N*3.

ALLEN BRADLEY DH/DH+ INTERFACE MODULES 5130-KA SERIES A.

INDRAMAT AC SERVO DRIVE POWER SUPPLY TVM 2.4-050-220/30.

LIFT MASTER H5043MR COMMERCIAL DOOR OPERATOR, NIB

GOULD 30322 FUSE BLOCKS LOT OF 5, NIB

JUSTRITE 25712 YELLOW COUNTERTOP COMPAC CABINET, 12 GAL.

SIEMENS 3RT1015-1BB41 CONTROL CONTACTOR NNB

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 1200A 600VAC INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BR.

SECURITRON B244 / B-24-4 BATTERY, 24 VDC, 5 AMP HOUR, 5.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1770-SB DATA CARTRIDGE RECORDER W/ CORDS.

SOLA/HEVI-DUTY HS1F1.5AS TRANSFORMER, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V COIL CONTACTOR 700-F220A1 SERIES B *.

FANUC LTD 6 AXIS SERVO AMPLIFIER A06B-6076-H101

AMPHENOL 97-3102A-14S-2S STANDARD CYLINDRICAL CONNECTOR.

SMC EX230-SDN1 / VV825-04S-SUQW0?6BT-W1 SERIAL INTERFACE.

PHOENIX CONTACT TRIO POWER 24V 5A DC POWER SUPPLY TRIO-.

SOLA 24V 12A DC POWER SUPPLY SFL12-24-100RED

PIAB 3350069 1/8 LEVEL COMPENSATOR, LOT OF 5, NEW

INA 87 L10 KWE 35 H G3 V2 LINEAR GUIDE CARRIAGE, SIZE 3.

INA 87 R-03 / RUS 25126 GB3 BEARINGS, LOT OF 2, NNB

MCGILL CCYR-1 1/4S CAMYOKE ROLLER BEARING 1.25 X 0.75.

INA IR40X48X40 NEEDLE ROLLER BEARING INNER RING, LOT OF.

ALKO MFG, CO. EXIT SIGN REPLACEMENT GLASS, 11 X 8, NI.

MCGILL CF-1 CAMROL CAM FOLLOWER BEARING, NIB

KRAUS NIB SEALED

SQUARE D LSVFW-1 SOLID STATE LEVEL SENSOR

AIP #57 BALL LOCK RETAINER, NIB

ATB AB563/4A-/OP AND HST8 6000 9143 MOTOR AND PUMP ASSE.

FANUC ROBOTICS SERVO AMPLIFIER A06B-6058-H011

BANDO SYNCHRONOUS 130MXL MINI PITCH BELT, NEW IN BAG

ADVANCE ICN-4P32-SC 120-277 VOLTS INSTANT START ELECTRO.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-A9A SERIES T FLUSH YELLOW HEAD BUSH.

BANNER RX1 MULTI-BEAM PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR

GOODYEAR 569-009-254-002?00 Insta-Grip Hose, 1X450′, NE.

GOODYEAR 569-009-254-002?00 Insta-Grip Hose, 1X450′, NE.

ALLEN BRADLEY 42SRU-6002-QD PHOTOSWITCH RETROREFLECTIVE.

GENERAL ELECTRIC 5K49UC8161 2 HP FRAME 56CY ELECTRIC MO.

PHILLIPS PL-L 18W/41/4P FLUORESCENT LAMPS, NIB

GOULD SHAWMUT 600V 30A 2-POLE CLASS R FUSEHOLDER 60328R.

ALLEN BRADLEY 128K RESOURCE MANAGER 5130-RM1 A

OMRON SAFETY RELAY UNIT G9SA-301

AMPHENOL 97-3102A-14S-2S STANDARD CYLINDRICAL CONNECTOR.

MARTIN SH 35 MM QD BUSHING, NIB

BUSSMANN FUSETRON 1/2AMP DUAL ELEMENT FUSE FNA-1/2 *LOT.

YUSHIN CPU BOARD PCB YV-970011-CPU

TELEMECANIQUE SQUARE D LATERAL CONTACT BLOCK LAD 8N20 *.

PEPPERL + FUCHS V1-W-2M-PVC CABLE CONNECTOR CORDSET, 4P.

POWER-ONE HB15-1.5-A 15 VDC 1.5 AMPS POWER SUPPLY, NIB

SQUARE D 3-POLE 15A 600V CIRCUIT BREAKER FHL36015

ALLEN BRADLEY 42GDF-9004-QD8 PHOTOSWITCH LOT OF 4 NNB

CARLYLE 06EMA475600 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR

SQUARE D REED RELAY OUTPUT MODULE 8030 HOM-271 *REPAIRE.

GE 9T23B4014G53 330 kVa DRY TYPE TRANSFORMER, NEW

FREELIN-WADE BLACK, 5/32 X 5/64 TUBING, 500 FT, MISSING.

MOORE IND. PROGRAMMABLE TEMPERATURE TRANSMITTER TRX/PRG.

REXROTH A10VSO18DR/R910?940516 2HP APPROX 5/8 SHAFT HYD.

TEMPCO TSP1979 480 VOLTS PHASE 3 HEATING UNIT, NEW

MASUDA MANUFACTURING FSE24-100S24F SUCTION LINE FILTER

PIAB M10A5-B2N FC 100 VACTRAP VT-1AM VALVE W/ SWIVEL.

ABB BC25-30-32 CONTACTOR RELAY NIB

BOSCH REXROTH DIGITAL SERVO DRIVE DM 30K 1101-D / V 0.

MAC 57D 53 RA PNEUMATIC VALVE, NEW IN BAG

NIBCO TFP600 1 1/4 BRASS BALL VALVE, NEW

MODICON 984 SERIES 7-SLOT RACK AS-H819-209

MCGILL CF-1-SB CAMROL CAM FOLLOWER BEARING, NIB

BODINE ELECTRIC 42R5BFS1-E3 GEARMOTOR, NIB SEALED

SQUARE D 110/120V COIL 60A LIGHTING CONTACTOR CLASS 890.

LIFTMASTER GH-50-43-B2 INDUSTRIAL DUTY COMMERCIAL DOOR.

CONDUCTIX WAMPFLER INSUL 8 1400 SERIES PowerReel CABLE.

SQUARE D LAL2640036MV800?2 SERIES 4 400 AMP CIRCUIT BREA.

ACE CONTROLS SC 650-3 SHOCK ABSORBER, NNB

INTERNATIONAL POWER IHCAA-60W POWER SUPPLY, NIB

STRONG-HOLD 56-BC-244 JANITORIAL BROOM CABINET / CLOSET.

ALLEN BRADLEY 110/120V COIL 25/32A REVERSING CONTACTOR.

LITTLEFUSE 600V 30A CLASS R 3 POLE FUSEHOLDER LR60030-3.

SICK C4000 eco LIGHT CURTAIN SET C40E-0603AN310 W/ C40S.

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS PRO-FACE TOUCH SCREEN INTERFACE 288.

DART CONTROLS 125DV-C VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL, NIB

NUMATICS 553SS42AK000030 PNEUMATIC VALVE, NNB

AEG MODICON 200 SERIES MODEL P451 REMOTE I/O PROCESSOR.

FAG 222HDSMC3 SPHERICAL ROLLER BEARING, NIB

NIBCO T-134 1 1/2 CLASS 150 THREADED BRONZE GATE VALVE.

BANNER Q60VR3A F2000Q-63003 SENSOR, NIB

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 15A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER HFD.

FANUC LTD SERVO AMPLIFIER / TYPE: A06B-6058-H005

AMERICAN INSULATED WIRE CORP 16AWG MTW OR TFF 600V 500.

MICHIGAN CUTTING TOOL TD-000218 / MCT-100091 BORING BAR.

MITSUBISHI FREQROL A200 INVERTER VARIABLE SPEED AC MOTO.

SQUARE D 8501CO16V20 POWER RELAY, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 120VAC I/O PLC MODULE 1791-8AR SER. A

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 400A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER KD.

LEVITON L7987 WIRE MESH SAFETY GRIPS NNB

HONEYWELL BZ-2RD MICRO SWITCH, IN BOX

TELEMECANIQUE PREVENTA EMERGENCY STOP MONITORING RELAY.

TELEMECANIQUE PREVENTA EMERGENCY STOP MONITORING RELAY.

DWYER VFA-2-BV VISI-FLOAT FLOW METER, NIB

OMRON 30VDC CAM POSTTTIONER 30VDC H8PS-8AFP

GOODYEAR INSTA-GRIP 1X300′ GREEN HOSE, NEW

ASHCROFT Q-586 DURAGUAGE, NIB

NSK LH35Z LINEAR RAILS LOT OF 23

TELEMECANIQUE 50A 24V COIL CONTACTOR LP1 D32 10 *LOT OF.

GENERAL ELECTRIC 757 MINIATURE LAMPS, LOT OF 8, NIB

ADVANTECH INDUSTRIAL CPU BACKPLANE PCA-6108P4-C REV. C1

WHEDCO CONTROLLER IMC-3141-2-B 78003892

FANUC SERIES 16i MODEL A PARAMETER MANUAL B-63010EN/01

BOLLHOFF OTALU FR, OPEN PNEUMATIC BLIND POP RIVETER

PANAFLO FBA06T24H COOLING FAN, 4200 RPM, 24 V, 83 MA, 1.

EAGLE SIGNAL CONTROLS 120V 0-5 MINUTE RESET TIMER BR17A.

OPTO 22 AC28 ISA BUS TO PAMUX BUS ADAPTER, NIB

ASCO 8353 200262 DIAPHRAGM ASSEMBLY KIT, NIB

COXREELS HIGH CAPACITY HOSE REEL, SERIES SP, WITH HOSE

BRADY PSPT-250-1W PERMASLEEVE LABEL, NNB

FANUC A660-2004-T722 / L20R33 RP1 STANDARD B-CABLE, 20.

I-T-E C8935 FRAME CL TYPE ET CORDON CIRCUIT BREAKER, 3.

ALLEN BRADLEY 2711-B5A2 SER F REV K PANELVIEW 550

IFM ELECTRONICS FREQUENCY / SPEED MONITOR FR-1 DD2003

GENERAL ELECTRIC CR308D1021EXAA SIZE 2 COMBINATION STAR.

FANUC ROBOTICS PCB DAUGHTER BOARD A20B-2901-0660/?07A

WESTINGHOUSE 20 AMP INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER EHD3020

PARKER 421-6 NO-SKIVE HIGH PRESSURE HYDRAULIC HOSE, 3/8.

ALLEN BRADLEY SIZE 3 STARTER 120V COIL 709-DOD103 SERIE.

REXROTH INDRAMAT INK0604 CONNECTION CABLE 12.0M, NNB

CROMPTON DYNAPOWER 30-0-30 DC VOLT PANEL METER

ALLEN-BRADLEY 800H-QRH24R PILOT LIGHT

HOFFMAN A-8R64 TYPE 3R ENCLOSURE, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY 100-240VAC TWIN TIMING RELAY 700-HRF72DA1.

ABB 3-POLE 480VAC 20A CIRCUIT BREAKER UXAB 727131 R 103

OMRON 5A 5V DC POWER SUPPLY S82J-02505D

ALLEN BRADLEY 836T PRESSURE CONTROL 836T-T2531 SERIES A

WELDCRAFT 40V82RL 25′ RUBBER GAS HOSE. NIB

NYCOIL 61235 NYLON PNEUMATIC TUBING, 100 FT, 5/32 OD X.

NYCOIL 61235 NYLON PNEUMATIC TUBING, 100 FT, 5/32 OD X.

NYCOIL 61230 NYLON PNEUMATIC TUBING, 100 FT, 5/32 OD X.

ABB DSQC 336 NETWORK CARD, NNB

FANUC A05B-2301-C370 SPOT WELDING TEACH PENDANT, NNB

BANNER T18SP6DQ PHOTOELECTRIC SENSOR NIB

THK HSR20 BALL RAIL BLOCK

RED LION CONTROLS FREQUENCY TO ANALOG CONVERTER 85-250V.

BANNER S186ELD LASER LIGHT. NIB

POWER-ONE HBB512-A POWER SUPPLY, NIB

HOFFMAN A-1614LP ENCLOSURE, NNB

ALLIGATOR 3/8 TO 7/16 STEEL BELT LACING, NIB

BELDEN 9773 060 (CHR) 500 FOOT 18 AWG LOW VOLTAGE COMPU.

MERCOID CONTROL PG-3-PI NIB

JOHNSON CONTROLS P70AB-2 20-100 PSIG ALL-RANGE LOW PRE.

CKD SOLENOID VALVE ASSEMBLY 4SB019-C2 *NEW*

SERVUS LITE NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 110V/115-120V COIL 15-20A AC CONTACTOR 50.

ASHCROFT 25W1005PH 02L 160# PRESSURE GAUGE 0-160 PSI, N.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1770XG DATA HIGHWAY CONNECTOR KIT NIB

FANUC CABLE 2 FOOT FEMALE HONDA CONNECTORS MR-20L *LOT.

TEL-TRU THERMOMETER, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY DeviceNet PRESET SPEED CONTROLLER 160-BA0.

FANUC AXIS CONTROL CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-1211-0060/?12C.

SQUARE D 9007AO2 LIMIT SWITCH, LOT OF 7, IN BOX

TELEMECANIQUE 100A CIRCUIT BREAKER GV7-RE100

SONY XV-M30 BATTERY AND CHARGERS W/ CASE

SMC EX230-SDN1 / VV825-04S-SUQW0?6BT-W1 SERIAL INTERFACE.

BALLUFF BSE 85 MECHANICAL SWITCH, NNB

ORIENTAL MOTOR COMPANY VEXTA 0.72 DEGREE 5-PHASE STEPPE.

CHICAGO PNEUMATIC CP-9820 5-20LB BALANCER

SUPER VEXTA XG6100S PULSE GENERATOR

ALLEN BRADLEY 1775-CAP CABLE, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 802T-W3C OPERATING LEVER

DAYKIN LTFS-05 TRANSFORMER DISCONNECT, 1 kVa, NIB

TELEMECANIQUE 24VDC COIL REVERSING CONTACTOR LP1 D0910.

SQUARE D QOU120 CIRCUIT BREAKER NIB

SQUARE D 9007CR53B2 LIMIT SWITCH SERIES A, NIB SEALED

MAC 82A-AC-CAA-TM-D?AAP-1DA PNEUMATIC VALVE, NIB

DELTA 81T231 EXPOSED TECK FLUSH VALVE, NIB

BOSCH STAR 1651-294-10 STANDARD RUNNER BLOCK. NIB

PHOENIX CONTACT FLKMS50 VARIOFACE SENSOR MODULE, NEW IN.

ALLEN BRADLEY 24VDC I/O BLOCK MODULE 1791-16BC SER B

TURCK CSM CKM 12-12-6/S101 300V CABLE, NEW IN BAG

MITSUBISH ELECTRIC PLC RELAY OUTPUT UNIT MODEL: A1SY10

WEIDMULLER ACTION INSTRUMENTS ULTRA SLIMPAK 9-30VDC SIG.

AEG MODICON REMOTE I/O PROCESSOR MODULE AS-J890-101

BOSTON GEAR WA726A-400X-G GEAR REDUCER, Ratio 400:1, NI.

BASE-LOCK RUBBER TYPE THE ORIGINAL 13 FRONT LOT OF 19 N.

BAYSIDE RB142-003-008 3:1 RATIO APPROX 7/8 SHAFT GEARH.

AEROQUIP FC300-12 ?X250′ AIR HOSE, NEW

STERLING SIHI LPHR25007AB.AHF?.0Q.0 LIQUID REING VACUUM.

XYCOM DIO XVME-240 PC BOARD

BOSTON FMVS0150F-B5 MECAHICAL VARIABLE SPEED DRIVE, VAR.

ADVANCE RCN-3S32-SC PROGRAM RAPID START ELECTRONIC BALL.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1329RS-HA00218F?CF INVERTER DUTY AC MOTOR.

TELEMECANIQUE 600V 32A CONTACTOR LP1 D18 10 *LOT OF TWO.

FANUC ROBOTICS SERVO PULSECODER aA64 A860-0360-T201/?E

DELPHI ES10351 OXYGEN SENSOR, NIB

YASKAWA ELECTRIC Juspeed-F S2 SERIES TRANSISTOR INVERTE.

FANUC A13B-0139-C252 OPERATOR PANEL

BUSS 600V-100A 3 POLE FUSE BLOCK CLASS J J60100-3C0R

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 250A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER JD.

MARPOSS 3191910865 CERAMIC STYLI, LOT OF 2, NEW IN BAG

PHD GRC 562-2-0002 PNEUMATIC GRIPPER

ITT SN516103014003 EXCHANGER

ALLEN BRADLEY 42GRP-9003-QD4 PHOTOSWITCH SENSOR

PANASONIC EY0230B UNIVERSAL CHARGER NIB

PHOENIC CONTACT DUAL POWER OUTLET 5600525

PHD R11A 5 090-A-D-K-P-Q ROTARY ACTUATOR, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY 800EM-LFA5 SERIES A ILLUMINATED ALTERNATE.

PARKER 07R311AC 1/2 REGULATOR NIB

TURCK BI1-EH04-AP6X-V?1331 3-WIRE DC PNP INDUCTIVE SENSO.

TORRINGTON B-128 NEEDLE BEARING 3/4 BORE, NNB

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC INTELLIGENT POWER MODULE PM50RSA060

EAGLE 1925 FLAMMABLE LIQUID SAFETY STORAGE CABINET, MAN.

23X18X35

CUTLER HAMMER A10GN0 SERIES CA1, NEMA SZ-5, 3-POLE STAR.

TIMKEN/TORRINGT?ON NTA-1220 THRUST BEARING, NEW IN BAG S.

RELIANCE ELECTRIC M052576005T0079?16716KA APPROX 1 DIA.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1492-GH020 SERIES B CIRCUIT BREAKER, NIB

OLSUN GT5.0YY-8 4/08 TRAN-PAC GENERAL PURPOSE TRANSFORM.

CORCOM 30VK6 120/250 VOLTS 50-60HZ LINE FILTER, LOT OF.

ALLEN BRADLEY ILLUMINATED GREEN PUSHBUTTON CAT. 800T-PA.

NATIONAL ELECTRONICS 480V AIR COOLED THYRISTOR STACK RE.

TELEMECANIQUE LB1-LD03M55 PROTECTION MODULE, NIB

BOSTITCH P50-10B PNEUMATIC PLIER, NIB

HONEYWELL GKRA14L6A2 MICRO SWITCH LIMIT SWITCH 24VDC

SOLA 24V 20A ELECTRONICALLY PROTECTED DC POWER SUPPLY S.

ASCO RED HAT 8210G94 SOLENOID VALVE, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY PROGRAMMING TERMINAL 1201-HA2

TURCK BS-8141 MALE 4-PIN CONNECTOR, NEW IN BAG

CUTLER-HAMMER E57LAL8T111 TUBULAR INDUCTIVE PROXIMITY S.

SYLVANIA QTP3X32T8/UNV PSN-SC 120-277V 3-LAMP ELECTRONI.

ALLEN BRADLEY 2112B-CDBD-9-21?-25R-44-97U-900?8 COMBO STA.

CENTERLINE 2100 MOTOR CONTROL CENTER

MAGNETEK 72A 480V DIGITAL REDUCED VOLTAGE STARTER RVS-D.

AUTOMATIC TIMING AND CONTROLS TIME DELAY RELAY 328C 200.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-A9D2 SERIES T PUSH BUTTON WITH FLUSH.

RED LION CUB5 MINIATURE ELECTRONIC 8-DIGIT DUAL COUNTER.

KEYSTONE F79U-065U PNEUMATIC ACTUATOR, NIB

PIAB 1005 VT-1AM VACTRAP VALVE W/ SWIVEL ARM, NEW IN BA.

SQUARE D 60A CIRCUIT BREAKER FAL36060

WATLOW 93AB-1FD0-00RG TEMP CONTROLLER NIB

ROMAN T576136X3137WX TRANSGUN / ROBOT TYPE TRANSFORMER.

ROMAN T48690SE2845WX TRANSGUN / ROBOT TYPE TRANSFORMER.

PELCO PCB900402B INPUT CARD

UNICO 310010 DUAL RESOLVER INTERFACE MODULE, NNB

GOULD MODICON P800 PLC POWER SUPPLY MODULE AS-P800-003

GENERAL ELECTRIC 9T21J6016 TRANSFORMER, 6 kVa, 3 Phase.

ALLEN BRADLEY ILLUMINATED RED PUSHBUTTON CAT. 800T-PT16.

MUELLER 460 1 Y STAINER, NEW

TB WOODS 11E-EPDM SIZE 11 SURE-FLEX COUPLING SLEEVE W/O.

SYLVANIA QTP3X32T8/UNV ISL-SC 120-277V ELECTRONIC BALLA.

AST 286-SP I/O CARD, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY 1770-SB DATA CARTRIDGE RECORDER NIB

DODGE TIGEAR MR94752L1 C-FACE REDUCER NIB

DIGI PC/8 16C450 P/N (1P)50000179 SERIAL BOARD, NIB SEA.

VICTOR PROFESSIONAL FM 370 / 1000-0258 THREE GAS FLOW M.

ADVANCE RC2S102TP MAGNETIC STD RAPID START BALLAST, 120.

ALLEN BRADLEY 9A 600 120V COIL AC CONTACTOR 100-A09ND3.

SANSHA ELECTRIC SANREX POWER DIODE MODULE DF200FA80

CUTLER-HAMMER 3-POLE 250A INDUSTRIAL CIRCUIT BREAKER JD.

TREGASKISS TOUGH GUN ILN5403.5-1.0-4?22 WELDING GUN, NIB

CSAT 220-240V INDUSTRIAL COOLING FAN D-76344

CARVER PUMP WKL500-1 HIGH-PRESSUR MULTI-STAGE CENTRIFUG.

RTA PAVIA GMH 06 STEPPER DRIVE

INTERROLL CONVEYOR ROLLER BRUSHLESS DC MODULE? BLDC TOM.

TORRINGTON JTT-1212 NEEDLE BEARING 3/4 BORE, LOT OF 2.

STAR 1622-293-294-10 RUNNER BLOCK / LINEAR CARRIAGE, NI.

ALLEN BRADLEY 100-240VAC MULTI FUNCTION TIMING RELAY 70.

OLFLEX WIRE AUTO-I 16 AWG GY/3C GREY CABLE, NEW

SQUARE D 9013 FRG 22J22Q8 PRESSURE SWITCH, ON 22 PSI, O.

DELTRON W112-A 24V 1.2A OUTPUT POWER SUPPLY, NIB

OMRON DIGITAL PANEL METER K3N R-NB1A-T1

AMERICAN INSULATED WIRE CORP. 16 AWG FIXTURE WIRE TFFN.

NUMATICS 122BA400R0B1D PNEUMATIC VALVE, NNB

GOODYEAR SPECTRA WASHDOWN HOSE, 1X200′, NEW

ALLEN BRADLEY 1336 + FORCE AC DRIVE REPLACEMENT MAIN CN.

SIIG MINISYS S286 PC

SIGMA 42RO 97404 7703 RELAY, NNB

GOULD ULTRASAFE 600V, 60A 3 POLE FUSEHOLDER US6J31

ADVANCE ICN-2P32-SC 120-277 VOLTS INSTANT START ELECTRO.

KAMOSEIKO KAMO 1/20G BALL REDUCER GEAR REDUCER BR650H-2.

PHOENIX CONTACT DVG-OPC5715001 TOUCHSCREEN COMPUTER

NTN 4T-32009X DEEP GROOVE BALL BEARING, NIB

FANUC TEACH PENDANT CABLE 2004-T411

BUSSMANN 12AMP LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LP.

ALLEN BRADLEY 100-S SERIES B CONTACTOR, NO BOX

FOSTORIA 45-MAG-W ILLUMINATED FLOURESCENT MAGNIFIER, NI.

TURCK RK 4.4.T-1-RS 4.4T STRAIGHT FEMALE CONNECTOR 4P C.

PARKER PNEUMATIC 300PSI MAX 1/2NPT PORTS PRESSURE REGU.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1746-HSTP1 SLC 500 STEPPER CONTROL MODULE

ABB EH 370 420 Amp WELDING CONTACTOR

ALLEN BRADLEY CABLE ASSEMBLY 1326-CPB1T-D-01?5 *NIB*

SMC COMPRESSED AIR AMBIENT DRYER AMG350 *NEW*

BUSSMANN FUSETRON 125AMP DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE F.

A.O. SMITH 7-158067-02 N56Y FRAME 1.0 HP PHASE 3 460 VO.

PEPPERL NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY SIZE 2 STARTER 120V COIL 509-COD SERIES B

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-PT16G PILOT LIGHT, NO BOX

LINCOLN ELECTRIC M11675-A WATER SOLENOID VALVE

SCHRADER BELLOWS M22524114 / EA4 6 VALVE, LOT OF 2

ALLEN BRADLEY 1492-BG POWER TERMINAL BLOCK, NNB

KAMOSEIKO KAMO 1/20G BALL REDUCER GEAR REDUCER BR65SH-2.

NUMATICS F50B-12 50 SERIES 1 1/2 PIPE SIZE FILTER, NNB

BRAD HARRISON DN11A-M010 DEVICENET 5P CABLE ASSEMBLY, N.

HOERBIGER 2000 SINGLE PISTON 32 BORE INNER NIB

BONITRON M3345-40BMF0 REGEN CONTROL MODULE, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 802T-ATP SERIES J OILTIGHT LIMIT SWITCH.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1787USADPTR ADAPTER FACTORY SEALED NIB

MOELLER 24-27VDC COIL 40A CONTACTOR DIL M32-10 / DIL M(.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-2TA 2PUSH BUTTON SURFACE MOUNTING ST.

ADVANCE TRANSFORMER CO 71A8773-001 CORE 1 PIECE, NEW

NORGREN 375-03T-B81-03T 30 TO 150 PSI SOLENOID VALVE, N.

SEW EURODRIVE K77DV132M4BM15H?RTF HELICAL-BEVEL GEARMOTO.

HONEYWELL MVL7C LONG STROKE DISPLACEMENT TRANSDUCER NEW

LAMBDA ELECTRONICS INC. LZS-250-3 REGULATED POWER SUPPL.

SMC AM650-N10 MIST SEPARATOR, 1, NIB

MITSUBISHI MELSEC INPUT UNIT MODULE AX41C *LOT OF 2*

ALLEN BRADLEY 10-16A OVERLOAD RELAY SWITCH 193-TAC16

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V COIL TYPE P DIRECT DRIVE AC RELAY 70.

FANUC CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-1211-0042/?02A

MAC 1111A-111 VALVE. NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY STEPPER MOTOR CONTROLLER MODULE 1771-M1 S.

INDRAMAT AC SERVO DRIVE POWER SUPPLY TVM 2.1-050-W1-115.

SIMPLEX 4098-9733 HEAT DETECTOR, NIB

NYCOIL 61230 NYLON PNEUMATIC TUBING, 100 FT, 5/32 OD X.

SLOAN 3010000 MANUALLY OPERATED ROYAL EXPOSED FLUSHOMET.

ALLEN BRADLEY DYNAMIC BRAKE MODULE 160-MBM2

HONEYWELL SENSOTEC PLVX2500 SERIES 3671 SENSOR, NNB

THERMALOGIC BA3201-63 TEMPERATURE CONTROLLER 70/130 F 1.

LAKOS IL-150-B CENTRIFUGAL-ACT?ION SEPARATOR, NIB

EMHART WARREN 33000 FEEDER

FANUC EE-0989-120-006 REV C CABLE, NNB

MORIN B-0151 J-S080 ROTARY ACTUATOR

PEER CHAIN 50R X 10FT ROLLER CHAIN W/ 4 CONNECTING LINK.

BRAD HARRISON / DANIEL WOODHEAD 804000A05M050 MICRO-CHA.

INDRAMAT RECO INTERBUS 24VDC INPUT MODULE RME12.2-32-DC.

SOLA 20-72V INPUT TO 5V 5.0A DC TO DC POWER CONVERTER P.

OASIS BLF1ARHS WATER COOLER, NIB

ALLEN-BRADLEY 77135-146-52 MEMORY CARD RETAINER KIT, NE.

MAGNETEK 12310-160S-500K BALLAST REPLACEMENT KIT NIB

GE FANUC SERIES 90-30 PLC 16PT POS / NEG LOGIC INPUT MO.

ALLEN BRADLEY 700-CF220Z SERIES A CONTACTOR

SOLA T2H15S SHIELDED GENERAL PURPOSE TRANSFORMER, 15 kV.

ALLEN BRADLEY GUARD MASTER 24V SAFETY RELAY 440R-D23171.

DIGITAL ELECTRONICS CORP PRO-FACE TOUCH SCREEN 2980070-.

HUSKY 036397 / DG 902-11 / D-76703 VACUUM SWITCH, -0.15.

REXNORD RC60-RIV 10FT (3.05M) 160 PITCH ROLLER CHAIN, N.

COAX RSV 32 NC / 19 32C1N114DC 24L LATERAL VALVE, 1 1/4.

UFM LL-BBMSF1SM-2U-?10P1.0T70-A1NR FLOW RATE INDICATOR

SEW EURODRIVE KT47TDT90L4BMG2?HRTH1S-KS HELICAL-BEVEL GE.

RADNOR 4043 ALLOY .03/0.8MM ALUMINUM MIG WELDING WIRE.

ALLEN BRADLEY ISOLATED 120VAC 50/60HZ INPUT MODULE 1771.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800E-2X10 CONTACT BLOCK, LOT OF 24, IN BO.

CONBRACO / COMPAC TORQUE 3TD SIZE 30 ACTUATOR

HONEYWELL V5011G 1186 1 2 WAY SINGLE SEATED VALVE, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 1770-XE DATA HIGHWAY CONNECTOR KIT, LOT O.

CONDOR 5V/+24V/+12V DC POWER SUPPLY GLC65E

BOSCH 0 531 002 639 ACCUMULATOR, NNB

BLACKMER F210A 20 PSI HAND PUMP

SENSOTEC Z/882-18ZD PRESSURE TRANSDUCER, NIB

TB WOODS 8J SURE-FLEX COUPLING SLEEVE, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 1775-S4B I/O SCANNER MESSAGE HANDLING BOA.

INDRAMAT RECO RMK12.2-IBS-BKL COMMUNICATION MODULE

AIR GAGE COMPANY USB INTERFACE MODULE AGE2MRKF

PHILIPS 362 9640 56699 CAPACITOR, NNB

RHP / FAG / NTN 7002.HV.DU.J74 SUPER PRECISION BEARING.

CUTLER-HAMMER E50KL201 LEVER NIB

WESTINGHOUSE ITAP365 BUSWAY FUSIBLE SWITCH, 400 Amp

ALLIED ACTUATOR S406B/C LIMIT SWITCH OVER TRAVEL CONTRO.

ALLIED ACTUATOR S406D/F LIMIT SWITCH OVER TRAVEL CONTRO.

FANUC ROBOTICS DEVICENET INTERFACE BOARD PCB A16B-2203-.

ALLEN BRADLEY 2755-DD1A BAR CODE SCANNER, NNB

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC IGBT TRANSISTOR CM600DY-34H W/ DC G.

TB WOODS 4.8XB-SDS CONV SHEAVE, SEALED, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 600V 335A POWER DISTRIBUTION BLOCK 1492-P.

SMC AM850-N14D-T MIST SEPARATOR, 1?, NIB

GREAT LAKES INSTRUMENTS 4-20mA MODEL 42 ISOLATOR *LOT O.

ROSEMOUNT EAGLE EYE EFW-CO FLOW METER, NIB

TR ELECTRONIC 110-01595 / 1439 / V001 CE-65M ENCODER, N.

ALLEN BRADLEY PLUS AC MOTOR DRIVE 1336S-BRF07-AN-?EN4

ALLEN BRADLEY 809-A04E INSTANTANEOUS TRIP CURRENT RELAY.

SYNFLEX 3450-065 WIRELESS/AIRLES?S PAINT SPRAY HOSE 3/8.

YASKAWA ELECTRIC SERVOPACK 400W AC SERVO DRIVE SGDA-04A.

DIGI 70000749 ACCELEPORT 16EM-ISA DB25, NIB

FUJITSU LIMITED DISPLAY SCREEN 570044-04A

CUTLER-HAMMER C0050C2A CONTROL TRANSFORMER 220/440 TO 1.

CROUZET TOP 948 TIMER AND BASE, 99.99 S — 999.9 H, 110-.

SQUARE 8538SCA44V81CFF?4P21TX11Y74 COMBINATION STARTER.

NSD CORPORATION ABSOCODER VLS-256PWB SENSOR, NIB

E NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 24V COIL RELAY W/ 4NO CONTACTS 700DC-F400.

PHOENIX CONTACT INTERBUS-S IBS RT 24 DIO 16/16-T

ALLEN BRADLEY SINGLE POLE 15A CIRCUIT BREAKER 1492-CB1.

FLOW-TEK S85 CF8M L343 BALL VALVE 2 NPT, 1000 PSI WOG.

PHD INC. GRW13-5-25 X 53 PARALLEL GRIPPER

BINKS 37-260 AIR MOTOR, NEW

ASHCROFT 45-1279-SS-04L 30/0 IMV 4 1/2 DURAGAUGE, NIB

PARKER RG2AHL0501 5 BUNA ROD GLAND CARTRIDGE KIT, NIB

INTERMAC 9745 MICROBAR BASE STATION

OMNIMOUNT SYSTEMS (20.0 WALL-B) 20.0 STAINLESS STEEL WA.

ORIENTAL MOTOR VEXTA 120W BRUSHLESS DC MOTOR FBLM5120W-.

ANACONDA SEALTITE TYPE CNP NONCONDUCTIVE CONDUIT LFNC.

SICK PHOTOELECTRIC REFLEX SWITCH WL12-2B560

ALLEN BRADLEY REMOTE I/O COMMUNICATIONS MODULE 1203-GD1.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1770-XY AA LITHIUM BATTERY, NIB, SEALED

ALLEN BRADLEY 871A-TS5-D1 SERIES A 5P QUICK DISC. CHAMB.

OMRON G2R-1112S-FD-V RELAY, 24 VDC, 200 VAC, LOT OF 9.

BIMBA FLAT-1 FO-501-AFCMTL PNEUMATIC CYLINDER, LOT OF 2.

SCHNEIDER TSX PREMIUM 8 SLOT CHASSIS TSXRKY8

LAMBDA 24V 14A DC POWER SUPPLY JWS300-24

EDWARDS 92-LB BLUE REPLACEMENT LENS NIB

LUMBERG 4-PORT POWER DISTRIBUTION BLOCK ZLU 4-50 *LOT O.

TPC WIRE NIB

TELEMECANIQUE 220/230/240V COIL 60A CONTACTOR LC1 D4011

TRANE ACT00399 ACTUATOR

GOULD P810 PLC POWER SUPPLY MODULE AS-P810-000

SYNATEL SSMA PHOTOELECTRIC MODULAR CONTROL SYSTEM MS39.

TELEMECANIQUE 120V COIL CONTACTOR LC1F330

TRERICE D62502 / 620 B 4.5 COMPOUND PRESSURE GAUGE 0-30.

LH RESEARCH MM11-3/115 MIGHTY-MITE POWER SUPPLY 375W

SCHNEIDER TELMECANIQUE 25A 600V STARTER 16-25AMP OVERLO.

CRANE 382P 1 BRONZE RISING STEM GLOBE VALVE, NEW

ASTEC 5V/12V/-12V DC POWER SUPPLY ATV 251 *LOT OF 5*

GATES P72-5M-09 TIMING PULLEY, NIB

LOVEJOY 68514436414 7E SURE-FLEX COUPLING SLEEVE, NIB

LITTLEFUSE T3.15AL250V SLOW BLOW 3.5 Amp FUSES, LOT OF.

GE FANUC CRT DISPLAY MODULE OPERATOR INTERFACE XA02B-01.

SIEMENS SIMATIC TOUCH PANEL TP27 MONO OPERATOR INTERFAC.

TELEMECANIQUE 600V 70A 24V COIL CONTACTOR LP1 D5011

SCHNEIDER MODICON PROCESSOR 8K MEMORY W/ MB+ PC-A984-14.

ALLEN BRADLEY 700-N600A1 SERIES C 110-120V RELAY

FAIRBANKS 1 300-S 1000CWP GATE VALVE, NNB

MOELLER IRH-050 BALL LOCK RETAINER, NIB SEALED

BROAN 99080180 REPLACEMENT MOTOR, NIB

WATTS F602-WJR M4 175 PSI INTERNAL AUTO DRAIN FILTER, N.

DYNEX VDS520-D03-115/?HAC-10 HIGH PRESSURE CONTROL VALVE

ALLEN BRADLEY 513-AEB-1-38 EXPLOSION PROOF COMBO STARTE.

Size 0

GORDOS DR-OAC SOLID STATE RELAY DIN RAIL MOUNT, 3.7-32.

SCHRADER BELLOWS 06E23A13ACSB FILTER / REGULATOR VALVE.

CUTLER HAMMER WESTINGHOUSE 3-POLE 60A 250VDC CIRCUIT BR.

NUMATICS L23PP4520 PILOT VALVE, NEW

HONDA ON/OFF/START ENGINE SWITCH W/ OIL ALERT INDICATOR.

ALLEN BRADLEY 802T-NP OILTIGHT LIMIT SWITCH, NIB

RUSSELLSTOLL / T 60 A, 250 V.

SOLA 24V 8.4A 200W MAX DC POWER SUPPLY GLS-04-200

FANUC A660-8011-T182 L14R53 14M GROUND CABLE, NNB

BUSSMANN 40AMP DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LPS-RK-40SP.

TELEMECANIQUE SQUARE D CONTACTOR LC1 D65

VICKERS PVB15-FRSWY-41-?CW-12 PISTON PUMP, NIB

IDEC AB6-M Miniature Control Unit LOT OF 2 NEW

ALLEN BRADLEY 1772-LH PROCESSOR INTERFACE MODULE

MCGILL CCF 3/4 SB CAMROL CAM FOLLOWER BEARINGS, LOT OF.

SQUARE D 9001BG208 PUSH BUTTON STATION, NIB

NYCOIL 61230 NYLON PNEUMATIC TUBING, 100 FT, 5/32 OD X.

CROUSE-HINDS 5000109-8 600V 13 AMPS CORDSET, NEW

GE FANUC IC693CHS391M 10-SLOT BASE, NIB, SEALED

ALLEN BRADLEY 92-39 SERIES B REFLECTOR, NEW

FUJI ELECTRIC 3 POLE 225A AUTO BREAKER SA203HI

TIMKEN RC-081208 NEEDLE BEARING, NIB

ANALOG DEVICES 15VDC / 350mA DUAL POWER SUPPLY AC 1301

EAGLE SIGNAL CONTROLS 120V 0-30 MINUTE RESET TIMER BR19.

EAGLE SIGNAL CONTROLS 120V 0-30 MINUTE RESET TIMER BRE9.

SPRECHER NEW

MOELLER BALL LOCK RETAINER IRA-100, NIB

NUMATICS 236-312B SOLENOID PILOT / 1 22BA400R061D61 PNE.

SUPERIOR ELECTRIC 10A, 0-140V POWERSTAT VARIABLE AUTOTR.

PERCEPTRON 515-0108 DIGITAL SPOTLIGHT, REFURBISHED

LUTZE TECHNIK 40A 24V DC POWER SUPPLY NGP24/40-2748

TAMRON 13VM550 CCTV ASPHERICAL LENS, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 120V COIL 30A 600V CONTACTOR 100-A30ND3 W.

WESTINGHOUSE 15 AMP CIRCUIT BREAKER HFD3015L

DAYCO 7212 1/4» PUSH-ON REEL 7212-251GY, 300PSI, 523.

GREENLEE 60117 DRAW STUD LOT OF 2 NIB

OMRON H5L-A DAILY TIME SWITCH

PHD TS06 08282276-01 PNEUMATIC CYLINDER AND SLIDE, NIB

PHOENIX CONTACT INTERBUS — S CONTROLLER PC BOARD IBS PC.

SQUARE D GAW-2 CLASS 9012 SERIES C PRESSURE SWITCH, NNB

BUSSMANN 4AMP DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LPJ-4SP *LO.

DWYER 161287 MAGNEHELIC PRESSURE GAUGE 0-2 WATER

NYCOIL 61230 NYLON PNEUMATIC TUBING, 100 FT, 5/32 OD X.

BUSS LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LPJ-100SP *L.

HUBBELL 20A 125V SAFETY SHROUD TWIST LOCK CORD HBL2311S

VICKERS DGPC-06-AB-51 PILOT OPERATED CHECK VALVE

ABB ASEA 110-120V COIL 110A CONTINUOUS RATING CONTACTOR.

ALLEN BRADLEY 6189-KBD1 INDUSTRIAL TABLETOP KEYBOARD

LAMBDA ELECTRONICS 19.5A REGULATED POWER SUPPLY LFS-48-.

BANNER L16F PHOTOELECTRIC LENS, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY POINT I/O WIRING BASE ASSEMBLY 1734-TB SE.

GARVEY / COSCO LAYOUT #28 6 BAND PRICE MARKER, LOT OF 2.

MICROSTAR LABORATORIES DAP800/103 BOARD, NIB SEALED

SICK OPTIC C4K5-1203CCXX0B / 7028781 KIT, NIB

SQUARE D SY/MAX CLASS 8030 PLC RACK/ BACKPLANE RRK-100.

BOSTON GEAR HUTF-5 / 8-ID-B INVERTER DRIVE GEAR MOTOR.

ACME TRANSFORMER TA-2-81215 INDUSTRIAL CONTROL TRANSFOR.

PILZ 24VAC/ 2VA / 24VDC 2W SAFETY RELAY PNOZ Z 2S *NEW.

CUTLER HAMMER E50DW1 LIMIT SWITCH, NO BOX

FAST-STOR 007031 3/8 I.D. 9FT AIR HOSE

BRAD HARRISON / DANIEL WOODHEAD 41109 4P FEMALE 12′ 16-.

ALLEN BRADLEY 0.75kW/1HP PRESET SPEED CONTROLLER 160-BA.

POWER SCAN LPSC-001010 SCAN GUN, NIB

GENERAL ELECTRIC FVK361R 30 Amp FLEX-A-PLUG BUS PLUG, N.

PENNY + GILES EM-10-V MODULE

SQUARE D GAW-2 0539 G18H10 PRESSURE SWITCH

FOXBORO 62H-5E-OJ LOOP CONTROLLER, NEW

STANLEY 486230 1 AMP FUSE PC MOUNT LOT OF 2 NEW IN BAG

SCHRACK MR-409 GENERAL PURPOSE RELAY

ALLEN BRADLEY 700DC-F310 CONTROL RELAY SER. C LOT OF 30

SMC PNEUMATIC MICRO MIST SEPERATOR REGULATOR AWD20-01B

TELEMECANIQUE AUXILLARY CONTACT LA1 DN 40 *LOT OF 21*

GOODYEAR EAGLE PD W-1440 SYNCHRONOUS BELT, NIB

GENICOM 4A0626G01 PRINT HEAD KIT, LOT OF 5, NIB

TURCK RSM-RKM-66, CORDSET, 6P MALE/FEMALE, 2M, LOT OF 2.

EAGLE SIGNAL CONTROLS BR15A601 RESET TIMER, NIB

ALNOR 4200 0-1000 4040 0-1000 DEG F PORTABLE PYROMETER

NUMATICS 214-103A PRESSURE GAUGE, 0-160 PSI, LOT OF 21.

CUTLER HAMMER TA38 PADLOCK HASP LOT OF 6 NIB

BUSS 100A MAX FUSE BLOCK IBS101 *LOT OF 4*

MAGNETEK 12310-160S-500-?K HID BALLAST REPLACEMENT KIT.

HANSEN COUPLING 16S51 2 FEMALE COUPLER LOT OF 2 NEW

ALCO MTA-206T TOGGLE SWITCH, LOT OF 11, NEW IN BAG

ALLEN BRADLEY CONTACTOR 100-A09ND3 SERIES B *LOT OF 12*

INDRAMAT PERMANENT MAGNET SERVO MOTOR MDD112C-N-030-N?2M.

ALLEN BRADLEY 8 INPUTS 8 OUTPUTS 24V DC CompactBlock PL.

WATTS FLUIDAIR L606-03WHM10 REGULATOR LUBRICATOR, NIB

SQUARE D 3-POLE ELECTRONIC TRIP CIRCUIT BREAKER 800A SE.

BASE-LOCK RUBBER TYPE THE ORIGINAL 13 FRONT LOT OF 19 N.

KOMET ABS-50/32KFK FINISH BORING HEAD

SOUTHWIRE 14AWG STRANDED COPPER WIRE, 600V VW-1, 500FT

BANNER SM912F VALU-BEAM PHOTOELECTRIC SCANNER, NIB

SOLA SLS-12-068T HEVI-DUTY REGULATED POWER SUPPLY, NIB

BELDEN 1075970 1583B T30 1000′ CABLE, NIB

SPECTROLINE TLK-100 FLUORESCENT LEAK DETECTION KIT

LAMP INCANDES S-6 130 V 6WATT BULBS LOT OF 8 NNB

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC E500 INVERTER 2.2KW AC DRIVE FR-E52.

ALPHA 10:1 REDUCTION PLANETARY GEARHEAD SP 060S-MF1-10-.

GENERAL ELECTRIC AC365WGRA7360 FLEX-A-POWER BUS PLUG, S.

DWYER 616-7 PRESSURE TRANSMITTER, NIB

GENERAL ELECTRIC CR104G SELECTOR SWITCH, NO BOX

CENTURY SYSTEMS FutureNet FA-11 FLEXIBLE ADVANCED SERVE.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSERVO 55W AC SERVO DRIVE CONTROL.

FORTRESS INTERLOCKS SBSLOK110110 SAFETY SWITCH, NIB

GRACO 915-587 REGULATOR DIAPHRAGM, HANDLE AND CONNECTIO.

FANUC DC/DC CONVERTOR BOARD EE-3044-401-001

STANCOR P-8639 AUTOTRANSFORMER. NIB

SOLA HEVI — DUTY SCL10D15-DN POWER SUPPLY, IN: 115/230V.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-B6H SERIES T PUSH BUTTON W RED EXTEN.

RENISHAW A-2048-0500-09 2 AXIS TOOL SETTING PROBE NIB.

SCHNEIDER MODICON TSX QUANTUM DC SOURCE OUTPUT MODULE 1.

AMETEK EG NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 2706-E23J16B1 MESSAGE DISPLAY

COOPER TOOLS CLECO 542778-15M 600 VOLT 49FT ELECTRIC TO.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC FREQROL S500 0.2kW AC DRIVE FR-S520.

ALLEN BRADLEY PLC/PLC-2 FAMILY KEYBOARD 1770-FL SER C R.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1606-XL 24V 2.5A DC POWER SUPPLY 1606-XL6.

INDRAMAT CNC DIGITIAL INPUT / OUTPUT MODULE DEAB 02-00

IFM EFECTOR 12-30VDC LEVEL SENSOR LK7023

PILZ 24VAC DC RELAY MODULE PZE 9P

FESTO PEV-1/4-B PRESSURE SWITCH, ADJUSTABLE, LOT OF 2

MITSUBISHI FR-S520E-0 2K INVERTER

ALLEN BRADLEY 1336-MOD-KB005 DYNAMIC BRAKE, SERIES D, N.

TOSHIBA IGBT TRANSISTOR A50L-1-0230

PACIFIC SCIENTIFIC SRF3744-4266-10?-1-56HC DC MOTOR NIB

KHK SR4-500 GEAR RACK NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY TWIN TIMING RELAY 700-HRF72DA18 SERIES C.

DeVILBISS 46-4617 R-CAP1 AIR CAP ASSEMBLY, LOT OF 4 NEW

FESTO CPV-10-VI / CPV10-GE-ASI-8E?8A-Z M8 VALVE TERMINAL.

FESTO CPV-14-VI / CPV14-GE-ASI-4E?4A M8 VALVE TERMINAL /.

ALCO STAS-9613 1 5/8 ODF FILTER-DRIER SHELL, NEW

WATLOW DIN-a-mite POWER CONTROLLER DB20-60C0-0000

GE FANUC ROBOTICS 3.8kW ALPHA SERIES AC SERVO MOTOR A22.

CLEVELAND 6KL401BD020 SPEED VARIATOR, RATIO 2:1, NIB

THK. 12 LINEAR GUIDE RAIL, 12, NNB

CO-AX MK152C116VPB1/2?X2XXHW DIR ACTING 2/2 WAY COAXIAL.

HOFFMAN A60HS3712LP TYPE 4 DISCONNECT ENCLOSURE, NNB

SQUARE D SPX-VME6U-1 VME BUS INTERFACE CARD, NIB

FUJI ELECTRIC 24VDC COIL 11A CONTACTOR SC-03/G

GE LIGHTING 35-967410-51 REPLACER IGNITOR NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY DM040JJ 40 kVa TRANSFORMER, NNB

REX LF831K3-1/4 TABLE TOP CHAIN NIB

COPELAND JRL4-0100-PAA-9?00 HERMETIC COMPRESSOR, NIB, SE.

SOLA 5A 24VDC POWER SUPPLY SDN 5-24-100

SQUARE D TOPAZ 70301 120 VAC LINE 2 POWER CONDITIONER

FEC INC. AFC1500 MULTI AXIS CONTROLLER, MODEL: 1500 MUL.

FESTO HB-1/8-QS-6 NON-RETURN VALVE, LOT OF 16, NEW IN B.

ERICO CADWELD EPDEK MOLD, NIB

REXROTH SUP-MO1-DKCXX.3?-040 REPLACEMENT PARTS KIT

SQUARE D CLASS 8501 RELAY KUD13M1P14V53 WITH BASE 8501.

FANUC A05B-2051-C122 CONTROL PANEL, NNB

FANUC A290-7313-Y405 GEAR, NNB

FANUC A97L-0118-0883 GEAR REDUCER WITH OUT CENTER GEAR.

NUMATICS 239-1514 COMMAND MODULE, NNB

LISTA 6 DRAWER CABINET W/ TABLE TOP

FRANKLIN ELECTRIC 1301007139 MOTOR

STRATOLITE PM-392 SMALL ROUND WHITE LIGHT, LOT OF 2

KURI-TEC A4143-08 ? X 400′ MEDIUM PRESSURE PAINT FLUID.

HOFFMAN ASE6X6X6 SCR CR PULL BOX, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY 855T-L10 SERIES A INCANDESCENT LAMP, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY 802T-K1 OILTIGHT LIMIT SWITCH, SERIES D.

TORRINGTON / FAFNIR 2MM9107WI DUL SUPER PRECISION BEARI.

HOFFMAN A-4044CH WALL MOUNT ENCLOSURE/JUNCT?ION BOX, NNB.

BOSTON GEAR F71050SVB4J6 GEAR REDUCER, Ratio 80:1, NIB

BUSSMANN 30AMP LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LP.

GOODYEAR 1/4» INSTAGRIP I GREEN HOSE, 535-286-008-004?-.

NUM MDLS2075N00A SERVO AMPLIFIER

INDRAMAT AC SERVO DRIVE POWER SUPPLY TVD 1.3-15-03

INDRAMAT DIGITAL SERVO MOTOR MDD112D-N-30-N2?M-130PB0

APPLETON UNILET 1 LB FORM 35 CONDUIT BODY, NO BOX

SEW EURODRIVE KA87AD3 HELICAL-BEVEL GEAR REDUCER, Ratio.

FANUC ROBOTICS AC SERVO AMPLIFIER UNIT A06B-6089-H105 D

POWERS 186-0043 HUMIDITY TRANSMITTER W MOUNTING KIT,NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY COMMUNICATIONS MODULE 1203-GD2 *NEW IN BO.

COOPER GARDNER DENVER PCB CONTROL CARD SMK 2.0F

TXT / DRESSER MAR100-30 RCS ACTUATOR

GE FANUC WHEDCO TARGET AUTOMATION POWER SUPPLY MODULE 7.

STANLEY A40LRA2TA-5 ? DRIVE ANGLE PNEUMATIC NUT RUNNER

TOTALINE P503-8135S SUCTION FILTER DRIER, 400 PSIG, NIB

DATALOGIC ESCORT MEMORY SYSTEMS BOARD HS403H *LOT OF 2*

THOMAS AND BETTS ERSFH841FDE RECEPTACLE SWITCH BREAKER.

LENZE INTERFACE MODULE E82AFS

FUJI ELECTRIC 200-220V COIL 35A MAGNETIC CONTACTOR 4NC1.

BRADLEY 1WCA INDIVIDUAL COVERALL WALL SHOWER, NIB

STI MINISAFE / FlexSafe 4300B-2 LIGHT CURTAIN CONTROLLE.

SICK OPTIC LASER BAR CODE SCANNER CLV432-6010 / 1 017 9.

FANUC ROBOTICS PCB POWER SUPPLY BOARD A20B-1004-0960/?04.

CUTLER-HAMMER DH361URK 30 AMP NON-FUSIBLE SAFETY SWITCH.

SQUARE D 31074-400-38 MAGNET COIL, NIB

FANUC ROBOTICS 16PT 30VDC/250VAC RELAY OUTPUT MODULE AO.

BANNER 16278 L10 PHOTOELECTRIC LENS, NEW IN BAG

SIEMENS 24V DC CONTROL RELAY 3TH2031-0BB4 *NEW IN BOX*

GLOBAL INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT WTCX223 1 WEIR STYLE DIAPH.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC FREQROL S500 0.2kW VARIABLE FREQ AC.

PARKER H1665BG9B9000FB PNEUMATIC SOLENOID VALVE ASSEMBL.

FUJI ELECTRIC 200-220V COIL 26A MAGNETIC CONTACTOR 4NC0.

WILKERSON F30-08-000 SERIES A 150 PSI FILTER, NIB

PROPORTION AIR SJ01666-BM41 / PSR-3U PRESSURE TRANSDUCE.

HOFFMAN A808CH ELECTRICAL ENCLOSURE

ALLEN BRADLEY 595-B SERIES C AUXILIARY CONTACT,NIB

MOELLER MANUAL SELF PROTECTED COMBINATION MOTOR CONTROL.

MOLEX 848549503 DEVICENET MINI-C PASSIVE TEE ADAPTOR, 5.

BUSSMANN FUSETRON 8AMP DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE FRS.

NEMATRON 15 DP8016-53210400 INDUSTRIAL COMPUTER

BOSCH 7.5kW 9000 RPM SERVO MOTOR QUVF 100L/4C-11

PHILLIPS 4522-104-92324 CIRCUIT BOARD /W INPUT

NEWPORT Q2000CVR6 QUANTA METER

EUPEC T 1509 N 14 T0F 51 THYRISTOR

BRAD HARRISON 1R3004A24F030 MINI CHANGE RECEPTACLE, 3P.

OMRON H8PS-8BFP 24VDC CAM POSTTTIONER, NIB

TELEMECANIQUE CONTACTOR LP1 D1810 *LOT OF 10*

FANUC A03B-0801-C425 / IA16E INPUT MODULE, NEW

FERRAZ E301741 PROTISTOR FUSES, LOT OF 3, NIB

I-T-E ITE SIEMENS SN-323 / SN323 FUSED DISCONNECT, VACU.

FEDERAL SIGNAL CORP 121S * 120BSB LIGHT, 120 VAC, NIB

PILZ 24V SAFETY RELAY PZE X4P 24VDC 4n/o

COOPER GARDNER DENVER RACK-MOUNT POWER SUPPLY MODULE NT.

HOFFMAN A SE8X8X4NK/ 43460 SCREW COVER PULLBOX ENCLOSUR.

CentreCOM 210TS TWISTED PAIR TRANSCEIVER IEEE 802.3 10.

B NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 500 INPUT MODULE 1746-IB16 SERIES C.

STANLEY VIDMAR 5 DRAWER STORAGE CABINET

GE FANUC OPERATOR PANEL 44C741056-G01R0?7 *PARTS/REPAIR*

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC 3-POLE 150A NO-FUSE BREAKER NF-SFW3.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSEC CC-LINK PLC OUTPUT UNIT AJ65.

SQUARE D 25A 480VAC CIRCUIT BREAKER FAL34025

SCHNEIDER TELEMECANIQUE 24VDC COIL 25A REVERSING CONTAC.

MARPOSS OPERATOR INTERFACE SERIES E9066 *PARTS/REPAIR*

KAMOSEIKO KAMO 1/10G BALL REDUCER GEAR REDUCER BR50SH-1.

FANUC ROBOTICS I/O LINK CONNECTION UNIT A20B-2000-0411/.

ORIENTAL MOTOR 60W CLUTCH NEW IN BA.

MAXON / COEN CO CC-5000 CP 1 4 SHUT OFF VALVE, NEW

SCHNEIDER TELEMECANIQUE SQUARE D REVERSING CONTACTOR LC.

GORDOS ARKANSAS OUTPUT MODULE OAC5Q *LOT OF 5*

ALLEN BRADLEY 1305-BA04A AC DRIVE ** PARTS ONLY **

ASTEC VS3-K3-H233-00 POWER SUPPLY NIB

SEW-EURODRIVE KH47DT80K4BG05H?R GEAR MOTOR, NEW

TRUCK LITE 620H HOUSING / HARDWARE ASSEMBLY, 5 REPLACE.

DADCO NH1500 — RK908 GAS SPRING REPAIR KIT WITH GOLD CA.

KUKA ROBOTICS ROBOT WRIST ASSEMBLY ZH125/150-2 / 00-111.

ALLEN BRADLEY 12 BIT ANALOG INPUT MODULE 1771-IFE F02 9.

WILKERSON MXP-95-504 2 DRAIN SIZE 820 SCFM ACTIVATED C.

FREELIN-WADE TUBING 1C-030-04, GRAY 85A PUR 5/32 X 5/64.

NITTO SEIKO BR20-2 OIL FLOW METER 1.0 MPA, HEV OIL 30-1.

SSAC 400-480 VAC VOLTAGE MONITOR PLM9405 PC390

SPEEDAIRE 6W124 1 1/16 BORE 3 STROKE 250 PSI AIR CYLI.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC FREQROL S500 0.4K VARIABLE FREQUENC.

SEW-EURODRIVE INC. PSF511/VL090 APPROX 1 1/8 DIA SHAFT.

SQUARE D 8501 TYPE L0-20 CONTROL RELAY SER. A LOT OF 18

THYSSENKRUPP / SMS PME041:1140512 INDUSTRIAL PC

OKUMA MACHINERY WORKS LTD 75 AMP SERVO DRIVE BL-D75A *P.

ALLEN BRADLEY 800T-A1 SERIES T PUSH BUTTON WITH FLUSH G.

INA M12010226 LINEAR GUIDE RAILS, LOT OF 2, NIB

GE FANUC SERIES 90-30 PLC 120VAC 16PT INPUT MODULE IC69.

TORRINGTON / FAFNIR 3MM210WI CR DUH SUPER PRECISION BEA.

MCGILL CCF 1-1/8 SB CAM FOLLOWER BEARING, LOT OF 6, NIB

GOODYEAR 532-327-032-002?00 FLEXSTEEL HARDWALL GASOLINE.

ALLEN BRADLEY 836 PRESSURE CONTROL SWITCH

PHOENIX DOCKLITE DL-300DWT-2 WEATHER TIGHT LOADING LIGH.

PARKER MV800S-20FF HYDRAULIC METERING VALVE. NPT, NN.

GE FANUC CRT DISPLAY MODULE OPERATOR INTERFACE A02B-016.

GE FANUC GFZ-65150E/03 PARAMETER MANUAL

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSERVO 200W AC SERVO DRIVE MR-J2S.

SICK OPTIC 2 007 595 CABLE FOR LUT 1-4 SCANNER, 10 M, 8.

GENERAL ELECTRIC GES40048TAC4-5 HIGH PRESSURE SODIUM BA.

ALLEN BRADLEY COMBINATION CONTROLLER STARTER W/ CONTROL.

ALLEN BRADLEY DH+/DH485 GATEWAY COMMUNICATION ADAPTER 1.

APPLETON V51 SERIES FIXTURE UNIT, NIB

NUMATICS FLEXIBLOK COMPRESSED AIR COALESCING FILTER/REG.

ELECTRO-MATIC EMSL31VWZXX1-3 STACK LIGHT NNB

ACOPIAN 24V 20A REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY W515GT54

ADVANCE RELB-2S40-SC 120 VOLTS RAPID START ELECTRONIC B.

KEYSTONE FIG 362 113 K-LOK BUTTERFLY VALVE, 235 PSI, 5.

PILZ DELAYED CONTACT EXPANSION MODULE PZE X4V

SPRECHER NIB

VAISALA DEWPOINT NI.

TELEMECANIQUE XCK-J5970H7 240 VOLTS 3 AMP LIMIT SWITCH.

CUNO 3AL2 CARTRIDGE FILTER HOUSING, NIB PDF E10, NT 1.

ALLEN BRADLEY SLC 500 INPUT MODULE 1746-IB16 SER C

ALLEN BRADLEY ANALOG OUTPUT MODULE 1771-OFE1 B SERIES B.

VARIAN KQ-25-AW CLAMPS, LOT OF 5, NEW IN BAG SEALED

DEVILBISS AV-1239-35L AIR CAP LESS RETAINING RING, LOT.

FESTO SIM-M8-3WD-5-PU PLUG SOCKETS WITH CABLE, NEW IN B.

AEG SCHNEIDER TSX QUANTUM 8 CHANNEL ANALOG INPUT MODULE.

ALLEN BRADLEY ADJUSTABLE FREQUENCY AC DRIVE 1333-BAB SE.

MODICON PROGRAMMABLE CONTROLLER PC-0984-455 AS-C485-008

SOLA DT651H2753 ISOLATION TRANSFORMER, 275 kVa

SQUARE D 3-POLE ELECTRONIC TRIP CIRCUIT BREAKER 800A SE.

BUSSMANN FUSETRON 90AMP DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE FR.

ALLEN BRADLEY POWER TERMINAL BLOCK 1942-PD3C141 *LOT OF.

SIEMENS SIMATIC S7 POWER MODULE 6ES7 138-4CA00-0AA0 W/.

DELTRONIC TENTH PLUG GAUGE KIT 15.50-16.70MM SET OF 25

XYCOM INDUSTRIAL COMPUTER OPERATOR INTERFACE 3100C *CRA.

FLO-JET 02100-120 POLYPROPYLENE PUMP, NIB

UTICOR 180MC-1P032E PMD 180 PROGAMMABLE MESSAGE DISPLAY

ITT BELL NIB

GENERAL ELECTRIC FVK 4100 EF BUS PLUG, 100 Amp, Style 1.

INDUSTRIAL 1KVA 480V TO 230V STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER STT1.

BUSSMANN FUSETRON 7AMP DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE FRS.

MASTER PNEUMATIC FD100-6X / R100-6 AIR LINE FILTER AND.

LAMINA SCB200S SC STYLE SELF LUBE BRONZE BUSH. INCLUDES.

NUMATICS 236-312B SOLENOID PILOT / 1 22BB600R061D61 PNE.

MICHIGAN CUTTING TOOL TD-000217 / MCT-100092 BORING BAR.

BRAD HARRISON / WOODHEAD 80604-050 4-POLE MALE/FEMALE E.

SQUARE D PQ-3610 I-LINE PLUG-IN UNIT BUS PLUG, 100 Amp

POWER-ONE / HC POWER HC10-C1471A POWER SUPPLY

BUSSMANN 50AMP LOW PEAK DUAL ELEMENT TIME DELAY FUSE LP.

ALLIED TELESIS 100-240VAC ETHERNET MULTIPORT REPEATER C.

TELEMECANIQUE TSX 17 PLC CONTROLLER MODULE TSX 172 4012

INDRAMAT EMERGENCY STOP / RETURN OPERATOR INTERFACE FWA.

DEMAG KBA80B6 APPROX 5/8 SHAFT 1.30 HP 265-460V MICROS.

INDRAMAT AC SERVO POWER SUPPLY KDV 1.3 100-220/300-220

PARKER 00.75 K4RLP 9 9 0.500 PANCAKE PNEUMATIC CYLINDER.

CUTLER-HAMMER WESTINGHOUSE 3-POLE 800A CIRCUIT BREAKER.

PILZ RELAY FOR MONITORING E-STOP PUSHBUTTONS NIB

MARATHON 380A 600V POWER DISTRIBUTION BLOCK 1433953

YUSHIN RELAY BOARD PCB YV-970031-RY

DODGE 119570 1108 X 19M TAPER-LOCK BUSHING, NIB

ALLEN BRADLEY SIZE 2 STARTER 120V COIL SERIES B 509-COD.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSERVO 400W AC SERVO DRIVE MR-J2S.

BALDOR M3705T INDUSTRIAL MOTOR HIGH EFFICIENCY AC MOTOR.

DAYKIN LTFS-01 CPC TRANSFORMER DISCONNECT, 2 kVa, NIB

WILDEN PUMP 24, NEOPRENE DIAPHRAGM, 11 1/2, LOT OF 12

SQUARE D GAW-1 CLASS 9012 SERIES C PRESSURE SWITCH BASE

ABB 110/120V COIL 60A CONTACTOR DA75-20

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSEC PLC CC-LINK 24VDC INPUT UNIT.

HOKUYO CEA4018 AUTO COUNTER NIB

TURCK RKC 4.4T-2-WSC 4.4T/S622/SV 300V CORDSET, NEW

CARCO INC ES-374-RQ-11 RESERVOIR NEW

DODGE SC-1 7/16 B PILLOW BLOCK BEARING FOUR BOLT FLANGE

KENNAMETAL NH7 DWG 1746149R00 / TD 000217 BORING BAR 1.

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC 3-PHASE 129V 2.3A 400W AC SERVO MOT.

ACE CONTROLS D150-0002 SHOCK ABSORBER A 1/2 X 2, NIB

SQUARE D TYPE QOU 10 AMP CIRCUIT BREAKER *LOT OF 10*

GE FANUC WHEDCO TARGET AUTOMATION SERVO MODULE 78004658.

ALLEN BRADLEY 2755-DS1A BAR CODE DECODER

ALLEN BRADLEY MicroLogix 24VDC 16-POINT SINK/SOURCE INP.

ALLEN BRADLEY 1495-F1 SIZE 0-5 SERIES L AUXILIARY CONTA.

SICK OPTIC LASER BAR CODE SCANNER CLV430-6010 / 1 017 9.

FERRAZ SHAWMUT J214460 ULTRASAFE FUSE HOLDER RNB

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC MELSERVO 400W AC SERVO DRIVE MR-J2S.

ALCO 240RA-9T9M 9/16 PORT 1-1/8 ODF REFRIGERANT SOLENO.

TOYODA TOYOPUC PLC ETHERNET MODULE THU-5296

SOLA S5H505 50 kVa TRANSFORMER

HUBBELL SHC1024CR NYLON CORD CONNECTOR, NEW IN BAG SEAL.

GILMOUR 01RW RUBBER HOSE WASHERS, LOT OF 9, NEW

NACHI 6206NSE BEARING, NNB

SQUARE D 9001KS43K10E12H?2 KEY SELECTOR SWITCH NIB

THK HSR25-220L (GK) RAIL, NNB

ORTRONICS OR-62750013 MODULE, LARGE LOT NEW

WELDING NOZZLE INTERNATIONAL 27A 500A WATER-COOLED NOZZ.

SUN HYDRAULICS YWA 9GA6 HYDRAULIC RELIEF VALVE, NNB

GRACO 205472 FLUID PISTON, NNB

ALLEN BRADLEY 16A SINGLE POLE CIRCUIT BREAKER G160 1492.

ALLEN BRADLEY ControlLogix CONTROL NET COMMUNICATIONS B.

PACIFIC PN20 LINEAR PILLOW BLOCK BEARING, NNB

MITSUBISHI ELECTRIC IGBT TRANSISTOR QM100HY-H

FLOWSERVE MISC LOT OF 5 REPAIR PARTS -SEALS NIB

SIEMENS 44DA001 SINUMERIK DISPLAY UNIT

FANUC CIRCUIT BOARD PCB A16B-3200-0040/?04C

ALLEN-BRADLEY 2750-C1 ANTENNA CABLE, 1P MALE STRAIGHT T.

GENERAL ELECTRIC CR115E423101 GEARED ROTARY LIMIT SWITC.

COSEL RMB 15U-1 SWITCHING REGULATOR NIB

SIMCO SHOCKLESS IONIZING AIR GUN ES2A4 *NEW*

EBM PAPST W2S130-BM15-01 AC AXIAL COMPACT FAN, NIB

ROSS W6476D2307 SINGLE-SPINDLE POPPET VALVE, NO BOX

PEPPERL LOT OF 3 NIB

BUSSMANN 16220 — 2 POLE POWER DISTRIBUTION BLOCK, 175 A.

TORRINGTON / FAFNIR 2MM9111WI DUL SUPER PRECISION BEARI.

BELL NIB

MODICON MC-PSSA-025 POWER CABLE ASSY, NIB

IMI INDUSTRIAL MAGNETICS, INC ARF15-54618 LIFTING MAGNE.

MAGFLO MAG3100 ELECTROMAGNETIC FLOWMETER 8?, NEW

TELEMECANIQUE 600V CONTACTOR CA3 DN22 *LOT OF 10*

ALLEN BRADLEY 1494V-DS60 Series A DISCONNECT SWITCH

AEG SCHNEIDER MODICON TSX COMPACT DISCRETE OUTPUT AS-BD.

SCHNEIDER TELEMECANIQUE 24V DC POWER SUPPLY ABL7 RE2403

TRENEW VME-MONOLITHIC BUS 21-SLOT BACKPLANE BOARD PCB V.

ZEBRA 105SL MID-RANGE THERMAL PRINTER, S-Series

Gould Shawmut A4BY3000 3000A/600V Amptrap Fuse Type L A.

Square D Size 4 250 Amp Breaker Combination Starter Box.

GE Spectra SB364R Busway 200 A Bus Plug Fusible 3W G

Allen Bradley 2711-T5A2L1-X PanelView 550 Ser. B Rev. B.

Weidmuller 992748 0024 24 VDC Power Supply 9927480024

Siemens Power Supply SITOP Power 40 PS 6EP1437-2BA10

Honeywell UDC1000 Micro-Pro Temperature Control DC100L

Telemecanique LC1-FK43 Motor Contactor LC1FK43 540 Amp

Square D Saflex SD75720 Busway Plug-In Unit 20 Amp Bus

Toshiba Tosvert VFSX-2001P VF-SX Transistor Inverter

Omega OS1200-LAS OmegaScope Temperature Controller

Fischer 4194HB Wizard Pressure Control 4194H-B

Westinghouse Seltronic HMC3800F 800 Amp A 800A

GE Spectra ADS36100HS Fuse Panelboard Switch 100 A 600V

GE THN3362R 60A Safety Disconnect Switch 3R 600V Model.

Idec Izbarl IBRC 6062R Relay Barier IBRC6062R

ITE Gould 5600 Breaker Size 3 W200M3CFC MCC Bucket 150A

Cutler Hammer Westinghouse FDB3040L 40 Amp A 40Amp 40A

Powerformer 223-3194-006 30 kVA transformer 480/208 Y/1.

Allen Bradley 4100 REC AB Resolver Encoder Converter 41.

Viking H-2 958A Alarm Valve 175PSI H2 958-A 175-PSI 6in

Westinghouse 50 DH-P 250 DHP 50DH-P 1200 Amp A Breaker

Cutler Hammer Breaker FD2125 125Amp 125 Amp 125A A

Westinghouse 2100 200 Amp Fusible MCC Feeder Bucket 200.

Omron P7TF-OS16 Relay Block Outbase P7TFOS16

Square D HU-363 100A Non-Fusible Safety Switch HU363

Kollmorgen BDS5A-206-40001?0-WO Servo Drive BDS5 BDS-5

Siemens 1FK7060-5AF71-1?EH0 7200 RPM 3 Phase Motor NEW

Modicon 467-NHP-811-DP Profibus-DP PCMIA 3 467NHP811DP

Modicon 140 CPS 124-00 Power 115/230 VAC 140CPS12400

Allen Bradley 509-GOD Size 6 540A Contactor 40460461010.

Cutler Hammer CH Breaker EHD3050L 50 A Amp 50A 480V

Banner Engineering MSDINT-1L2 Mini-Screen Control Modul.

Oriental Motor US540-402-K1 40W Speed Control Motor

Westinghouse JD3250F 225A Breaker JT3225T 225A A 600 VA.

ABB ACS-601 AC Drive ACS601-0009-6 3PH 525-600 VAC 63Hz

Modicon TSX 140 CPS 214 00 DC PS 24 VDC 140CPS21400

CTI Control Technology 901B-2589-A Universal In 2589A

Advantech ADAM-5056 16 Digital Output Module ADAM5056

GE 6KAF343001E$A1 1 HP Drive 1HP AF-300E$ AF300E$

Mitsubishi Melsec A55B I/O PLC Base Unit Rack 5 Slot

Westinghouse HMCP HMCP250W5W 250 A 250Amp Amp 250A

DC Motor 50 HP 1750 RPM 365AT DPFG STAB / SHUNT REM

Socomec 26S04080 4 x 1250A Contactor Nu Sans CDE Fronta.

AB Allen Bradley 50389 Logic Power Supply board: any HP

Reliance Electric energy efficent AC Motor 250 HP 1785.

Crawford Pole Transformer 13200/22860Y 120/240 100 kVA

Cutler Hammer Breaker FD3060 60 Amp 60A A 60Amp

Westinghouse 2100 Size 4 Fused Reversing A201K4CA MCC B.

Square D 2500 kVA 12470/480 Delta Padmount Transformer

Siemens JXD63L400 JXD6-ETI 400 Amp A w/ 400A Trip brea.

Allen Bradley 1784-KTX NIB 1784KTX Ser B NEW factory se.

GE AKR-7D-30S 800A Air Breaker RMS-9 TS20LIT1 LI Genera.

Daihen P6768 T Printed Circuit Board Assembly 851590 P.

Trane Centravac 400 HP Motor Controller Starter 460 V

GE General Electric Breaker THED THED113020 20Amp A 20A

Reliance Electric Motor 75 HP 1785 RPM Efficient 444U

Fuji PYX-9 Termperature Controller PYX9 Temp Control

Siemens ITE NF355 Disconnect Switch 400 A Amp 600V 3PH

Square D DU323 100 Amp 240 Volt Safety Switch Non Fusib.

Modicon/Schneid?er DTA-201 AS-HDTA-201 Secondary Subrack

Hitran D3007544H6 75 KVA Transformer 460/460 Y/266 75kV.

Square D I-Line Current Limiting IL34400 400 Amp 400A A

Benshaw CFRSD6SB548012 5 HP Solid State Starter 7.6A

Square D NQOD Main Breaker Panelboard 225 Amp A 225Amp

Allen Bradley 5130-KA A DH/DH+ Interface 5130KAA

Modicon 170-ANR-120-91 TSX Momentum Analog 6IN/4OUT 170.

Explosion Proof Westinghouse Size 2 starter 15A Combo

Advantech ADAM-5017 8 channel Analog Input PLC ADAM5017

Westinghouse 2100 Series Size 1 Breaker MCC Bucket AN16.

Yaskawa USAMED-44BA2K 4.4 KW 1000 RPM AC Servo Motor

Elliott Turbocharger Turbo Blower L-402 1L1 KVS Rebuilt

General Electric Transformer 9T23Y3502 30 kVA 480/208Y/.

GE TKMA836Y800 800A Molded Case Switch 800 A Amp 600V 3.

RexRoth VT 3000-36a MATNr 00020298 R20 VT3000 Mannesman.

Cutler Hammer Westinghouse 2100 15 Amp Size 1 15A Break.

Antunes Controls LGP-H Low Gas Pressure Switch LGPH

Cutler Hammer Eaton NEW SVX00514EARB 5 HP AC VS Drive S.

Square D Breaker LAL36400 1021 LAL364001021 400 A Amp

IEE Flip alphanumeric fluorescent display 03601-20-040

Siemens 6SL3130-7TE21-6?AA1 Sinamics Active Line Module

Square D Size 2 8536 SDO1 B52S Motor Starter 8536SDO1 B.

Allen Bradley 1791-16AC 120VAC In/Out Module Ser. B 120.

Fisher Rosemount CL6752A3 120V 3.0A Out 21B5167X022

Square D Model 6 Motor Control Center 1200A MCC 3 sect

Marathon Electric AC Motor 60 HP 1775 RPM 364T Frame

Sew Eurodrive KAF97R57 .75/S1 KW Gear Reducer NEW

Westinghouse 2100 25 Amp Size 2 MCC Bucket AN16GN0 25A.

Danfloss Camco Varipak 600180/92A40405?000000 30 Cycle

Westinghouse Size 3 2100 100 Amp Fusible MCC Bucket 100.

Fanuc Ltd A06B-6089-H201 AC Servo Amplifier Unit

General Electric Pole Mount 100 kVA Transformer 13200/2.

Omron C500-ID218 Input Unit 3G2A5-ID218 C500ID218

GE TKL4V4608 800A High IC Breaker General Electric 800.

Square D HU662AWK 60 Amp A Safety Switch Disconnect 3R

Mitsubishi A2USCPU Melsec CPU Module Unit A2USCPU

Furnas System 89 Size 1 Breaker Type Starter MCC Bucket

Cutler Hammer Westinghouse FW FW3050L 50Amp 50 A Amp

Marathon Electric 30 HP 1765 RPM 230 / 460V 286T TEFC

Mitsubishi A1SX42S1 Melsec Input Module A1SX42-S1

Uticor 76536 PMD 200 S Programmable Message Display

Crydom A53TP50D 3 Phase Solid State Relay Panel Mount

Modicon 140-DAI-540-00 115VAC In TSX 140DAI54000

GE Fanuc IC693CPU331-AA Series 90-30 CPU Module IC693CP.

ABB C488G40-PIL Capacitor 40 KVAR LVNQ 480V 3 PH NEMA 1

Westinghouse Numa-Logic NLE-770 NLE770 Expander / Rmote

Modicon 140 XTS 002-00 Cable Assembly 140XTS00200

SOLA SCP30 S15-DN 15V 2.0 A Power Supply SCP30S15DN NIB

Johnson Controls NU-NCM350-8 MetaSys Network Controller

Allen Bradley size 0 509-AOA Starter AB 509AOA sz0 sz 0

Honeywell 621-9950 Terminal Block/Wiring Arm 6219950

Cutler Hammer Westinghouse LD3600 600Amp 600 A

With Rating plug LT3600T

US Electrical Motor 450 HP 1785 RPM 449TD 449T TEFC 460.

Cutler Hammer DSII-508 800A Frame/250A Sen Digitrip RMS.

GE Fanuc IC693BEM331 Genius Bus Control IC693BEM331 K E

GE Fanuc IC660EBD110 115V Input 16PT IC660BBD110 Genius

Modicon AEG AS-J890-101 Remote I/O Processor ASJ890101

Westinghouse Panelboard Switch FDPS364 200 Amp A FDP

Modicon TSX 140-ACI-030-00 Analog Input 140ACI0300

Load Controls DM-100 Digital Load Meter Display DM100 o.

Allen Bradley 2711-NM11 256KB Panelview Memory Card AB.

Square D HCM44-17066-10 400A 480V Panelboard 400 Amp Ma.

Yaskawa CIMR-3.7WS.P 5kVA Varispeed 676 Inverter Drive

Yaskawa ServoPack SGDH-01AE 200V 0.1kW

Mettler Toledo Masstron model 8141 Scale Readout Panel

GE General Electric THN3364 Disconnect Switch 200 Amp A

Reliance Electric Motor 250 HP 1785 RPM Efficient 449U

Omron C200H-OD212 24VDC Output Unit C200HOD212

Square D MHL 450 Amp 450A A MHL36450 MHL364501426 ST /03B

Allen Bradley AB size 00 509-TOD Starter 509TOD 9A 600V

Allen Bradley Dynamic Brake 1336-MOD-KB050 AB 50HP 460V.

Square D I-Line FC34030 FC-34030 30 Amp A 30Amp

Cutler Hammer F10 Unitrol Sz Size 1 MCCB CH 7 Amp A

Precision Digital PD690-3G-N Temperature Meter PD6903GN

Yokogawa 4151 uR100 Chart Recorder 4153-655-32/BU

Fanuc A06B-0163-B175 AC Servo Motor AM9/3000 1.8 kW 3PH

Benshaw RSi-075-H-4-L 100 HP Variable Speed Drive 125A

Westinghouse Ampgard Medium Motor Starter 608 HP 4160V

Westinghouse Ampgard Medium Motor Starter V202S4G 4160V

ABB ADVAC 5kV 1200 Amp A 5 KV AA211777 vacuum circuit b.

Reliance Electric 2GU41100 100HP GP2000 VS Drive 100 HP

Modicon TSXFPP20 TSX Premium FIPWAY PCMCIA Board TSX F.

Siemens 6ES5 460-7LA13 Analog Input 6ES5460-7LA13

Siemens 6SL3120-1TE13-0?AA0 Sinamics Single Motor Module

Square D QED I-Line Breaker PanelBoard 4000 Amp 3000A 4.

GE Spectra SEDA36AT0060 50 Amp Breaker 50A A General El.

Allen Bradley 1395-B76-C3-P12?-P50 74.6 kW 100 HP AB DC.

Modicon 140-CPU-434-12A 486 Controller 140CPU43412A TSX.

Modicon 140-ARI-030-10 TSX Quantum RTD In TSX Quantum I.

Siemens JXD63B400 Sentron 400A Breaker ITE JXD 400 Amp.

Modicon TSX Premium TSXP57103M Processor Schneider TSXP.

Westinghouse JA3225W 225A Breaker JA Frame 600V 225 Amp.

Omron CQM1-PA203 Power Supply Unit CQM1PA203 100-240VDC.

Yaskawa CIMR-P7U4045 Varispeed P7 Variable Speed Drive.

Allen Bradley 1771-IAN 85-138 VAC Input Module AB 1771I.

AB Allen Bradley 1771-KE 1771KE Communication Module

Square D 92345 Double Throw Safety Switch 400 Amp 600V.

Waukesha SPX 030U2AP 030 Universal Rotary Positive Disp.

Nemic-Lambda EWS150-24 24V/6.3A Power Supply EWS-150-24

Sanki MFC-N3 Power Supply MFCN3

Square D 500 HP Size 7 Motor Starter Sz 6 8606 SJG1 460.

Yaskawa ServoPack SGDB-30ADGY8 24.4A Unit SGDB30ADGY8

Square D 150T3HFISNLP 150 kVA Transformer 150kVA 480/20.

Modicon TSXASY410 TSX Premium 4 Isolated Analog Out TSX.

Oriental Motor DSP502M Speed Controller DSP502-M

Westinghouse WH W206J Size 1 Combo Starter Box Breaker

Allen Bradley 440R-G23215 MSR142RTP AB MSR Guard Master

Cutler Hammer Advantage ES Bypass 270 A EA270PN W200M5C.

C-H E PRL3A 600A Breaker Panel 600 Amp 208Y/120 3PH 4W.

C-H E PRL3A 600A Breaker Panel 600 Amp 208Y/120 3PH 4W.

Westinghouse 1500 kVA 12000/480 Y/277 Delta G13E143GJG.

Fanuc EE-3112-600 Over Voltage Protection Module EE3112.

Omron XW2B-40G5 Screw Terminal XW2B40G5

Omron M7E-02DGN2 Segment LED Digital Display M7E02DGN2

GE AKR-10D-100 4000A Frame/Sensor Breaker 4000 Amp Micr.

Westinghouse T84E03483 30 kVA Transformer 30kVA 480 Del.

Fulflo bag filter cartridge vessel 4CSB12 150 PSI 2 SS

idec Izbarl IBPL6102S Pilot Relay Barrier IBPL 6102S 6V

Bolt Loc Bolted Pressure Switch VL 3612 G5 3000 Amp Gnd

Square D QED BPO364 Bolt Loc Panel 4000 Amp 3PH 4W Grou.

Westinghouse PB 2500A PB32500F 654D456G06 800 A TRIP

Omron CV500-MC421 PLC Unit CV500MC421

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Northern Telecom Nortel Card NT8D17EA Rise 01 PLC

Ebbco BFH-0833 filter bag vessel Carbon Steel 150PSI 2

Westinghouse 2100 60 Amp Breaker Feeder MCC Bucket 60A.

Yaskawa CACR-SR44BB1AM-?V ServoPack Drive CACRSR44BB1AMV

Square D 8538 Size 5 Combination Starter Box 8536 SS 3R

Fincor 3167S8003A 800HP 842 KVA 480V VS DC Drive 800 HP

GE A Series Panelboard W/Main Breaker 225 Amp A 208Y 49

Allen Bradley 1300-DHT Programming Terminal AB 1300DHT.

Omron G3TA-ODX02S Relay Block Transistor Out G3TAODX02S

GE Spectra SB364WGJT6115 200A NIB Fusible Bus Plug 600V.

Westinghouse Circuit Breaker EHB1020 20Amp A 20A

AB Allen Bradley 1775-AC 1775AC PLC-3 Chassis Rack

Allen Bradley 2100 Centerline MCC motor control center.

Newport INFQ-000-FL/INF?8-C Programmable Angular Counter

GE CR106D0 CR106DO Sz Size 2 Motor Starter 440V 45A

Omron C200H-OD218 24VDC Output Unit C200HOD218

ABB 150 HP ACX550-U0-180A-?4 180A AC VS Drive 150HP

Panasonic M81A25G-4DU Servo C120 VAC 170ADM69051

M Moore 15431-31-13 PLC Logic Controller 154313113

Sharp ZW-32S4T Output Unit ZW32S4T 32 S 4 T

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GE General Electric High Fault Protector TEDL36060 60 A

Westinghouse Breaker EHB3100 EHB 100 Amp A 100A

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Square D I-Line KH36110 KH-36110 110 Amp 110A A breaker

GE Fanuc IC660TBD110 A B K L Genius 115V Input Terminal.

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Modicon ADU-212/AS-BADU?-212 Univ Analog in Bplane Pwr A.

Cutler Hammer WH DK DK3300W KT3300T DK3300 300 A Amp

Square D Mod Model 4 Sz Size 2 Fuse MCC Bucket 8536SD01

Omron S82J-6524 24V/2.1A Power Supply S82J6524

AB Allen-Bradley Starter Cat. No. 100-A12ND3 10 HP

General Electric Current Transformer 75:5 Ratio JKM-3

Mitsubishi Breaker NV225-SP NV225SP NV 200 Amp 200A A

US Motors Shur-Stop 1-05534-501001 Electric Brake 1PH 1.

Cutler Hammer Eaton Circuit Breaker EDH3225 225A A 225A.

Modicon DEP-209/AS-BDEP?-209 115VAC Input

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I-R Ingersoll Rand 99340457 Micro Tas Plus 99340382

Honeywell 8476-981-065-A-?4 Digital Indicator: NEW

GE General Electric TFK236F000 125 Amp A 125A Adj Trip

Westinghouse Circuit Breaker EHB1015 EHB 15Amp A 15A

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Cutler Hammer FD FD3020 20 Amp 20A A 20Amp

GE Fanuc IC600CB526 Logic Control Rev P IC 600 CB 526

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Foxboro Siebe FBM 10/15 Terminal Plug DM900ZA Rev C

Toshiba Tosvert VT130G2U5120 10 HP Inverter AC Drive

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2013 News

Chevy can clinch Manufacturers’ Championship UPDATE: Chevy can clinch its 11th consecutive NSCS Manufacturers’ Championship, and 37th overall, this weekend at Martinsville. If Chevy’s top finishing driver finishes ahead of Toyota’s top finishing driver, Chevy will clinch the title in the first year of the Gen-6 race car.(NASCAR)(10-24-2013)

UPDATE: Jeff Gordon’s win of the Goody’s Headache Relief Shot 500 at Martinsville Speedway captured the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Manufacturers’ Cup Championship for Chevy. It marks the 11th consecutive year, and the 37th time overall that the Bowtie Brand has captured the prestigious title in NASCAR’s premiere series. It is also the first Manufacturers’ Cup award for the Gen-6 Chevrolet SS race car. In the 33 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series races run to-date in 2013, Chevy drivers have captured 14 victories. Chevrolet won its first Manufacturers’ Cup award in 1958; and now with the 2013 Cup secured, Chevy has reached an unprecedented 37th title. The Team Chevy drivers that have contributed to the manufacturers’ points that achieved the title for Chevy are: #48-Jimmie Johnson (five wins); #29-Kevin Harvick (three wins), #5-Kasey Kahne (two wins), #14-Tony Stewart (one win); #39-Ryan Newman (one win), #1-Jamie McMurray (one win), #24-Jeff Gordon (one win); #88-Dale Earnhardt Jr. #31-Jeff Burton, #42-Juan Pablo Montoya, and #78-Kurt Busch.(Chevy PR), For standings, rules, and manufacturers wins see the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Manufacturer Standings page .(10-27-2013)

Chevy may have left NASCAR without Gen 6 car: Chevrolet may have pulled out of NASCAR had the governing body not developed the new Gen 6 car that returns brand identity to the sport. It would have been a good chance, team owner Rick Hendrick said on Saturday at Daytona International Speedway. As a matter of fact, I’m sure they might have. Hendrick, the owner of Hendrick Motorsports and one of the top owners of automobile dealerships in the United States, made the comment during the unveiling of the 2014 Chevrolet SS production car that will debut in NASCAR this season.(ESPN )(2-17-2013)

Chevrolet Will Set the Pace at Daytona: The 2014 Chevrolet SS will be very busy during its Speedweeks debut, pacing all four NASCAR Sprint Cup Series races – The Sprint Unlimited, both Budweiser Duels and the Daytona 500. And, it will be one of Chevrolet’s three newest models to pace NASCAR’s races at Daytona International Speedway next weekend:

· 2014 Chevrolet SS in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series

· 2013 Camaro ZL1 in the NASCAR Nationwide Series Drive4COPD 300

· 2014 Silverado 1500 Crew Cab in the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series NextEra Energy 250

“Chevrolet is extremely proud to be a part of NASCAR’s season-opener by pacing all of the events at Daytona International Speedway,” said Jeff Chew, Marketing Manager for Chevrolet Racing. “In 2013, Chevrolet will launch 13 all-new or significantly redesigned products in North America. Included in those models is the Chevrolet SS, which race fans will get a chance to see on track when it paces The Sprint Unlimited tonight, the Budweiser Duels next Thursday, and the Daytona 500 next Sunday.”

The 2014 Chevrolet SS is the first rear-wheel drive performance sedan for Chevrolet since 1996.

The 2013 Camaro ZL1 brings supercar levels of performance and technology to the sports-car segment, featuring a 6.2-liter supercharged V-8 that produces 580 horsepower, and can go from 0-60 in 3.9 seconds.

The 2014 Silverado all-new EcoTec3 engines, designed specifically for trucks, provide power and torque when needed, then switches seamlessly to 4-cylinder mode to save fuel for light-load driving.

In 2013, Chevrolet is campaigning the Chevrolet SS in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, Camaro in the NASCAR Nationwide Series, and Silverado in the NASCAR Camping World Truck Series.(Team Chevy)(2-17-2013)

2014 Chevrolet SS unveiled UPDATE: Chevrolet is scheduled to hold a press conference to unveil the 2014 Chevrolet SS passenger vehicle on Saturday around 1:00pm/et at the Fan Zone at Daytona International Speedway.(2-16-2013)

UPDATE: As Chevrolet’s first V-8, rear-wheel-drive performance sedan since 1996, the new Chevrolet SS is designed to deliver performance on the street and on the track. The 2014 Chevrolet SS will debut this weekend at the Daytona International Speedway as the SS racecar makes its NASCAR debut during the Daytona 500. “The Chevrolet brand was largely built on the strength of rear-drive performance sedans, yet it’s been 17 years since we’ve offered one,” said Mark Reuss, president of General Motors North America. “The all-new Chevrolet SS fills that void and fills it better than any other vehicle in the brand’s rich history. The comfort, convenience, spaciousness and V-8 power make the SS a total performance package unlike any other on the road today.” The Chevrolet SS benefits from the proven, race-tested, global rear-wheel drive architecture that is the foundation for the Camaro, Caprice Police Patrol Vehicle and Holden’s VF Commodore.

The Chevrolet SS is powered by the LS3 Chevrolet V-8, expected to deliver 415 horsepower and 415 lb-ft of torque. Also used in the 2013 Chevrolet Corvette, the LS3 displaces 6.2 liters, more than the 5.5-liter V-8 powering the Chevrolet SS NASCAR competitors. The LS3 is married to a six-speed automatic transmission, which can be shifted manually using TAPshift paddles mounted on the steering wheel. With an aggressive 3.27 final-drive ratio, the Chevrolet SS accelerates from 0 to 60 mph in about five seconds – making it one of the quickest sedans on the market.

To ensure that it turns and stops as well as it accelerates; the Chevrolet SS also features a sport-tuned chassis, including:

· MacPherson strut front and multilink independent rear suspension geometry

· Electronic power steering system, optimized for sport driving

· Standard Brembo brakes, with ventilated, 355-mm rotors and two-piece, four-piston front calipers

· Forged aluminum wheels, wrapped in ultra-high-performance Bridgestone tires: 19 x 8.5 inch wheels with 245/40ZR19 tires in front; 19 x 9.0 inch wheels with 275/35ZR19 tires rear

Handling is also improved by a near 50/50 weight distribution, and a low center of gravity – made possible in part by the aluminum hood and rear deck lid that are 30 percent lighter than traditional steel panels. “Our goal was to create a car that delivers incredible grip and handling balance while cornering, while still being comfortable to drive on the road,” said David Leone, executive chief engineer GM global programs. “The perfect weight balance and lower center of gravity were a big part of that goal because it enabled the team to tune for a more comfortable highway ride without sacrificing handling or driver confidence while cornering at the limits.”

Similarly, the design of the SS blends performance cues and premium details. “From every angle, the Chevrolet SS says power and performance,” said John Cafaro design director Chevrolet passenger cars and small crossovers. “The combination of an aggressive rear-wheel drive stance and body-side attitude with the right balance of detail and refinement inside and out are the perfect home for Chevrolet’s V-8 performance package.”

The staggered front and rear wheels, which are pushed out to the corners, enhance the sporting, muscular stance of the SS. Up front, the aluminum hood features a subtle “power bulge” hinting at the power of the engine underneath. At the rear, the tapered, tear-drop shape contributes to improved aerodynamic performance. Premium cues include jewel-like chrome accents, standard high-intensity discharge headlamps and light-emitting diode daytime running lights.

The spacious interior of the SS will comfortably accommodate five adults, with 42 inches of front legroom, and 39 inches of rear legroom. Leather seating surfaces are standard, as are eight-way power adjustable front bucket seats with additional side bolstering that hug the driver and front passenger in tight-handling situations. The SS emblem is prominently stitched onto the soft-touch instrument panel which features two types of chrome finishes – a satin gloss and a bright chrome. At night, the interior is illuminated by ice blue ambient lighting.

An integrated center stack includes infotainment, climate and other vehicle controls. The Chevrolet SS also offers a long list of technology features as standard equipment including:

· Color, in-dashboard touch screen that supports Chevrolet MyLink and the next-generation navigation system

· Bose Nine-speaker premium sound system

· Color heads-up display

· Push-button start

· StabiliTrak Electronic Stability Control

· Forward Collision Alert

· Lane Departure Warning

· Side Blind Zone Alert

· Rear-vision camera Rear Cross Traffic Alert

The SS is also the first Chevrolet to offer Automatic Parking Assist, which provides hands-free parking help. This efficient ‘hands-free’ parking assistant uses the ultrasonic sensing system to detect the width and depth of either parallel or reverse right-angle parking spaces. While the driver controls the throttle, transmission, and brake, the Automatic Parking Assist controls the steering inputs necessary to neatly park the Chevrolet SS.

The 2014 Chevrolet SS will be available in the fourth quarter of 2013, with prices set closer to the on-sale date. When it arrives in showrooms, the SS will join the Corvette and Camaro, whose combined sales have made Chevrolet America’s favorite performance brand for the last two years.(Team Chevy)(2-16-2013)

2012 News

Chevy unveils 2013 NASCAR Chevrolet SS race car: Chevrolet opened a new chapter in its storied racing history, unveiling its eagerly anticipated 2013 NASCAR Chevrolet SS race car. Powered by the legendary small block V-8 engine, the rear-wheel drive performance sedan will be Chevrolet’s newest entry in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series, beginning with the 2013 SpeedWeeks in Daytona. The new NASCAR race car closely resembles the all-new rear wheel drive V-8 Chevrolet SS performance sedan that will debut early next year.

“As a passionate race fan, the debut of the SS NASCAR race car is a genuinely exciting moment for me,” said GM North America President Mark Reuss. “With the SS, Chevrolet is delivering a true rear-wheel-drive NASCAR race car that is very closely linked to the performance sedan that will be available for sale, ensuring that our most loyal enthusiasts will have the opportunity to experience the same thrill every day on the open road that our race car drivers enjoy on the track on race day. The Chevrolet SS also demonstrates how we are able to leverage our global product portfolio to deliver a unique performance experience. The specialized development and testing work done for the race car will certainly benefit the entire Chevrolet product lineup.” The Chevrolet SS is the next in a long line of famed nameplates that Chevrolet has campaigned in NASCAR. It replaces Impala, which scored 152 wins from 1959-64 and 2007-12.

“We are looking forward to another exciting year of NASCAR competition and expect that the new SS race car, with some of the most skilled drivers on the circuit behind the wheel, will distinguish itself on the track,” said Jim Campbell, U.S. vice president of Performance Vehicles and Motorsports.

The Chevrolet SS will be a derivative of the award-winning global rear-wheel-drive architecture that spawns performance vehicles like Chevrolet Camaro and Holden’s upcoming VF Commodore. The limited production version of the Chevrolet SS will be a 2014 model and will arrive in dealer showrooms in late 2013. It is the first time in 17 years that Chevrolet will offer a rear-wheel-drive sedan for sale in the United States.

Chevrolet has long used the SS (Super Sport) designation on high-performance models of some of its most enduring nameplates. The SS designation first appeared in 1957 on a Corvette prototype race car built under the guidance of Zora Arkus-Duntov with the plan to enter it in the Le Mans 24-hour race.

The first production vehicle to be offered with an SS optional package was the 1961 Impala – 453 were built with the performance upgrades, which included a modified chassis and suspension, power brakes, a steering column mounted tachometer and unique wheels and tires. The SS designation returned to the Chevrolet lineup in 2010 with the debut of the fifth-generation Camaro.

IMAGES: see images of the Chevy SS that will run in 2013 on the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Manufacturers News and Images page .(11-29-2012)

New Look Ready For “Sixth Generation” 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Race Car: NASCAR unveiled a new look for the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series car, an integral and exciting step in the rollout process of the sixth generation race car. “These changes are an extension of the unprecedented collaboration with the auto manufacturers on the 2013 car, great industry feedback and our focus on increasing fan affinity as part of NASCAR’s Industry Action Plan,” said Steve O’Donnell, NASCAR senior vice president of racing operations, who introduced the new design at Homestead-Miami Speedway today. The sixth-generation car look will debut with the opening of the 2013 Speedweeks, highlighted by the 55th running of the Daytona 500 on February 24 at Daytona International Speedway. Among the updates:

· The driver’s last name featured on the windshield;

Sponsor decals will not be permitted on the headlights and taillights, two key distinguishing characteristics of the auto manufacturers’ brand;

Car numbers will be moved from the lights to the front and rear bumpers;

A single sponsor logo will be permitted on the roof under the number;

Team sponsor decals will be permitted to extend past the front edge of the b-post;

“Step and repeat” / background patterns will be permitted on the sides of the car;

Due to the slightly smaller car, the car number will be reduced by 10% and the contingency decals will be reduced to 26 square inches.

See larger color diagrams for the 2013 Ford Fusion and Toyota Camry on my 2013 car images page. The new Chevrolet will be unveiled on Thursday, Nov. 29, in Las Vegas during NASCAR Champion’s Week.(NASCAR)(11-17-2012)

Chevy’s Dominick and Wager Honored: Judy Kouba Dominick and Nancy Wager, who represent Chevrolet in NASCAR, IndyCar, sports car racing and other series, today were announced as winners of the 2012 Jim Chapman Award for excellence in motorsports public relations. The Chapman Award is considered by many in the industry as the highest honor in racing public relations. It is named in memory of Chapman, the legendary PR executive and innovator, who worked with Babe Ruth and was named Indy Car racing’s most influential man of the 1980s. Chapman died in 1996 at age 80. The announcement and presentation were made at Phoenix International Raceway by Michael Knight, chairman of the selection committee, and one of Chapman’s closest friends. The award is determined by a vote of media members, most of whom knew Chapman, and is authorized by the Chapman family. PR representatives from all forms of motorsports are eligible for consideration. Judy and Nancy are truly deserving of this honor because their professionalism is in the example and spirit of Jim Chapman’s, said Knight, the longtime journalist/publicist and award rights-holder.(from Michael Knight, Jim Chapman Award committee chairman and awards rights-holder.), see full press release on my Awards News page .(11-11-2012)

Johnson’s win is Chevy’s 700th: Jimmie Johnson’s win of the AAA Texas 500 at Texas Motor Speedway in his #48 Lowe’s Chevy scored the 700th all-time victory for Chevy in NASCAR Sprint Cup Series competition. This unprecedented win secured an important milestone for Chevy as the most successful manufacturer in NASCAR history. In addition to reaching this 700th win for the brand, Johnson brought the Chevy Impala to Victory Lane for the 151st time in the nameplate’s history. Chevrolet’s rich heritage in NASCAR competition began when Fonty Flock took the checkered on March 26, 1955 at Columbia Raceway in Columbia, South Carolina in his ’55 Chevy. Fifty-seven years later the ‘Bowtie Brand’ has continued to set the mark.(Chevy PR)(11-5-2012)

Chevy Clinches NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Manufacturers’ Championship: #48-Jimmie Johnson’s victory in the TUMS Fast Relief 500 at Martinsville Speedway clinched the 2012 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Manufacturers’ Championship for Chevrolet. It is the 10th consecutive year, and the 36th time overall that the Bowtie Brand has captured the prestigious title in NASCAR’s top series. In the 33 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series races run to-date in 2012, Chevy drivers have captured 12 victories. Chevy won its first Manufacturers’ Cup in 1958, and now with the 2012 Cup secured, Chevy has reached an unprecedented 36th title.(Chevy PR) See more info and complete standings on the Manufacturers Championship page .(10-29-2012)

Chevy to debut 2013 car at end of November: So far, every 2013 Chevy SS NASCAR Sprint Cup car that’s shown up for testing has looked like something from a Rorschach test or maybe a psychedelic experiment from the 1960s gone horribly wrong, but that’s about to change. Up until now, Chevy has insisted that the SS always run in a bizarre black-and-white wrap to conceal its true appearance. Finally, on Nov. 29 at the Wynn Las Vegas, Chevy will show the SS off in real race trim, minus the headache-inducing graphics. The street version of the SS will be based on Australian Holden VE Commodore, a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive sedan. The SS also bears a close resemblance to the late, lamented Pontiac G8, another Holden-based sedan. GM will be the last of the four automakers currently in NASCAR to formally unveil its 2013 car.(SPEED )see images of the Chevy test car and other 2013 models on the 2013 Manufacturers News and Images page .(10-19-2012)

Chevy close to manufacturers championship: Chevy can mathematically clinch its 10th consecutive NSCS Manufacturers’ Championship (and 36th overall) on Sunday in Kansas. If Chevy leads the manufacturer standings by 25 points leaving the race, it will clinch. Chevy currently holds a 24-point lead over Toyota. Finishing ahead of Toyota will guarantee the title.(NASCAR)(10-17-2012)

Changes coming to roll cages in 2013: NASCAR has issued technical bulletins in both the Sprint Cup and Nationwide series that address a safety enhancement to the driver’s roll cage and will take effect beginning in January 2013. The cars in both series will feature an additional forward roof bar and a center roof support bar that will intersect near the front center of the roll cage. This addition comes following extensive testing at the NASCAR Research since drivers will be driving cars with plastic-molded bodies, with much different center-of-gravity than the real race cars will have. Detroit, and that whole 2013 project, is way behind, one top crew chief says. So at those tests, we’ll all be running just ‘show cars’

The test schedule for the 2013 cars:

— Talladega SuperSpeedway will host a big 2013 car test Oct. 3rd, the day before that track opens for the Talladega 500 chase race. That will be a good look at what to expect in next season’s Daytona 500 (Feb. 24th). Tires are not expected to be an issue at either Talladega or Daytona with the new 2013s.

— Texas Motor Speedway will have a big two-day test Oct. 9th and 10th, which will be a key test for the sport’s nine mid-sized tracks, a test of both tires and aerodynamics.

— Phoenix International Raceway will have a big two-day test Oct. 24th and 25th, another test of both tires and aero.

— And there will be a major tire design test at Charlotte Motor Speedway Nov. 6th and 7th. Goodyear will be testing ‘fundamentals’ at Charlotte, in a wide-ranging session.(MikeMulhern.net )(9-9-2012)

Chevrolet Donates $6200 to American Cancer Society: Thirty-one caution laps in Sunday night’s NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Advocare 500 at Atlanta Motor Speedway netted a donation of $6,200 to the American Cancer Society on behalf of Chevrolet. Chevy pledged to make a donation to the American Cancer Society in the amount of $200 for every caution lap that the specially themed ‘Making Strides Against Breast Cancer’ pink Camaro SS paced the field during Sunday night’s race at AMS. Six caution flags produced the 31 laps during the 327-lap event on September 2, 2012.(Team Chevy)(9-5-2012)

Chevy to donate $200 per caution lap during AdvoCare 500: This weekend at Atlanta Motor Speedway, Chevrolet Racing will begin the brand’s fight against breast cancer as Chevrolet gears up to support the American Cancer Society’s Making Strides Against Breast Cancer initiative. On Sunday, Chevy will donate $200 for every caution lap run during the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series AdvoCare 500, paced by the pink Camaro SS featuring the Making Strides Against Breast Cancer logo. In 2011, 64 caution laps at Atlanta generated $12,800 for the American Cancer Society. October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. In September, Chevrolet will announce additional brand, dealer, employee and consumer activities in support of the American Cancer Society and Making Strikes Against Breast Cancer (Team Chevy), see an image of the pace car on the 2012 Sprint Cup Series pace car page .(9-1-2012)

NASCAR schedules tests for 2013 cars — fans can watch: NASCAR Sprint Cup teams will have the 2013 model for an Aug. 7-8 test at Martinsville Speedway that is aimed at rules tweaks to make the cars lighter and help Goodyear develop tires with more grip to improve racing. The 2013 car also will be tested Oct. 4 at Talladega Superspeedway, Oct. 9-10 at Texas Motor Speedway and Oct. 18 at Kansas Speedway. Dodge is taking part in the tests. The manufacturer hasn’t announced any replacements for Penske Racing, which will join Ford next year.(USA Today )(8-1-2012)

UPDATE: Martinsville Speedway’s grandstands will be open to fans free-of-charge for an August 7 and 8 NASCAR Sprint Cup Goodyear tire test at the historic half-mile oval. The test will feature the new 2013 Sprint Cup cars. The test session will run from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. each day, with an hour break at noon. Gates will open at 8 a.m. each of the two days and will remain open until 5 p.m. Restrooms will be open both days, but concession stands will not be operating. Fans may bring refreshments into the grandstands.(Martinsville Speedway )(8-4/7-2012)

UPDATE 2: drivers testing at Martinsville include Jimmie Johnson and Kevin Harvick for Chevy; Martin Truex Jr, for Toyota; and Carl Edwards for Ford. With two cars from each manufacturer.(8-7-2012)

OEM meet targets for 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Race Car: Based upon the final aerodynamic test results from July 18, NASCAR has announced that all four of its Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) have met the necessary targets for the 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race car. This represents another step forward in the new car process and means manufacturers can begin making parts and pieces for the new models. The 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series car is the result of more than two years of collaborative efforts between the manufacturers and NASCAR. With goals of enhancing product relevance, featuring race cars that more closely resemble their respective manufacturer models on the showroom floor, and building upon the highly competitive racing the series features, the roll out of the new car is highly anticipated by NASCAR fans.

The four new models – Chevrolet’s SS, Dodge’s Charger, Ford’s Fusion and Toyota’s Camry – will make their race debuts next February at Daytona International Speedway, with the first championship points event being the 55th running of the Daytona 500 on Feb. 24, 2013.

“We commend the manufacturers and our team at the R” said Robin Pemberton, NASCAR vice president of competition. “With all the designs and surface areas of the car now approved, manufacturers can now move forward with building the components needed to outfit their cars. The wind tunnel testing we’ve had with the manufacturers over the past several months has given us the timely and necessary data we needed to come to this confirmation. We believe the new car is going to be a milestone opportunity for our sport, one that our fans will embrace.”(NASCAR)(7-30-2012)

Chevy will race the Camaro in Nationwide in 2013: Chevrolet will have a new entry in the NASCAR Nationwide Series in 2013: Camaro, the top- selling sports car in America, will make its series debut next February at Daytona International Speedway. Chevrolet is proud to bring the Camaro to the NASCAR Nationwide Series in 2013, said Jim Campbell, vice president, Chevrolet Performance Vehicles and Motorsports. The Camaro Nationwide race car incorporates many of the distinctive styling elements of the production Camaro, including the unique power-bulge hood and deep recessed grille. In addition, the design incorporates the distinctive halo light rings and dual-port grille appearances, and the gold bowtie. Camaro, which led its segment in sales in 2010 and 2011 and currently leads in 2012, will continue the proud heritage of Chevrolet performance vehicles in one of America’s most prestigious racing series. Chevrolet has more wins, more manufacturers’ championships and more driver’s championships than any other manufacturer competing in the Nationwide Series. Our team of Chevrolet designers and aerodynamic engineers did a fantastic job capturing the great looks and styling cues of the production Camaro, while providing our NASCAR Nationwide teams with a highly competitive aero platform, said Pat Suhy, manager, Chevrolet Racing Oval Track Group. For the remainder of 2012, our engineers will be busy working with our Chevy teams on wind tunnel and on-track testing to fine-tune the car in preparation for next year. It will be great to see Camaro compete on the track against its showroom competition starting with the 2013 season opener at Daytona.(Chevy PR), see an iamge of the car on the 2013 Chevy paint schemes page .(7-26-2012)

NASCAR to test new 2013 cars: NASCAR is closing in on approving the 2013 Sprint Cup cars. The sanctioning body could sign off on the new models as early as next week. NASCAR has a two-day wind tunnel test scheduled at AeroDyn in Mooresville, N.C. for July 2 and 3. All four manufacturers will put their body panels over a uniform chassis provided by NASCAR. Each of the manufacturers — Chevy, Ford, Dodge and Toyota — will be expected to hit the established target numbers for drag and downforce with their cars. Hopefully, when we go there we’ll be able to complete the (development) process and then the manufacturers can start building parts and teams can start building cars for 2013, said NASCAR template manager Billy Berkheimer. Pat Suhy, General Motors Racing NASCAR group manager, says the tooling process for the sheet metal will take about six weeks to complete. Teams are already working on the green area of the car or the area over the cockpit. Suhy added that the new cars will all participate in an upcoming Goodyear tire test in August. Going forward, only the new cars will be used during testing.(Fox Sports )(6-26-2012)

Chevy not to reveal race car until later in the year: While Ford unveiled the Fusion in January — and its prototype actually made laps at Charlotte Motor Speedway — and Dodge had its coming-out party for the Charger in Las Vegas, it could be awhile before the public sees the final Chevrolet reveal, said Jim Campbell, the company’s US vice president, performance vehicles and motorsports. We’re determining that right now, but it will be a number of months yet before we reveal the car, Campbell said. It will be much, much later this year. On Thursday, Chevrolet announced that its new Cup car will be branded under the Chevrolet SS nameplate and that a limited production version will be available in showrooms at the end of next year. The manufacturer also released a photo of the Cup prototype.(FoxSports )(5-20-2012)

Holden to export of the Commodore to U.S. as Chevy SS UPDATE to NASCAR — image: Holden will announce tomorrow an export program for the Commodore. which will see the Adelaide [Australia] made car become a race and showroom star in the United States. Though sales of the Elizabeth-produced sedan continue to slide in Australia, a Commodore V8 will be exported to America where it will be sold with the Chevy SS Performance badge. In that guise, it would also star for the heartland brand in the NASCAR stock car racing series, which runs second only to Formula One in global popularity. Holden has been testing left-hand drive cars on public roads in Victoria in recent weeks and running it head-to-head with one of its strongest potential rivals, the Dodge Charger, as it finalises its end of the important new deal. Motorsport sources in the USA hint that an announcement of the Chevy SS program is imminent, including the Holden connection. The coming VF Commodore as the donor car for the program ticks the boxes for American muscle car fans, and NASCAR stock car racing as well, thanks to its V8 engine, large body and rear-wheel drive. Former GM Holden president Mark Reuss, now the head of GM operations in the US and a known fan and supporter of the Commodore, dodged Carsguide’s questions on a link between the SS program and the Commodore. Holden chairman Mike Devereux also refused to comment on the strengthening rumours in the US, which were triggered by the announcement. Full-scale testing of the racer is expected to begin soon, and the bodywork expected to be revealed at the same time.( )(5-16-2012)

UPDATE: Holden has announced a new export program, confirming that Commodore will return to North America in late 2013 as the new Chevrolet SS performance sedan. The limited production derivative of the yet to be launched VF Commodore will arrive in North American showrooms late next year. It will be the first time in 17 years that Chevrolet will offer a rear-wheel-drive sedan for sale in the US. The SS will also become Chevrolet’s next NASCAR Sprint Cup racecar debuting next year in its race configuration at the world renowned Daytona 500. Based on the much anticipated Australian-built car, the Chevrolet SS will benefit from significant technology advances including innovations in light weighting and fuel efficiency. Mark Reuss, GM President of North America said as a passionate race fan and performance enthusiast he was thrilled with today’s announcement. “I am delighted to say that Chevrolet will deliver a true rear-wheel-drive NASCAR racecar in the SS that very closely links the performance sedan that will be available for sale,” Reuss said. “The Chevrolet SS is a great example of how GM is able to leverage its global product portfolio to deliver a unique performance experience that extends well beyond the track and I am personally looking forward to driving it.”(Holden/General Motors )

AND Chevrolet announced the return of a V-8 powered, rear-wheel-drive performance sedan to the U.S. lineup, the Chevrolet SS. The SS will also be Chevrolet’s next NASCAR Sprint Cup racecar and will debut in its race configuration at the 2013 Daytona 500. The limited production version of the Chevrolet SS will be a 2014 model and will arrive in dealer showrooms in late 2013. It is the first time in 17 years that Chevrolet will offer a rear-wheel-drive sedan for sale in the United States.(Team Chevy PR)(5-17-2012)

Will Chevy’s new car be the SS? From Autoblog: Count us eager to get behind the wheel of whatever a 2014 Chevrolet SS Performance turns out to be. Hopefully the appearance of [a] reference on the OnStar website is more than just a digital placeholder. Chevy SS rumors have been swirling lately, with General Motors registering the SS trademark earlier this month, just days after … spy shooters caught what looked like a hotted-up Impala. Then there’s the NASCAR situation: Chevrolet has said its new entry in the racing series will be both a new vehicle and a new nameplate. We’re guessing that car isn’t going to be the Spark. So this new OnStar leak, if it is such a thing, would point to the Chevy SS being a separate model. If we are reading our tea leaves correctly, the model will be derived from the rear-drive Holden Commodore (the same Zeta architecture that underpins Chevrolet’s law-enforcement-only Caprice PPV), while the brand’s front-drive Impala will get a new, sportier variant. We’d also assume that the long-wheelbase version of the Commodore used for the Caprice cop car would donate its top-level powertrain, the 355-horsepower, 6.0-liter V8.(Autoblog )(4-25-2012)

Could the Commodore be the new Chevy model in 2013? The blogosphere has gone into overdrive with speculation that Holden’s Commodore may race in the 2013 US-based NASCAR racing series [Holden is one of only seven fully-integrated global General Motors operations that designs, builds and sells vehicles for Australia and the world.]. Rumours are flying on social media sites and web forums following a news release from Chevrolet in the US that it would drop its Impala mid-size sedan in favour of a new car based on a new nameplate to the brand’s lineup. General Motors enthusiast blog GM Inside News says it has received new information suggesting the Commodore is returning to the US, both as a racer and as a production model. The latest information we’ve gotten suggests Chevrolet will bring the Commodore back to North America as a high-performance Chevrolet sedan, the site claims. The car will be very low volume and likely V8 only. Holden spokeswoman Kate Lonsdale was quick to pour water on the rumours, telling Drive that the reports are purely speculative. It’s been speculated widely that the Commodore will return to the US, she says. It’s all based on a Chevrolet announcement, but we have nothing to confirm at this stage.(Sydney Morning Herald )(3-25-2012)

Chevy to replace Impala in 2013 with another Chevy brand: Chevrolet is developing a new car with a new name for its 2013 NASCAR entry, replacing the Impala used by Team Chevy, and plans to eventually market and sell the new model to consumers. The dealership and racing versions of the car will be unveiled this year, after the New York auto show in April, spokesman Monte Doran said. The new car will use a nameplate not currently in Chevy’s lineup. Neither the car nor its name will be a derivative of an existing one, such as the new Malibu or the upcoming redesigned Impala, Doran said. General Motors wouldn’t reveal details. “We are keeping the wraps on the new car for now and will continue to prepare for next season by testing camouflaged vehicles,” Jim Campbell, vice president of Chevrolet performance vehicles and motorsports, said in a statement. “We know that Chevrolet fans are eager to see the new race car, and we hope that the prospect of being able to own one just like it will make the wait a little more bearable.”

The new car may be a version of the Chevy Caprice currently imported from Australia for U.S. police forces. Inside GM, a plan to develop a Chevy performance sedan like the Caprice for consumers was on-and-off in recent years because of concerns that it wasn’t a high-profit vehicle, people familiar with the situation said. Australia’s Holden brand currently offers consumers a variation on the U.S. Caprice. Along with developing the new performance sedan, GM is redesigning the current Impala, which will be built at the Detroit-Hamtramck plant and is expected to hit showrooms by spring 2013. The automaker is also rolling out a redesigned Malibu.(Detroit Free Press. more at MotorTrend and a past post at AutoWeek )(3-13-2013)

2013 cars to be tested at Homestead: UPDATES: All four 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series car models are scheduled to be tested at Homestead-Miami Speedway February 1st…in a test that will apparently be closed. That may be the first time crewmen get to see all four models. Why is NASCAR, and its big marketing operation, taking such seemingly a low-keyed approach? Apparently because the sanctioning body has not yet ‘aero-matched’ the four models in the wind tunnel. Ford is billing its new model as a Fusion (not Mustang, as once planned), and when the car maker officially unveiled its 2013 street version, it was then free to take the wraps off the NASCAR version – which is decidedly different from the current Sprint Cup model, the still controversial and not greatly liked by many car-of-tomorrow. Chevrolet, for example, still hasn’t officially named its model for its 2013 NASCAR Cup racer.(MikeMulhern.net )(1-25-2012)

UPDATE: #5-Kasey Kahne tweeted that he will be participating in the test. No other drivers have been announced.(2-1-2012)

UPDATE 2: #18-Kyle Busch (Toyota), #17-Matt Kenseth (Ford), and Sam Hornish, Jr. (Dodge) are also participating.(PRN Garage Pass )(2-1-2012)

2013 cars to be tested at Homestead: All four 2013 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series car models are scheduled to be tested at Homestead-Miami Speedway February 1st…in a test that will apparently be closed. That may be the first time crewmen get to see all four models. Why is NASCAR, and its big marketing operation, taking such seemingly a low-keyed approach? Apparently because the sanctioning body has not yet ‘aero-matched’ the four models in the wind tunnel. Ford is billing its new model as a Fusion (not Mustang, as once planned), and when the car maker officially unveiled its 2013 street version, it was then free to take the wraps off the NASCAR version – which is decidedly different from the current Sprint Cup model, the still controversial and not greatly liked by many car-of-tomorrow. Chevrolet, for example, still hasn’t officially named its model for its 2013 NASCAR Cup racer.(MikeMulhern.net )(1-25-2012)

2011 News

Chevy Teams Add Pink Numbers and Bowties for Dover Race: Several Chevy teams will showcase pink numbers and Chevy Bowties in their paint schemes during this weekend’s NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Dover International Speedway in support of Chevrolet’s ongoing efforts to help the American Cancer Society in raising awareness during National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. The participating teams will have pink car numbers on the roof and doors, pink Chevrolet Bowtie on the hood and rear bumper, and pink Impala nameplate on the front bumper.

“October is National Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and Chevrolet is extremely proud to help support the American Cancer Society’s efforts to save lives and create a world with less cancer and more birthdays,” said Jeff Chew, Chevy Racing Marketing Manager. “Several Team Chevy Impalas are carrying the pink awareness message, which will be seen by countless race fans, and hopefully will help to serve as a reminder that we can all do our part in helping in the fight against cancer.” Chevrolet dealers across the country will be working in their communities to support the fight against breast cancer through the Making Strides Against Breast Cancer program .

In September, Chevrolet donated $29,800 to the American Cancer Society as a result of a combined 149 caution laps during the NASCAR Sprint Cup races at Atlanta Motor Speedway and Richmond International Raceway. Chevrolet had pledged to donate $200 for each caution lap that a specially-themed “Making Strides Against Breast Cancer” pink 2011 Camaro SS pace car led the field during those two races.(Team Chevy), see some of the cars are posted: #14. #27. #29. #31. #42 000 to American Cancer Society: Eighty-five caution laps in Saturday night’s NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Wonderful Pistachios 400 at Richmond International Raceway means a donation of $17,000 to the American Cancer Society, courtesy of Chevrolet. Chevy pledged to make a donation to the American Cancer Society in the amount of $200 for each caution lap that the specially-themed “Making Strides Against Breast Cancer” pink Camaro SS pace car leads the field during Saturday night’s race at RIR. “We are very proud to partner with the American Cancer Society, and carry the ACS logo on the pace car,” said Jeff Chew, Chevy Racing Marketing Manager. “Hopefully, the “Making Strides Against Breast Cancer” pink Camaro SS helped serve to remind race fans of all of the upcoming events in October, which is Breast Cancer Awareness Month, and that we all can do our part in helping in the fight against cancer.” A track record-tying 15 cautions produced the 85 laps. Chevrolet has donated a total $29,800 to the American Cancer Society in the last two weeks. Chevy also provided a specially-themed pink Camaro SS pace car last week at Atlanta. That race produced 64 caution laps that resulted in a donation of $12,800 from Chevrolet to ACS.(Team Chevy)(9-11-2011)

Chevrolet Donates $12,800 to American Cancer Society: Sixty-four caution laps in Tuesday’s rain-postponed AdvoCare 500 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Atlanta Motor Speedway means a donation of $12,800 to the American Cancer Society. courtesy of Chevrolet. Chevrolet pledged to make a donation to the American Cancer Society in the amount of $200 for each caution lap that a specially-themed pink Camaro SS pace car ran in Tuesday’s NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Atlanta Motor Speedway. We’re very proud to partner with the American Cancer Society, and carry the ACS logo on the pace car, which hopefully helps to remind race fans of the upcoming events during October, which is Breast Cancer Awareness Month; and that we all can do our part in helping in the fight against cancer, said Jeff Chew, Chevy Racing Marketing Manager. Chevrolet will also provide a specially-themed pink Camaro SS pace car for next week’s event and again make a donation to the American Cancer Society in the amount of $200 for each caution lap that the pace car runs in the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series race at Richmond International Raceway.(Team Chevy)(9-7-2011)

UPDATE: Tony Stewart may believe everyone is bringing a knife to a gun fight right now when it comes to competing with Ford engines, but that is not necessarily the view of Chevy officials. I have seen the (chassis) dyno numbers and we are pleased with them, said Alba Colon, the GM Racing NASCAR Sprint Cup series program manager. We have seen the numbers. We have discussed the numbers with our teams. I am pleased so far; we just have to keep working on it.(Charlotte Observer )(6-5-2011)

NASCAR meets with manufacturers: NASCAR held a town hall style meeting with its manufacturers — Chevy, Dodge, Ford and Toyota — in Detroit on Tuesday. The five-hour summit, which was described by both sides as very productive with an open exchange, is expected to be the first of many where marketing and competition ideas are shared between the sanctioning body and its automotive partners. NASCAR Vice President of Racing Operations Steve O’Donnell and Vice President of Competition Robin Pemberton offered a brief update on the 2013 Sprint Cup car models and the decision behind restructuring points. In addition, computer-aided design photos of one of the 2013 cars were compared to the 2012 street car for the same manufacturer, highlighting an effort to return to the showroom influence. But the focus was geared more toward the current state of the sport and building NASCAR through its new integrated marketing and communications department.(Fox Sports )(5-5-2011)

NASCAR, manufacturers schedule meeting: NASCAR officials and representatives of the four participating manufacturers plan to meet next week in Detroit. It’s all informal, of course. NASCAR President Mike Helton likened the meeting with representatives from Dodge, Ford, General Motors and Toyota to the many town hall sessions with teams and drivers over the last few years. The idea was for us to be better communicators with the stakeholders — the broadcast partners, the tracks, the teams, the drivers, Helton said.(Associated Press )(5-1-2011)

2013 Sprint Cup designs moving forward: Development of the proposed new 2013 Sprint Cup Series body styles is progressing on schedule, as the sanctioning body works hand-in-hand with automakers to increase brand identity on the race track. Multiple sources say Chevy, Ford, Dodge and Toyota are expected to submit their final roof and rear deck lid designs in the near future, allowing NASCAR to move forward with the process of creating a unique body for each brand, while maintaining a similar aerodynamic footprint. The current Sprint Cup Series bodies are virtually identical, with the exception of a vinyl graphics package applied to the headlight, grille and rear taillight areas of each car. Beginning in 2013, however, the sanctioning body hopes to have each model be easily identifiable from the front, rear and sides. In an effort to allow manufacturers more design leeway, NASCAR will reportedly cease to distinguish between steel and lexan, allowing manufacturers to contour their NASCAR windshields and side windows identically to those found on their stock, production models. The change would allow teams to do away with the bulky, steel B-pillars required under current NASCAR rules, replacing them with thin support strips anchored to larger, lexan side windows. The move will greatly enhance brand identity, something automakers have lobbied hard for in recent years. It could also remove the main stumbling block cited by General Motors executives for not keeping their popular Chevy Camaro out of NASCAR competition. GM has staunchly refused to modify what it calls the iconic body line of the Camaro for NASCAR competition. But with new rules in place for the 2013 season, there is a chance the Detroit automaker could reconsider that decision.(Sirius Speedway )(4-6-2011)

AND: One choice might be the next-generation Chevy Malibu, which will be redesigned for the 2013 model year, at least in production-car versions. The next-generation Impala won’t debut until 2014.(SPEED )(2-28-2011)

2010 News

Chevy says IndyCar project won’t impact NASCAR program: Chevrolet announced earlier this month that it would get back into the IndyCar Series, supplying engines to a handful of teams beginning in 2012. That move, company executives say, will not impact its NASCAR program, which includes Hendrick Motorsports, Richard Childress Racing, Stewart-Haas Racing and Earnhardt Ganassi Racing. Although those who oversee Chevrolet’s motorsports programs will have the IndyCar program as an additional part of their responsibilities, the money and personnel to run the program will not be taken from its NASCAR budget. “Obviously we are going to add people to support the IndyCar Series,” said Chevrolet U.S. Vice President of Performance Vehicles and Motorsports Jim Campbell. “It does not affect us for NASCAR.” Chevrolet, like the other NASCAR manufacturers, is working on the design for the second version of the NASCAR new car targeted for 2013. That design is expected to give manufacturers more brand identity to go along with the safety features and common template aspect of the original design rolled out in 2007. “As we go forward with the 2013 Cup car, we are working to push that envelope even further,” GM Racing Director Mark Kent said. “Each of the manufacturers wants more identity into the car. NASCAR, based one what they learned for 2011, they’re a lot more open to helping us work collaboratively for 2013 to meet all of our objectives. As for what brand of Chevrolet it will use – it currently markets the Impala in NASCAR – remains to be seen.(in part from SceneDaily )(12-1-2010)

Why no Chevy Camaro in NASCAR? It’s been a good week for General Motors, whose stock returned to Wall Street on Thursday via a highly-anticipated initial public offering (IPO). And at the close of business Sunday at Homestead-Miami Speedway, Team Chevy was celebrating its 27th NASCAR driver’s championship courtesy of Jimmie Johnson’s record-setting fifth consecutive Sprint Cup Series title. Terry Dolan, manager of Chevrolet Racing, recently addressed a variety of topics during an interview at Texas Motor Speedway in Fort Worth.

Q. With the change in Nationwide Series bodies fulltime in 2011 to the Ford Mustang and Dodge Challenger, why isn’t Chevrolet going with the Camaro?

TD. “As we launched Camaro, we brought back an iconic production car to our portfolio. Part of what makes Camaro is the styling and the look of that vehicle. When we introduced it at the (various) auto shows, consumers originally were able to look at the brand and say that it replicates what they know Camaro to be. As we look at NASCAR, we wanted to maintain the integrity of the iconic brand and the brands that we race with. We just didn’t feel we could accomplish that vision by adapting the car to the common template format that we have here in this sport. We’ll always look in the future and see what opportunities exist, but within today’s boundaries, it just didn’t feel like it was the right business decision for us to make.”

Q. That said, both Mustang and Challenger represent reincarnations of the Muscle Car Wars, going back to the popular SCCA Trans-Am Series of the late 1960s. Seems Camaro is missing an opportunity for exposure before the biggest domestic audience.

TD. “But our core business is manufacturing iconic cars and trucks that connect to the consumer bases. We use racing as a way to define the vehicles from a public persona standpoint. We felt it was critical that we didn’t disturb the iconic design of a key volume car for us by changing it to a different style format for what we put on the racetrack. So, longer-term, if we can get to the point where we can make the cars look more similar to the showroom counterparts, then there’s probably room for Camaro going forward. Our short-term vision now is to stay with Impala, because it represents the car that’s on the track and the car that’s in the showroom. Long-term, we want to look at tightening that up. If you look at our program with our Corvette Racing and the American Le Mans Series, we’re very proud of the continuity and the connectivity between the ZR1, the showroom counterpart, and the C6-R (for racing), which looks like that vehicle when it’s on the racetrack.”

Q. How radical of a difference would the Nationwide Camaro be from the showroom version? What would be the key design turnoff?

TD. “Well, part of the iconic design of that car is the overall lines of the roof of the greenhouse and the sale-panel area. And for all the right reasons, as NASCAR has evolved the Car of Tomorrow to provide a safer zone for the driver, trying to adapt our smaller-roof coupe car to the larger roof sedan design just didn’t keep the integrity of the exterior design of the vehicle. We looked at it and we modeled it and we stepped back and we evaluated it, and felt for now it wasn’t the right decision for us to make.”

Q. How much heat have you caught for not running Camaro in the Nationwide Series, other than media criticism?

TD. “Honestly, the questions we receive are from the media, and we’ve received our fair share of questions on that. We’re not receiving any strong push-back publicly from the consumers. The teams are happy running the cars we have, as long as we have a competitive entry that can win races and championships.”

(in part from RacinToday. see full Q GM will announce its return to the IndyCar Series with the Chevrolet brand spearheading the challenge. This will be announced at a press conference in the Museum at the Indianapolis Motor Speedway. The engine will be a pure race unit of 134 CID (2.2L) V6, with twin turbos, 4 cams, 4 valves per cylinder. GM will confirm that Ilmor Engineering will be their partner in this program which begins with the new car / engine rules package for 2012. Ilmor’s US engine shop is in Plymouth MI close to all the GM engineering facilities. Penske Racing will be one of the teams to commit to using Chevrolet engines for 2012. It was Penske who gave Chevrolet their last Indy 500 win in 2002 using an Ilmor built engine. Chevrolet and Honda will compete for teams in 2011 and then race each other on track in 2012.(11-12-2010)

UPDATE 2: Chevrolet will compete in the 2012 IZOD IndyCar Series with a new twin-turbocharged, direct-injected V-6 racing engine powered by renewable E85 ethanol fuel. The new purpose-built Chevy IndyCar engine will be developed jointly by General Motors and Ilmor Engineering. Team Penske is the first IndyCar team to commit to Chevrolet power in 2012. The Chevrolet IndyCar engine will be available to all entrants in accordance with the series’ regulations.(Team Chevy )(11-12-2010)

GM to drop Goodwrench brand in the United States: General Motors Co. is dropping the GM Goodwrench car mechanic brand in the United States as the company moves to redirect the marketing emphasis around its four core vehicle brands, the company announced. The long-standing Goodwrench brand—used by GM dealers to promote vehicle repair and maintenance services—will be replaced by Chevrolet Certified Service, Cadillac Certified Service, Buick Certified Service and GMC Certified Service, GM said in a statement released Monday evening. GM marketing chief Joel Ewanick wants the vehicle brands, not corporate, to be the stars of GM, and that includes service and repairs, said one source familiar with the new campaign. The phase-out is effective Feb. 1 in the United States, the statement said. The brand will remain in Canada where it still holds some cachet, the source said. The brand, launched as Mr. Goodwrench in 1974, was once a household name when GM was a much bigger automaker. The name, which GM changed from Mr. Goodwrench to Goodwrench Service Plus in the ’90s, also was a major sponsor of NASCAR racing—including Dale Earnhardt Sr.’s #3 car—for several years until it dropped its involvement in 2007. Goodwrench was promoted to customers as the assurance that trained technicians would service and repair any GM vehicle brought to a GM dealership using GM factory-made replacement parts. But in recent years, many of GM’s 4,500 dealers failed to use the Goodwrench signs at their stores or put the logo in advertising, the source said.(AutoWeek )(11-9-2010)

NASCAR could run ‘pony cars’ in Sprint Cup: Next year will bring a host of important changes to the Sprint Cup Series, including a significantly revised schedule, new front ends for the race cars, the introduction of Sunoco Green E15 ethanol fuel and, at some point, fuel injection. But what lies further beyond next year is even more intriguing. With the next-generation Sprint Cup cars tentatively scheduled to roll out in 2013, there’s a strong chance that Ford will move its Mustang up from the NASCAR Nationwide Series and the possibility that Chevrolet could dump its four-door Impala Sedan for the hot-selling Camaro. And a Mustang-Camaro rivalry could be just the thing to rev up NASCAR fan interest anew. Today, the automakers and NASCAR are working closer than ever in trying to bring the audiences back to the tracks and the television sets. Brand identity, something the automakers felt was largely lost when the current Sprint Cup car was introduced in 2007, is a hot-button issue these days. And it’s one reason NASCAR has gone back to traditional blade spoilers on the Cup cars and next year will eliminate ungainly cow-catcher front splitters in favor of a more aesthetically pleasing design. The automakers want even more brand identity, because they are trying to recapture the old “win on Sunday, sell on Monday” marketing focus that was predominant in prior generations. In the NASCAR Nationwide Series, the newly introduced Ford Mustang and Dodge Challenger, which were raced four times this season and will be raced full-time next year, already have proven hugely popular.

“The dealers are really excited about the Challenger running in NASCAR because it’s something that (Dodge) sells,” said NASCAR team owner Roger Penske, who also owns more than 300 automobile dealerships in 19 states. “These are high gross margin vehicles that they love to sell. When you start to look at Camaro and Mustang and Challenger, these are icons in the business.”

Jamie Allison, director, Ford North American Motorsports, said point blank that the automaker wants to move the Mustang up to the Sprint Cup level, with one caveat: It has to look more like the production Mustang than the current Nationwide car does. “We like to see our iconic brand in all forms of motorsports,” Allison said of the Mustang. “. Any further consideration of the Mustang would have to be complemented and linked to more brand identity to the car that’s raced. It can’t just be the current car of tomorrow. It has to be a progression beyond what’s in Nationwide.”

Chevrolet’s racing boss also wants more brand identity. “Chevrolet, in any series that we race in, we’re looking for three things,” said Jim Campbell, Chevrolet’s general manager and the man who oversees the automaker’s NASCAR operations. “First, we want to see technologies in the race cars that are applicable to what we do on the production side without driving a tremendous amount of cost. Secondly, we’re (wanting) race series to use biofuels, because that’s what we need to do going forward. Many of our (production) cars are ethanol-capable. And third, we want to see the cars that we race look like the cars that we sell, as close as we can.” Campbell would not specifically comment on whether Chevrolet will return the Camaro to the NASCAR ranks, as Ford has with the Mustang in the Nationwide Series. “That’s a ways off,” Campbell said. “So any speculation about what’s going to happen out there — I don’t really have a lot to say on that today. We’ll see what happens.” Campbell did make it clear however, that he wanted NASCAR Sprint Cup Chevrolets to look a lot more like production-model Chevrolets.(is part from SPEED )(10-19-2010)

Chevy wins 2011 Manufacturers’ Cup: #14-Tony Stewart’s win of the Pepsi Max 400 at Auto Club Speedway secured the 2010 NASCAR Sprint Cup Series Manufacturers’ Cup for Chevrolet for the 34th time since the inception of the award in 1950. Chevrolet won its first Manufacturers’ Cup honor in 1958; and this year’s win marks the eighth consecutive season that Team Chevy has captured the title (2003-’10). Chevrolet is very proud of everyone who helped in achieving this championship — drivers and crew members and team owners, engineers and development teams, and all of the hard-working professionals who support and contribute to what we do, said Jim Campbell, GM Vice President of Performance Vehicles and Motorsports. Every year this series gets more and more competitive, and that only helps make this championship even more satisfying.(Team Chevy), see my 2010 Manufacturers Stats page for more info and rules.(10-11-2010)

2009 News

Teams/tracks sue GM: Two teams and three tracks have filed claims against the former General Motors, which was restructured this summer during bankruptcy. Dale Earnhardt Inc. has filed a claim for $3.2 million based on a written contract DEI had with General Motors. JR Motorsports has filed a claim for $198,000 based on a sponsorship contract. Three tracks also have filed claims based on hospitality agreements. Daytona International Speedway seeks $651,018.75; Richmond International Raceway seeks $65,700 and Auto Club Speedway in Fontana, Calif. seeks $45,500 [all are owned by ISC](Roanoke Times )(11-26-2009)

Dodge and Chevy leaving NASCAR? not yet: The three major car racing circuits — Formula One, NASCAR, and Indy Car — have built a multibillion dollar business. Formula One revenue, including sponsorships and broadcast fees, is estimated at $3.9 billion a year, which is more per event than either the NFL or The Premier League of soccer clubs. Toyota has elected to pull out of Formula One because of cost considerations. The world’s largest car company has lost money for more than a year. Reuters estimates that Toyota has spent $300 million per year on its Formula One campaign. Honda (HMC) pulled its cars from the circuit earlier this year.

The Toyota retreat can be added to news that the Obama Administration has pressured Chevy and Dodge to pull out of the NASCAR racing series to save $250 million a year [the only thing ever reported on Obama pressuring Chevy/Dodge ended up being an April Fools joke]. The two companies have been pillars of NASCAR and there are no other auto firms with large enough budgets to replace them.(MSN’s Money Central blog by Top Stocks writer Douglas A. McIntyre, an editor at 24/7 Wall St. who from reading his stuff is not a big fan of the manuafactures in racing or much of a fact checker using an April Fools hoax in his post)

HOWEVER both GM/Chevy and Dodge reps have said over and over, that both Chevy and Dodge are committed to the sport, for at least 2010 anyway.(11-5-2009)

Chevy dropping SS version of Impala: Chevy is transitioning to Impala in both NASCAR Sprint Cup Series and Nationwide Series beginning in 2010 as a result of the SS version being phased out of production in mid-2009.(Chevy PR)(11-1-2009)

Childress Honoring Chevy’s Manufacturer’s Championship: A decal honoring Chevy’s 2009 Manufacturer’s Championship in NASCAR’s premier division will be affixed to all four Richard Childress Racing entries [#07, #29, #31, #33] for this weekend’s Sprint Cup Series race at Auto Club Speedway. Chevy earned its 33rd Manufacturer’s crown when Tony Stewart won last weekend’s Price Chopper 400 at Kansas Speedway, and continues to lead all other manufacturers in the sport with the most championships. The congratulatory decals are prominently displayed on all RCR-prepared Sprint Cup Series Chevrolet’s above the B post, directly behind the driver’s name.(RCR PR )(10-10-2009)

Chevy Boss Promises Continued Support: Chevrolet is in NASCAR to stay, according to Brent Dewar, the new head of General Motors’ Chevrolet division, who was at AMS on Saturday to assure his teams and drivers that he was solidly behind them. Although spending cuts have been made because of the automaker’s poor financial condition, Dewar said he hoped to maintain the current level of participation at least through 2010 and planned to keep his stable of teams and drivers at the current level. And he said he hoped to be able to spend more in 2011 and beyond when car sales and profits are expected to increase. “We’ve been in [racing] from the beginning, and we’re in it for the long haul,” Dewar said. He said that although dealer inventories are at all-time lows and potential buyers are dealing with credit challenges, he still believes in “race on Sunday, sell on Monday.” He also said his company still gets a return on its NASCAR investment, and that the Cup series returns far more for the dollars than the Nationwide and truck series.(Racin’ Today )(9-6-2009)

GM selling Saab: General Motors signed an agreement Tuesday to sell its Saab division to Koenigsegg Group AB, a consortium led by the small Swedish builder of million-dollar Koenigsegg supercars. The sale will conclude by the end of the year, when the group takes over 100 percent of the Saab company, which has been a perennial money loser for GM. The Detroit automaker purchased the Swedish company about two decades ago. Saab is one of the brands that GM is shedding as it emerges from bankruptcy. Deals are pending to sell Saturn to the Penske group and Hummer to a Chinese machinery company. Pontiac will be discontinued next year.(SPEEDtv: )(8-19-2009)

  • General Motors Cuts Sports Spending: In order to emerge from bankruptcy protection, General Motors had the legal right to reject contracts that it had previously signed. GM has now emerged from bankruptcy, but 54 sponsorship agreements it terminated as part of the bankruptcy were filed with the courts yesterday. Some NASCAR related cuts mentioned in the article:

    Track Agreements

    California Speedway Corp. (Fontana) -– 70 suite passes w/ pit row access, 35 VIP parking passes

    Daytona International Speedway –- 65 seats w/ 77 tickets, 11 parking passes

    Dover International Speedway –- 50 seats w/65 suite passes, 30 VIP

    Lowe’s Motor Speedway –- 66 suite tickets, 16 pit passes, 10 parking passes

    Richmond International Speedway –- 60 person suite, 30 pit passes, 15 parking passes

    Racing Team Sponsorship Agreements

    Jeff Burton, personal service agreement (RCR)

    Ryan Newman Motorsports

    Other Sponsorships Agreements

    IMG Worldwide (official car)(CNBC )(7-14-2009)

  • How much does GM pay to teams? While no one is saying how much General Motors is cutting its financial support from teams, at least one court document puts a price tag on it. Try $2,538,750. And that’s to one Cup team. A court document [click to view pdf] shows that GM was to have paid RCR Enterprises, LLC (i.e. Richard Childress Racing) that amount on June 15. Childress spoke Friday at Infineon Raceway about the GM situation. Asked if he received his June 15 payment from GM, Childress said: That’s kind of personal. I didn’t ask you if you got your paycheck this week.» If nothing else, that gives you a sense of some of the money that’s out there and involved in this sport. Childress would not reveal what kind of cutbacks GM is making with his team. Asked if he would have to lay anyone off, Childress said: I don’t know really what all is going to happen. We’re going to have to make cuts like everybody in the sport or in business. We don’t want to cut performance. For sure, we’re not going to cut performance. We’ll cut a lot of other things before that.»(Virginian-Pilot )(6-20-2009)
  • GM to cut back on Sprint Cup: General Motors will reduce its financial support in the Sprint Cup series, officials from several Chevrolet teams confirmed on Wednesday. Hendrick Motorsports, Stewart Haas Racing, Earnhardt Ganassi Racing and Richard Childress Racing officials said they have been asked to participate in cutbacks by the U.S. auto manufacturer that recently filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy. Officials did not say how large the cuts would be. We had very productive conversations this week with the folks at General Motors, and it’s clear they are committed to racing and committed to our organization, said Rick Hendrick, owner of Hendrick Motorsports in a statement. They’ve asked us for some help, and we’re going to give it to them. We’re proud to be a Chevy team, and we will do our part to support the new GM both on and off the racetrack.

    Tony Stewart, the co-owner of Stewart-Haas Racing and Sprint Cup point leader, echoed Hendrick’s sentiments. We have been, and will continue to be, strong supporters of GM and its Chevrolet brand, he said. These are tough times for our auto industry, and in light of what’s happening to them and how it affects all the people who make a living building and selling cars and trucks, the sacrifices we’ll have to make as a race team are pretty weak in comparison. We believe in the products GM has now and in the products they’re building for the future. We’re proud to carry the Chevy bowtie on the hoods of our racecars, and we support GM in this time of uncertainty because we know they’ll be an even stronger company in the years to come. Stewart said the cutbacks will force teams to review their budgets, but it will not impact our preparation for the track or the return on investment we provide for our partners. The cutbacks come a week after GM cut all support from its Nationwide Series and Truck Series teams.(ESPN )(6-18-2009)

  • GM cutting support in Nationwide according to a story that will appear in Friday’s edition of SportsBusiness Journal. According to SBJ’s Michael Smith, who wrote the story, the cost-cutting measures are likely to have the greatest affect on larger organizations, such as Kevin Harvick Inc. which fields teams in both series, and Rusty Wallace Inc. and JR Motorsports, which field teams in the Nationwide Series. As Smith points out, support from manufacturers typically comes in the forms of engines, parts and cash. In most cases, factory support goes to larger, more substantial organizations, while smaller teams receive little assistance, if any. Chevy’s (and GM’s) involvement in racing is a sound business decision that translates directly into the sale of cars and trucks, an unidentified GM spokesperson said in a statement provided to SBJ. It is essential, however, that we continue to look at every penny we spend as General Motors takes the necessary steps to become a leaner company with a significantly stronger balance sheet. While Chevy Racing is talking to its business partners about ways to reduce cost and maximize the return on investment, it is our policy to not talk about the details of business relationships with our partners.(Sporting News )(6-12-2009)

    UPDATE: General Motors is planning to cut back on its support of NASCAR teams in all of the sanctioning body’s professional series. Chevy spokesman Terry Rhadigan says GM, which is reorganizing through bankruptcy, is discussing what he described as incremental cutbacks in support. He says cuts will be made soon and that the discussions are indeed NASCAR-wide. Rhadigan would not say if one series would be affected more than others, nor would he say the size of the cuts or how much GM spends on NASCAR. The automaker, through its Chevy brand, provides cash and other support to teams including engines and parts.(Associated Press )(6-12-2009)

  • UPDATE: General Motors Corp. has struck a tentative deal to sell its Saturn brand to former race car driver and auto dealer Roger Penske. Penske, who owns the Penske Automotive Group dealership chain, told reporters on Friday that he plans to offer all 350 Saturn dealerships new franchise agreements. He says Saturn’s 13,000 employees will stay on with the company for at least the immediate future. He declined to name the price for the deal. Penske says GM will continue to produce Saturn vehicles, though he is in discussions with manufacturers worldwide about building the vehicles going forward.(AP/ESPN)(6-5-2009)

    UPDATE 2: Team owner Roger Penske has no plans to move Saturn into the Sprint Cup series, saying Sunday he plans to stick with Dodge for at least the remaining three years of his contract with the manufacturer. General Motors Corp. announced on Friday an agreement for Penske to purchase the Saturn brand. Penske said he would like to get Saturn involved in motorsports, perhaps at the Grand-Am level, but not NASCAR’s top series. We have three more years with Dodge, they have not let us down, the owner of Penske Motorsports said before the Sprint Cup race at Pocono Raceway. We see that continuing. They are current with all the obligations they have. I don’t expect anything different. Richard Petty, the co-owner of Richard Petty Motorsports, said last weekend at Dover that RMP’s cash flow from Dodge has ceased since Chrysler filed for bankruptcy. I don’t know what he means by cash [flow], Penske said. They paid the bills we submitted to them and they’re on time. I don’t know what he’s talking about. As for Saturn, Penske said the key was saving 13,000 jobs and keeping 350 retailers in business. He said the plan is to provide them with products that will make them stronger going forward. We’ll be sourcing products from General Motors for at least two years, he said. We will not be a manufacturer. We’ll be a distributor. Penske did say the Saturn Aura is tailor-made for NASCAR, but that any such plans would be 200 miles down the road.(ESPN )(6-7-2009)

  • General Motors to stay in auto racing: For now, bankruptcy won’t park General Motor Corp.’s long and successful involvement in auto racing. As the Detroit carmaker began retooling after filing for bankruptcy protection, a company spokesman said Monday he did not expect further cuts to GM Racing’s budget, which supports NASCAR, NHRA, ALMS and short-track racing activities around the country and adheres to the win on Sunday, sell on Monday mantra. Racing equals good ROI (return on investment), said Steve Janisse, group manager for Chevrolet Communications. There are no expected budget cuts right now.(Detroit Free Press )(6-2-2009)
  • General Motors files for bankruptcy: General Motors has filed for bankruptcy, becoming the country’s second automaker after Chrysler to go under in just over a month. GM president and CEO Fritz Henderson said in a statement issued by the company this morning that the nation’s largest automaker now has an opportunity to reinvent its business. Today marks a defining moment in the reinvention of GM as a leaner, more customer-focused, and more cost-competitive company that, above all, can quickly generate winning bottom line results, he said. The Obama administration has agreed to provide GM an additional $30.1 billion in federal assistance to support the company’s restructuring. The administration announced the funding on Sunday night, on the eve of a 60-day period that the Obama administration gave GM to come up with a successful viability plan. The administration said yesterday that it had accepted GM’s viability plan, which includes entering into Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. GM is expected to emerge as a new company in 60 to 90 days. Under GM’s restructuring plan, the U.S. government will receive $8.8 billion in debt and preferred stock in the new company and nearly 60% equity in return for its $30 billion in funding. In addition, the government will have the right to appoint initial directors to GM’s board except for two members, one to be appointed by the Canadian government and the other selected by the trustees of the United Auto Workers union retiree health care fund.(more at ABC News )(6-1-2009)
  • Hendrick responds to GM Announcement: Rick Hendrick, owner of Hendrick Motorsports and chairman of Hendrick Automotive Group, today responded to the announcement by General Motors that it will file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection: The products General Motors offers are the highest quality and most fuel efficient in its history, and I have an unwavering faith in the company’s leadership team and our government’s commitment to support this reorganization. After all of the efforts of the past several months, it’s unfortunate that bankruptcy has become the only option, but we at Hendrick Automotive Group and Hendrick Motorsports are certain that GM will emerge from this stronger and better equipped to compete than ever before. Hendrick Automotive Group can say with confidence that the customers of our 27 General Motors franchises can expect the same high level of care and service that our dealerships have always provided, and that the full range of warranties and parts will be available. From a racing perspective, our heritage is with General Motors. In 25 years together, Hendrick Motorsports has won eight Sprint Cup Series titles with Chevrolet, which has more NASCAR championships and wins than any other auto manufacturer. Since I was a kid, Chevy has represented the highest level of performance. I’ve never wanted to race anything else, and I have every confidence that we will continue to celebrate victories together for many more seasons to come. Speaking for the more than 6,000 teammates at Hendrick Automotive Group and Hendrick Motorsports, it has been a great privilege to be a small part of GM’s rich history, and we are looking forward to an even brighter future together.(HMS PR )(6-1-2009)
  • Hendrick doesn’t expect GM Bankruptcy to effect racing: Rick Hendrick met with members of the media at the conclusion of the race at Dover, on item discussed:

    CAN YOU DISCUSS GENERAL MOTORS AND WHAT IS EXPECTED TO COME DOWN TOMORROW, JUNE 1ST, AS YOU UNDERSTAND IT?

    “From what I’ve heard, and I don’t know a lot more than what you read in the media, but if they do file for Bankruptcy tomorrow, which all indications are that they will, it’s kind of a planned get-in, get-out situation. I’ve got a lot of faith in GM and especially Chevrolet. I’ve been with them for a long, long time. Our business is good; the products are good. And this economic downturn we’ve had has hurt everybody. It’s hurt every manufacturer; Toyota and everybody else. But I think some people, maybe their pockets were deeper than others. But I feel like we’re going to be good and we’re going to be okay. They’ve got great products right now so I’m hoping that if it happens, that they’ll get in and get out in a hurry and we’ll just take it a day at a time.”

    DO YOU EXPECT IT TO AFFECT THEIR RACING? “I don’t think so. No, I don’t think so because you see Ford and Toyota and everybody; Chrysler is here. But you just never know. We just have to do the best we can. They’ve been a big asset to this sport and when you look at their competition, the people they’re heads-up with, are here, so I’ve had no indication that they’re going to cut back or do anything.”

    IF THE GOVERNMENT SHOULD SAY YOU’VE GOT TO STOP PROMOTING THROUGH RACING IF WE GIVE YOU MONEY. IF CHEVROLET WERE TO SAY THEY CAN’T GIVE YOU ANOTHER CENT FOR THE FORESEEABLE FUTURE, WOULD YOU CONTINUE TO RACE CHEVROLETS ON YOUR OWN? OR DO YOU HAVE A PLAN “B”? “My Plan A is Chevrolet and my Plan B is Chevrolet and my Plan C is Chevrolet (laughter).”(GM Racing)(6-1-2009)

  • GM Prepares for Bankruptcy Protection Announcement: With the clock ticking on a June 1 government deadline to restructure, General Motors Corp. worked feverishly Sunday to shore up its global businesses to clear the way for a speedy reorganization in bankruptcy court. GM, part of American life for more than 100 years and once the country’s largest employer, is expected to file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection at 8 a.m. EDT Monday, according to people familiar with the company’s plans. They declined to be identified because the plans haven’t been officially announced.(ABC News ), no word how or if this will the effect support of many NASCAR teams.(5-31-2009)
  • NASCAR: New evidence that Dodge, Chevy maybe forced to cut back: Much has been made of the extent to which Chrysler and General Motors’ financial problems might impact their NASCAR participation. With Chrysler filing for bankruptcy, and General Motors expected to follow suit within the next 10 days, there is cause for concern. Dodge executives have said all the right things regarding the company’s participation in NASCAR — that, despite the bankruptcy, no changes were planned. Now, there is evidence that it may be beyond their control. According to Automotive News. Chrysler wanted to spend $134 million in advertising over the nine weeks it is expected to be in bankruptcy, but the U.S. Treasury’s auto industry task force gave it half that. “So if General Motors, which is wrestling with the possibility of a Chapter 11 filing itself, is wondering how much influence the task force will have over marketing, the answer is plenty,” the publication said. “Transcripts from the U.S. Bankruptcy Court for the Southern District of New York, which is hearing the Chrysler case, showed that the task force at least understands that advertising is a necessary expense — even if it doesn’t think Chrysler needs $134 million for nine weeks of car ads.” Meaning what? Meaning that, under bankruptcy — and remaining in business primarily using government money — the government is not hesitating to tell the manufacturers how much money they can spend on marketing, which is where the lion’s share of motorsports funding comes from. Very little — less than ever — comes from research and development. In the government is willing to cut Chrysler’s marketing allocation in half — and that’s half of what Chrysler was asking for, not half of what it is used to spending — then it may be a tough sell to convince the feds that taxpayer dollars should go towards supporting Dodge, which has won just one race this year, Kurt Busch’s victory at Atlanta.(Orlando Sentinel )
  • Latest on Manufacturers troubles: Heavy storm clouds are hanging over some NASCAR teams at Talladega Superspeedway this week: Chrysler appears headed for a Chapter 11 bankruptcy within the next week, and then Italian car maker Fiat will likely pick and chose the parts of the American automaker that it wants to buy and take a major stake in the Detroit company – and what that means for NASCAR’s Dodge teams, like the ones owned by Roger Penske, Richard Petty and George Gillett is anybody’s guess. The Obama administration has given Chrysler until April 30th to make a deal with Fiat before giving the car maker enough money to survive. Such a bankruptcy would apparently force the U.S. government to take over some key parts of Chrysler’s business, perhaps some of the health care and pension plan aspects. Bankruptcy would apparently also leave all those Cerberus investors without much, if anything, to show for the billions they invested in the car maker a few years ago when buying it and taking it private. Fiat would gradually buy enough of Chrysler, or its parts, to eventually have controlling interest. One interesting angle – Fiat owns Ferrari, the Formula One powerhouse, though Ferrari is operated independently.

    On the General Motors’ side of the picture, GM officials say they plan to shut down virtually the entire company for about two months beginning in about two weeks….though that may be just a bluff, because such a shutdown could add tens of thousands more to the unemployment roles, through a major trickle-down effect. GM is under an Obama deadline of May 31st to get its financial affairs in better order. Like the Chrysler situation, the potential impact on GM’s NASCAR operations are unclear.(Mikemulhern.net )(4-24-2009)

  • GM Head Steps Down, could it effect NASCAR? George Richard Rick Wagoner Jr. Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of General Motors resigned as Chairman and CEO at General Motors on March 29, 2009, at the request of the White House. During Wagoner’s tenure as CEO of General Motors, the market capitalization of GM has gone down by more than 90%. In 2008 Wagoner came under renewed pressure as GM sought financial support from the U.S. government in an attempt to avoid bankruptcy. Under Wagoner’s leadership, GM suffered more than $73 billion in losses.(AP)

    AND: Despite just ousting General Motors’ chief executive, President Barack Obama Monday insisted The United States government has no interest in running GM. However the abrupt dismissal of Rick Wagoner, the well-respected executive (Duke, class of ’75) who has run GM for the past eight years, has shocked not only Detroit but the rest of the car market, including NASCAR’s North Carolina base. Yet during Wagoner’s run, GM stock fell from $60 a share to $1.27 a few weeks ago, and Obama says new leadership at GM is needed. During a 20-minute statement Monday in Washington, Obama laid out his game plan for reviving the American car industry. And it is very clear that Obama has agendas for both GM and Chrysler, the two car makers on the hotseat (Ford and Toyota have avoided the government’s spotlight), and Monday he pushed repeated for cleaner cars out of Detroit. That could well make NASCAR men squirm, because these race cars are certainly not visibly cutting edge at all – 358 cubic inch engines with carburetors, five or six mpg. It took NASCAR nearly 30 years even to make the switch to unleaded gasoline. Obama himself raised the word bankruptcy, and appeared to be bracing the American people for a GM bankruptcy – by trying to explain what he envisioned it would be: A tool we can use, even as workers stay on the job building cars.(much more at mikemulhern.net and more info at the Detroit Free Press ), No word how any of this could effect NASCAR, there are rumors that Chevy/General Motors could leave NASCAR.(3-31-2009)

  • Drivers fret about automakers in tough economy: As General Motors continues to be battered by grim economic news, those who drive for the struggling manufacturer can’t help but wonder what impact it will have on their NASCAR programs. On Thursday, GM said in its annual report that auditors raised serious doubt about the automaker’s ability to continue operating. The company has received $13.4 billion in federal loans and is seeking an additional $16.6 billion from the government. Tony Stewart, who has a long relationship with GM, said he believes the company is doing what it can to recover. The biggest thing is we’ve got to get people to not be afraid to spend money again, he said. GM is doing their part. The Chevy brand is building cars that are affordable and economic and efficient. From a manufacturer’s side, that’s all you can ask for. I think they’ve really responded and done a good job in that respect. Stewart said the fallout would be tremendous if any of the major American automakers went out of business. I think it’s at the stage now where we can’t rely on the government to do it all for us, he said. We have to take an active role ourselves. I’m not saying as drivers or NASCAR. I’m saying our country together. We’ve got to get off our wallets and go back being Americans again and living life the way we used to.

    Atlanta Motor Speedway owner Bruton Smith called on the federal government to do whatever it takes to keep the Big Three from going under. It’s an abomination, he said. This country owes them. He pointed to the role Detroit played during World War II, when the car companies quickly shifted their focus from automobiles to producing the machinery of battle. They saved this country during World War II, Smith said. What if we get in another major, major war? Who’s going to build things? We need to do whatever we can to save those companies.(Associated Press/ESPN )(3-8-2009)

  • Chevy still has NASCAR plan: Chevrolet is looking at new ways to connect with NASCAR fans in the wake of substantial cutbacks and a re-evaluation of all spending in the wake of federal assistance given to struggling parent company General Motors, the manufacturer’s racing representative says. To try to compensate for having fewer displays at tracks, for instance, Chevrolet is trying to do more online, especially with advertising for those who might watch or gather NASCAR information online rather than watching on television, says Terry Dolan, manager of Chevy Racing. Dolan says that all fans – whether they can afford a new car or not – remain a key target audience. “We have to appeal to a large base of consumers and their needs,” Dolan said. “Some of that is price. … Additionally, we have to work to keep our dealers viable in some of these difficult times. If in fact, you’re not in position to buy a new car today, we’d sure like you to go to your local Chevrolet dealer to buy a used vehicle.” Among the noticeable areas that Chevrolet has cut back are its deal with the tracks. It still has a display area at Daytona, but it is smaller than in the past. Chevrolet also used to pay for exclusivity at the track, but it’s no longer that way as both Chevrolet and Ford will pace races, and they both have displays, as does Toyota, on track property. Chevrolet has let contracts expire at New Hampshire and Bristol, among others.(SceneDaily )(2-11-2009)
  • UPDATE: Daytona International Speedway officials announced the return of the Chevy Camaro as the Official Pace Car of the 51st running of the Daytona 500—the first Camaro to pace the field since 1969. “Chevy has been a great partner of the Daytona 500 for more than 30 years, and the Camaro is an automotive icon,’” said Speedway President Robin Braig. “This 2010 model will set the tone for a 21st century sports car, and that’s a perfect fit to lead the pack at the ‘Great American Race.’’ The 426-horsepower vehicle, powered by the 6.2-liter all-aluminum Chevy V-8, carries a PPG Cyber Grey paint scheme with a bold accent design befitting “The World Center of Racing.” A Camaro has paced the field just twice in Dayton 500 history, in 1968 and ’69, and this 2010 model is scheduled to hit showroom floors this spring. Built on GM’s new global rear-wheel drive architecture, the Camaro also will be offered in V-6-powered LS and LT models. Additional specs of the 2010 model pace car include:

    · All-aluminum 6.2-liter V-8

    · 426 horsepower and 420 lb-ft of torque

    · Fully integrated strobe system, including a GM-designed custom light bar utilizing Whelen 500 series linear strobes

    · 27-mpg estimated highway fuel economy

    · Fuel-saving Tremec 6-speed manual transmission

  • GM renews sponsorship of Daytona: General Motors Corp. has renewed its decades-long sponsorship of the Daytona International Speedway and its signature stock car race, the Daytona 500, but at a cheaper price. And instead of a multi-year deal, the cash-strapped automaker will sponsor NASCAR’s most prestigious event on a year-to-year basis. Financial terms were not disclosed. The renewal ends speculation that GM’s money woes, which have triggered a scaling back of corporate sponsorships, would force the automaker to terminate sponsorship of an event that was the top-rated motorsports telecast in North America last year. The multi-year deal expired Dec. 31. GM finalized the new deal Dec. 19, the same day President George W. Bush announced the Detroit automaker and Chrysler LLC would receive up to $17.4 billion in short-term loans. GM has sponsored Daytona for more than 40 years, and motorsports in general provide a prime marketing opportunity for automakers to reach customers who buy domestic vehicles at a rate higher than the national average. The race, which last year drew 33.5 million television viewers, is Feb. 15. GM provides fire and safety vehicles, pace cars and other vehicles for the race, as well as a July race at the track. GM did not disclose how much it spends on the Daytona deal or NASCAR sponsorships. Last year, GM had sponsorships at 12 tracks that host NASCAR events, including the Indianapolis Motor Speedway, but three of those sponsorships have not been renewed. Chevrolet also is the official vehicle sponsor of the Chevy Rock the U.S. and Canadian governments said in a joint statement. Canada’s aid builds on the $13.4 billion in U.S. emergency loans announced by President George W. Bush. Canadian Industry Minister Tony Clement on Dec. 12 pledged to offer GM, Chrysler and Ford Motor Co.’s Canadian units federal and provincial aid proportional to the their contribution to North American production, which is about 20 percent.(Bloomberg News )(12-21-2008)
  • France asks Congress to help Big Three automakers: NASCAR chairman Brian France has lobbied Congress to support a financial rescue plan for the struggling Big Three automakers. Chrysler, Ford and General Motors — three of the four manufacturers that participate in NASCAR — are pleading with Congress for a bailout to prevent their companies from going bankrupt. I’m writing you as a concerned American who wants what is best for our great country, France wrote. Of course, the domestic automobile manufacturers play a very important part of the heritage of NASCAR, but more importantly, it is vital for all of America. The letter, a copy of which was obtained Saturday by The Associated Press, was addressed to Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, Sen. Chris Dodd, chairman of the Senate Banking, Housing and Urban Affairs Committee, and Sen. Richard Shelby, the senior Republican on the Banking Committee. It was dated Tuesday. France’s letter warned that if the auto industry fails, 3 million people would lose their jobs in the first year, and another 2.5 million over the following two years. He said personal income in the U.S. would drop by $150 billion in the first year and domestic automobile production — even by foreign manufacturers — would likely drop to zero. For these manufacturers to survive, your assistance is urgently needed, France wrote. By immediately supporting America’s automobile industry, you can help our nation avoid a devastating economic blow. We urge the Administration and Congress to support the bridge loan package under deliberation. As unattractive as the idea of corporate federal bailouts can be to many Americans, including me, there appears to be no alternative. Federal aid is in the best interest of the entire country. Although France said last month that NASCAR could survive a manufacturer pullback or pullout, teams throughout the industry are deeply concerned about the stability of the Big Three. Toyota, the only foreign manufacturer that participates in NASCAR, has also seen slumping sales but is on more solid financial footing than the American automakers. Any sort of pullback by the manufacturers would cripple many race teams, particularly because sponsorship is extremely difficult to find during the economic crisis. Many teams have been forced to release employees, and some are reconsidering their 2009 plans.(see full story at the Associated Press )(12-7-2008)
  • Automakers make their case: Humbled and fighting for survival, Detroit’s once-mighty automakers appealed to Congress with a retooled case for a bailout as large as $34 billion Tuesday, pledging to slash workers, car lines and executive pay in return for a federal lifeline. GM and Chrysler said they needed an immediate cash infusion to last ’til New Year’s, and warned they could drag the entire industry down if they fail. Chrysler LLC said it needed $7 billion by year’s end, and General Motors Corp. asked for a quick $4 billion as just the first installment of as much as $18 billion to stay afloat and weather even worse economic storms. Ford Motor Co. had a more upbeat report, but the other two members of the U.S. Big Three painted the direst portraits to date — including the prospects of shuttered factories and massive job losses — of what could happen if Congress doesn’t quickly step in.(See full story at the Associated Press site )(12-3-2008)
  • GM-Chrysler merger looks to be on hold: The possibility of a merger between General Motors and Chrysler appears to be on hold. Chrysler owner Cerberus Capital Management and GM have been in talks about a merger for weeks, according to people familiar with the talks. The effort in recent days, however, seemed to be getting in the way of GM’s efforts to secure financial assistance from the federal government. The UAW opposed the idea of a merger that would result in substantial job losses. Industry analysts have predicted a GM-Chrysler merger would result in 30,000 to 40,000 job losses at Chrysler and additional losses through the economy. While not specifically naming Chrysler, GM said today that “considerations of such a transaction as a near-term priority have been set aside.” Spokespeople from GM and Cerberus have not been commenting on the talks since they were first revealed publicly about a month ago. “GM has recently explored the possibility of a strategic acquisition that it believed would generate significant cost reduction synergies and substantially strengthen GM’s financial position in the medium and long term, while being neutral or modestly positive to cash flow even in the near term,” GM’s statement said. “While the acquisition could potentially have provided significant benefits, the company has concluded that it is more important at the present time to focus on its immediate liquidity challenges and, accordingly, considerations of such a transaction as a near-term priority have been set aside.” In response to GM’s statement, Chrysler issued its own that neither confirmed nor denied that it was part of talks to merger with GM. “As we have previously stated, Chrysler LLC neither confirms nor discloses the nature of its private business meetings, as many times they do not come to fruition,” Chrysler CEO Bob Nardelli said in a statement. Returning Chrysler to profitability continues to be the key focus of the management team,” Nardelli added. “We are significantly challenged by today’s economic environment and by the automotive industry’s unprecedented downturn. As an independent company, we will continue to explore multiple strategic alliances or partnerships as we investigate growth opportunities around the world that would aid in our return to profitability.”(Detroit Free Press )(11-8-2008)
  • Even in a merger Dodge could remain another year UPDATE: There is still no official word from Chrysler executives, and the fate of NASCAR’s Dodge teams remains uncertain, with the possible — or probable — Chrysler merger with/buyout by General Motors. NASCAR executives are not thrilled, to say the least, with the implications and questions surrounding that merger debate, because 11 Sprint Cup teams run with Dodge factory backing. However, according to sources, regardless of what happens with the potential merger, Dodge is committed to backing its NASCAR teams for at least one more year, but perhaps no more. One thing for certain, NASCAR officials don’t want Toyota buying up any more top Cup teams, like it did with Joe Gibbs, and they have made that clear to the company. (Winston Salem Journal )(10-28-2008)

    UPDATE — more on merger: With the American automotive industry trying to become relevant again, the news that General Motors and Chrysler are discussing a merger has led to some concern in the garage area. And while no one believes the loss of one of the circuit’s four automakers would be a devastating blow, two officials that I spoke to acknowledged that it wouldn’t be an easy road to travel either.

    You deal with it when it happens, said Robin Pemberton, NASCAR’s vice president of competition. We didn’t always have four manufacturers; we didn’t always have three. We used to just have GM and Ford. One of the things to always remember is we have drivers, crews and team owners. We make rules and regulations on the cars that are out there available to drive.

    We’re not trying to be smug about it, he added, but they are basically big sponsors. We didn’t have any manufacturer participation in the late 1970s — virtually none. Junior Johnson had a decent Chevy deal at the time and Richard Childress lived off that quite a bit. The Pettys were independent. They would run an Oldsmobile on one track and a Chevrolet Monte Carlo on another one and a Chevy Caprice on another. Kyle Petty would run a Dodge Charger. That was all out of the same stable.

    Added NASCAR’s Jim Hunter, The questions to be asked would be what models? Would they pick a car? Would it be Chevrolet or Dodge or would they run both? We have no idea. In the history of this sport, manufacturers have been in and out all the time, going back to 1957 when AMA banned motorsports participation by the manufacturers. In 1964, Big Bill France banned the Chrysler Hemi engines, so it was all Fords. But I still think what wins on Sunday sells on Monday, even in a weakened economy. People relate to what they drive and what their favorite driver drives. That’s a given.

    I would not like to see this with no factory participation, Hunter added, because both the dollars and the support they give the teams help drive the economical engine. However, we have raced before with no manufacturer support before. When there is no manufacturer support, teams will pick a car that is the best car out there. Hopefully, this will eventually work its way out, as it always has. Some may make it and some won’t.(Sports Illustrated )(10-30-2008)

  • Latest on the possible GM-Chrysler merger: the ragged U.S. economy and slumping car sales are leading General Motors to the brink of what looks like a buyout of Chrysler, which has NASCAR’s 11 Dodge teams [#’s 2,7,9,10,12,19,41,42,43,45,77] on pins and needles. One Detroit source says he senses the merger as inevitable and says that merger could really shake up the NASCAR garage, because rival car makers GM, Ford and Toyota may be quite unlikely to want to pick up any new NASCAR teams. George Gillett has been looking at buying Bill Davis’ Toyota team and becoming a three-team Toyota operation; however there now appears to be a major stumbling block to any such move by Gillett – Toyota itself. There are also worries that when the 2009 season dawns at Daytona there will be only 30 teams with full-time non-factory corporate sponsorship.(Winston Salem Journal )(10-25-2008)
  • GM-Chrysler merger. by Nov 4th? If the General Motors merger/buyout of Chrysler does go through, and well it might, perhaps by Nov. 4, what happens to all those NASCAR Dodge teams? [GEM, Petty, Ganassi, Penske] Dodge racing executives haven’t had much to say lately about the situation. And what might happen to Dodge’s various NASCAR contracts if Chrysler is ‘sold’ to GM is up in the air. Dodge has a number of long-term contracts in place, and just a few weeks ago Dodge officials insisted things were fine.(Winston Salem Journal )(10-20-2008)
  • Chrysler, GM discuss merger, acquisition: UPDATE: General Motors Corp. and Chrysler LLC have held preliminary talks about a merger or an acquisition of Chrysler by GM, according to published reports. The Wall Street Journal. citing people it described as familiar with the discussions, reported that Cerberus Capital Management, the private equity firm that owns 80.1% of Chrysler and 51% of GMAC Financial Services, proposed trading Chrysler’s automotive operations to GM. The Journal said Cerberus would receive GM’s remaining 49% stake in GMAC. The New York Times. also citing people familiar with the talks, reported that the automakers were discussing a merger. The Times did not mention GMAC, a traditional auto lender hit hard by the housing market downturn. The talks have stalled because of the recent turmoil in the financial markets, according to the Journal. Its sources said negotiations could resume if markets stabilize because both GM and Cerberus want to quickly divest the assets under discussion.(Associated Press/Yahoo )(10-11-2008)

    UPDATE: General Motors Corp. approached Ford Motor Co. in recent months about a possible merger but Ford called off the talks after the Dearborn, Mich. auto maker concluded it should continue to go it alone, according to a person directly familiar with the talks. GM and Ford already have a joint venture involving six-speed transmissions and have talked about expanding that partnership to include powertrains, according to sources familiar with the discussions.(Wall Street Journal ), no idea how these deals will or would effect their NASCAR involvment.(10-12-2008)

  • Manufacturers sticking with Cup: With four manufacturers each spending an estimated $100 million-plus annually in NASCAR’s premier series, the financial benefit of their involvement must be significant. Despite the industry’s gloomy economic outlook, automakers still consider NASCAR a showplace for its showrooms, which makes racing expenditures worthwhile. General Motors will slice some motor sports programs as part of $10 billion in budget cuts, and auto analysts have warned Chrysler might consider bankruptcy protection in the face of declining sales. But industry observers aren’t expecting manufacturers to desert the sport as in the 1970s. Those fans apparently root with their wallets. Ford claims a 400% return on its marketing investment in NASCAR, says Dan Geist, the company’s North American motor sports marketing manager. Geist says Ford tracks the purchasing history of NASCAR fans for six months after visiting promotional events or its racing website. More than 60% of Ford owners are race fans. Racing is a critical piece of influencing consumers, Geist said. The only reason we race is to sell cars, trucks and SUVs. … If it makes sense, we continue; if it doesn’t, we stop. Chevrolet marketing manager Terry Dolan said NASCAR’s 10-month schedule offers plenty of exposure as does the day-long experience of a race. At Indianapolis Motor Speedway last week, Chevy had an 80,000-square-foot display featuring 40 vehicles, including many hybrids and more-fuel-efficient versions of the larger classes favored by race fans. Toyota entered Cup as a means of pushing its new Tundra. Though sales are slumping, the company recently reorganized and expanded its NASCAR marketing department. David Wilson, senior vice president of Toyota Racing Development, said research shows people are coming into dealerships that never would have because of NASCAR.(in part from USA Today )(7-31-2008)
  • GM cuts could hit all levels of racing: UPDATE: Nothing at GM is off-limits-including its high-profile NASCAR program — company executives warned as the automaker went public Tuesday in Detroit with its latest round of cost-cutting measures. With the auto industry in North America taking a beating, GM racing director Mark Kent said that every level of motorsports that GM supports-from the giant stock-car racing series NASCAR to the grassroots Sports Car Club of America-is being evaluated. GM also competes in the NHRA, USAC midgets/sprints and the American Le Mans Series. Racing is not exempt (from cuts), Kent said last week. We are looking at ways to be even more efficient. looking to see if they are genuinely positioned for a positive return on investment. Troy Clarke, president of GM North America, added: Motorsports have not gone without scrutiny. I’m not going to get into specifics about NASCAR. But there will be modifications-changes in our marketing footprint-in this area. GM’s NASCAR program, which has enjoyed great success and supports 12 Chevy teams, is under review, as is all of the racing GM supports, Kent said. NASCAR, SCCA club racing-we are looking at where we need to be. Funding a championship-winning team such as Chevy’s Hendrick Motorsports and drivers of the caliber of Jeff Gordon, Jimmie Johnson and Dale Earnhardt Jr. costs GM at least $30 million a year.(The Oylmpian )(7-16-2008)

    AND: Richmond International Raceway is not one of the two tracks [having contracts not renewed]. GM is the title sponsor for the fall NASCAR Sprint Cup race at RIR — The Chevy Rock and Roll 400. Aimee Turner, spokeswoman for RIR, said Wednesday that Chevy’s partnership with the track runs through 2010. That deal includes not only naming rights for the September race, but also Chevy’s status as the official vehicle of the track.(Richmond Times Dispatch )(7-17-2008)

  • Chevy pushing for alternative fuels in NASCAR: Chevrolet is continuing its effort to have NASCAR make alternative fuels a priority. “We’re pushing hard – we probably are the instigators a little bit,” Chevrolet Vice President Brett Dewar said during the Texas race weekend. “We believe in green racing, and we believe it is very appropriate to do that … We believe it’s time. We think racing can also be green, and we would like it to be biofuels.” NASCAR executives have indicated that alternative fuels are a priority. “They’re definitely receptive,” Dewar said about NASCAR. “They’ve got fuel providers, and it’s a transition, and I don’t want to mitigate the fact that some work has to get done. There’s modifications to the engines, but we do it to our vehicles today. … We have to reduce our dependency on petroleum products. We just have to. Economically we need to do it, and we’re willing to do it.” General Motors is building cars that can be run on alternative fuels as well as electric vehicles. Dewar said the chairman of General Motors has been among those who has talked with NASCAR officials about alternative fuels. Could that happen in two or three years? “It could be sooner if we all rode together and worked together,” Dewar said. “It’s just a matter of bringing each other [together]. We’re going to meet with them soon to see how their development is coming. but we’re invited to this party. We’re proud to be a member with them from the beginning, General Motors with NASCAR, and we’re very supportive of that. We have to make good decisions.”(SceneDaily)(4-17-2008)
  • GM Sticking with NASCAR: Despite reporting a record $38.7 billion loss in 2007, General Motors said it had no plans to eliminate its support of NASCAR. General Motors has dominated the series in recent years, with Chevrolet drivers having won the last three championships. “Obviously, the last racing we would drop in the racing that we’re in would be NASCAR right now, cause it’s still go the best return for us,” said John Middlebrook, the vice president for global sales and marketing for General Motors.)New York Times)(2-18-2008)

    2007 News

    • Chevy Monte Carlo ends era: The final Nextel Cup Series race of the 2007 season will mark the end of an era for the Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS — the winningest nameplate for the bow-tie brand in NASCAR competition. Since its NASCAR introduction in May 1971, the legendary Monte Carlo/Monte Carlo SS contributed to 24 of the 31 NASCAR Cup Series Manufacturers’ championship won by Chevrolet. Of the 23 NASCAR Cup driver’s championships won by Chevrolet drivers, 16 of the champions powered their way to the top prize with the help of the Monte Carlo collecting 396 wins in the process. Chevy’s key partners in NASCAR Cup competition are quick to recognize the contribution of the Monte Carlo/Monte Carlo SS to the success their organizations have enjoyed through the years. Jeff Gordon, four-time NASCAR Nextel Cup Series champion, has been an exclusive Chevrolet driver throughout his remarkable career. With 81 wins, 233 top-five and 316 top-10 finishes on his Chevrolet Cup career resume, Gordon leads the distinguished list of drivers who have enjoyed success in the Monte Carlo/Monte Carlo SS. The Monte Carlo SS will be gone from NASCAR Sprint Cup series competition, replaced full-time in 2008 by another legend in the Chevrolet lineup, the Impala SS. However, the strong, winning tradition of Monte Carlo SS will continue in the NASCAR Nationwide Series starting at Daytona 2008.(GM Racing PR)(11-14-2007)
    • Chevy hopes to get Stewart back in Cup: One of the top executives in the General Motors racing operation said the automaker will attempt to sign Tony Stewart to a contract with another Chevrolet team after his current deal with Joe Gibbs Racing expires. “We’d be interested in Tony staying with Chevy,” Brent Dewar, GM North America vice president of sales, service and parts, said Friday at Richmond International Raceway. “Most fans don’t realize that the drivers sign with the teams, and we all respect that. I understand he’s through 2009 currently with Gibbs. We’d love for him to continue with Chevrolet down the road. … “We’ve had a great relationship with Tony.” Dewar also said Chevrolet will continue to support Stewart’s hobby—sprint-car racing—despite his defection to Toyota next year along with the rest of the Gibbs drivers. “We’ve just got to sit down and see if it makes sense for all parties,” Dewar said. “We are starting to work with him and develop … he’s passionate about sprint cars, so we can see some avenues.” Stewart said during last week’s Toyota press conference that he is planning an aggressive round of contract negotiations with his team.(Ford Racing )(9-8-2007)
    • Chevy Continues Partnership with Hendrick Motorsports: Chevrolet, the winningest nameplate in NASCAR, will continue its partnership with championship team Hendrick Motorsports in NASCAR competition in 2008 and beyond. In 23 years (1984-2006) of NASCAR competition, Hendrick Motorsports has garnered six Nextel Cup Series (formerly Winston Cup) championships, three Craftsman Truck Series titles and one Busch Series crown, making it one of stock-car racing’s premier organizations. Rick Hendrick is the only team owner in NASCAR’s modern era to earn more than 150 Cup Series victories and is currently at 160 Cup wins — all of them coming in Chevrolets. Hendrick Motorsports’ win at the first Car of Tomorrow race at Bristol earlier this year also earned Chevrolet its first Impala SS win and Chevy’s 600th win in NASCAR Cup competition. The four full-time NASCAR Cup teams of Hendrick Motorsports slated to run in 2008 include four-time champion Jeff Gordon in the #24 DuPont Chevy; Jimmie Johnson in the #48 Lowe’s Chevy; Casey Mears in the #5 Kellogg’s/CARQUEST Chevy; and new addition Dale Earnhardt, Jr. who has only driven Chevrolets in his NASCAR career.(GM Racing PR )(9-7-2007)
    • GM Statement of JGR moving to Toyota: Statement from Brent Dewar; General Motors North America Vice President of Vehicle Sales, Service and Parts Regarding Joe Gibbs Racing’s decision to sign with another manufacturer: General Motors has been associated with Joe Gibbs Racing for 16 years working together winning races and championships. While we understand the business nature of racing, we are disappointed in J.D.’s decision and announcement today. With our long-standing relationship and record of winning with them, we hoped they would remain with Chevrolet. We will continue to support our JGR drivers in this year’s Chase for the Championship. We wish JGR well as they go forward, and Chevrolet will compete against them on the track next year to defend its title as the winningest name in racing.(GM Racing PR)(9-5-2007)
    • Chevy and RCR continue partnership: Chevrolet, the winningest nameplate in NASCAR, will continue its partnership in NASCAR competition in 2008 with one of racing’s elite organizations, Richard Childress Racing (RCR). 2008 marks Richard Childress’s 39th year as a team owner and his cars proudly carry the Chevy bowtie, said Ed Peper, Chevrolet general manager. At Chevrolet and GM Racing, we are very excited to continue a long and successful relationship with one of the best racing organizations in NASCAR, both on and off the track. RCR’s lineup includes #29-Kevin Harvick, #31-Jeff Burton and #07-Clint Bowyer in the Cup Series and Harvick and Tim McCreadie in the #21, Burton and Scott Wimmer in the #29 and #2-Bowyer in the Buscg Series.(GM Racing PR)(8-18-2007)
    • Chevy and RCR continue partnership: Chevrolet, the winningest nameplate in NASCAR, will continue its partnership in NASCAR competition in 2008 with one of racing’s elite organizations, Richard Childress Racing (RCR). 2008 marks Richard Childress’s 39th year as a team owner and his cars proudly carry the Chevy bowtie, said Ed Peper, Chevrolet general manager. At Chevrolet and GM Racing, we are very excited to continue a long and successful relationship with one of the best racing organizations in NASCAR, both on and off the track. RCR’s lineup includes #29-Kevin Harvick, #31-Jeff Burton and #07-Clint Bowyer in the Cup Series and Harvick and Tim McCreadie in the #21, Burton and Scott Wimmer in the #29 and #2-Bowyer in the Buscg Series.(GM Racing PR)(8-18-2007)
    • Chevy to unveil paint schemes to commemorate 50 Years of the ’57 Chevy: Chevrolet driver #48-Jimmie Johnson will be on hand when Chevrolet and Motorsports Authentics announce several classic paint schemes to celebrate the 50th anniversary of one of the most recognizable cars in American history — the 1957 Chevy. Johnson will help unveil the ’57 Chevy paint scheme his Monte Carlo SS will sport during the 3M Performance 400 on August 18. Many other commemorative paint schemes celebrating the ’57 Chevy will also be announced Saturday at 9:00am/et at victory lane of the Michigan International Speedway.(GM Racing PR)(6-13-2007)
    • Seven cars to run new Chevy engine: Seven cars will run the new Chevy R07 engine in today’s race: #20-Tony Stewart, #11- Denny, #18-J.J. Yeley, #31-Jeff Burton, #29-Kevin Harvick, #07-Clint Bowyer and #96-Tony Raines.(GM Racing PR)(6-3-2007)
    • Chevy Wants NASCAR to Use Ethanol: One of NASCAR’s top sponsors plans to file a formal petition asking that it join other racing leagues and start using ethanol to power its racecars. The recommendation by General Motors Corp. planned for later this year, comes as NASCAR adjusts to using unleaded gasoline, decades behind the commercial marketplace. GM sponsors 22 NASCAR vehicles under its Chevy nameplate, about half the vehicles that start any given race. It’s been promoting more environmentally friendly fuel for months, and now it plans to proceed with an official presentation to NASCAR ownership.(McClatchy News )(5-5-2007)
    • Six teams to run new Chevy engine at Texas: The Chevrolet R07 engine development has progressed to the point where up to six teams are expected to run the engine at this weekend’s race. Cars anticipated to debut the new Chevy engine are: Hendrick Motorsports teammates #25-Casey Mears and #5-Kyle Busch; #20-Tony Stewart and his Joe Gibbs Racing teammates #11-Denny Hamlin and #18-J.J. Yeley as well as a fourth Richard Childress Racing entry, #33-Scott Wimmer. After more than 50 years of successful race development of the Chevy small-block engine, GM Racing has developed its first (for NASCAR competition) purpose-built small-block race engine, the R07. The engine will debut Sunday at the Samsung 500 Nextel Cup race at Texas Motor Speedway. A brief presentation by Director of GM Racing Mark Kent, followed by a Q NASCAR engine program manager, is scheduled for Saturday, April 14 at Texas Motor Speedway.(GM Racing PR)(4-12-2007)
    • Chevy Aims for 600th NASCAR Cup Series Win: Chevrolet will have the opportunity to achieve several historic milestones at Bristol Motor Speedway this weekend. With Jimmie Johnson’s back-to-back wins in Las Vegas and Atlanta, Chevrolet has 599 NASCAR Cup wins as Team Chevy heads to Bristol, Tenn. where the Impala nameplate will make its return to NASCAR racing. If a Chevy driver wins in Bristol this weekend, it would be the 600th all-time victory for Chevrolet and the 61st win for Impala. This weekend’s Food City 500 in Bristol is the first event featuring NASCAR’s next generation of race cars including the Chevy Impala SS. Forty-eight years after the nameplate was introduced to NASCAR racing, Impala returns to NASCAR competition in 16 Nextel Cup events this season. When it takes the track at Bristol, Impala will have already achieved consecutive NASCAR titles in 1960 and 1961 as well 60 race wins including the inaugural Impala race in 1959 at Daytona International Speedway. In addition to Impala’s success, Chevrolet’s history of NASCAR racing accolades includes 23 driver titles, 30 manufacturer championships and 599 victories. Chevrolet’s closest competitor for all-time NASCAR victories trails by the equivalent of a full-season of race wins (22).

      Total All-time NASCAR Cup Wins (by corporation): 1949-present

      General Motors Corporation = 933

      (Chevy: 599, Pontiac: 154, Olds: 115, Buick: 65)

      Ford Motor Company = 676

      (Ford: 577, Mercury 95, Lincoln: 4) Chrysler Corporation = 444

      (Dodge: 194, Plymouth: 191, Chrysler: 59)

      (GM Racing PR )(3-23-2007)

    • GM to buy Chrysler? General Motors Corp. is in talks to buy the Chrysler Group in its entirety, Automotive News reported Friday, citing unnamed sources in Germany and the United States. The automotive trade publication reported on its Web site that high-level talks were talking place between GM and Chrysler Group parent DaimlerChrysler AG. The potential deal between the two automakers could go beyond cooperation on joint development of a large sport utility vehicle, the magazine said. A General Motors Corp. spokesman said the company routinely has discussions with other automakers but declined to comment on the Automotive News report. We often have discussions with automakers routinely. We don’t comment on speculation regarding discussions, GM spokesman Tony Cervone said. Meanwhile, various newspapers reported earlier Friday that Chrysler and GM have held discussions for about six months about a possible alliance related to large sport utility vehicles.(MSNBC )(2-16-2007)
    • Chevy engine approved: Chevrolet’s new R07 NASCAR engine is now legal, but Pat Suhy, GM’s NASCAR field director, said he doesn’t expect to see any large changeover among stock car teams until March.(Winston Salen Journal )(1-25-2007)

      2006 News

      • Chevy ties win record: Tony Stewart’s win brings the total 2006 NNCS Chevy victories to 22, tying the most wins in a season by the Bowtie brand in the Modern Era. Chevrolet drivers took the checkered flag 22 times in 1980 and again in 2004.(GM Racing)(11-7-2006)
      • UPDATE: After a decades-long hiatus from stock car racing, Chevy’s legendary Impala nameplate — enhanced with the SS performance designation — will once again compete in NASCAR’s Nextel Cup Series (NNCS) in select races of the 2007 NASCAR season. Chevy’s Car of Tomorrow entry, slated to make its first run at Bristol in March of 2007, will be an Impala SS and will share the NNCS schedule next season with the current Monte Carlo SS. The Car of Tomorrow will share both the 2007 and 2008 racing seasons with the current race car design until its first full season in 2009. The new car is scheduled to race at sixteen events in 2007, consisting of those at tracks less than a mile and a half in length, the road courses and the second Talladega race. In 2008, all races at tracks two miles or more in length are expected to feature the new design. Chevrolet introduced the Impala in 1957 as a 1958 model (50 years ago next year) and drivers immediately took to the big car, racing it first on the beach at Daytona, then at Daytona International Speedway in 1959. Redesigned that year, Bob Welborn scored a victory with the new model for the qualifying race of the 1959 Daytona 500 — the first 500 at the Speedway. Success continued for Impala with consecutive NASCAR championship titles in 1960 (Rex White) and again in 1961 (Ned Jarrett). In 1963, stock-car legend Junior Johnson ran 32 races of the 55-race schedule in the famous white No. 3 Impala owned by Ray Fox and collected seven wins, 12 top-fives, 13 top-tens and nine poles.(GM Racing PR ), images of the 2007 #48 Lowe’s Chevy Impala on the 2007 #48 Team Schemes page .(10-27-2006)

      • Final stage of the GM Racing Development at Nashville: The final stage of the three-stage GM Racing Development Driver Evaluation Program will take place Tuesday and Wednesday, October 10-11, 2006 at Nashville Superspeedway (NSS). The 10 drivers invited to participate will be driving Richard Childress Racing (RCR) NASCAR Busch Series cars. The GM Racing Development Driver Evaluation program was designed to provide opportunities for both the drivers and the teams to connect if an opening exists in someone’s driver roster. All Chevrolet teams have been invited to attend and observe the drivers throughout the three stages. GM Racing engineers along with Pratt-Miller staff members have been charged with accurately gathering data for review by Chevy team representatives. Of the 16 original drivers invited to Stages I and II, Landon Cassill, Jeremy Clements, Marc Davis, Jeffrey Earnhardt, Drew Herring, Woody Howard, Ryan Hunter-Reay, Joey Lagano, Tim McCreadie and Jason Sarvis will be showcasing their talent before representatives of Chevy NASCAR Nextel Cup Series, Busch Series and Craftsman Truck Series teams.(GM Racing PR )(10-11-2006)
      • GM Racing Driver Development Program completes stages 1 Busch Series and Craftsman Truck Series racing teams the opportunity to meet the drivers and observe their on-track skills. All Chevrolet teams have been invited to attend and observe the drivers. GM Racing engineers along with Pratt-Miller staff members are in attendance at all three stages to accurately gather data for review by Chevy team representatives.

        A total of 16 drivers with a wide variety of racing backgrounds were invited to participate in the first two stages of the program: Chase Austin, Colin Braun, Landon Cassill, Jeremy Clements, Marc Davis, Jeffrey Earnhardt, Jay Gerst, Drew Herring, Woody Howard, Ryan Hunter-Reay, Joey Lagano, Tim McCreadie, Chad McCumbee, Josh Richards, Jason Sarvis and Kody Swanson.

        We are excited to offer this unique opportunity to our NASCAR teams, said Pat Suhy, NASCAR program manger for GM Racing. Continuing to build our NASCAR racing future with our Chevy team partners is critical to the continued growth and success of the Chevrolet nameplate on the track. Unlike other programs of this nature, there are no winners or losers. Our program provides opportunities for both the drivers and the teams to connect if an opening exists in someone’s driver roster.

        The first stage was held September 12-13, 2006 at Caraway Speedway, Asheboro NC and showcased the drivers in NASCAR Busch Series (NBS) cars. The cars were prepared and the trackside crew furnished by Richard Childress Racing (RCR). Two-time NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series driver Ron Hornaday, Jr. set the baseline of the cars and remained available throughout the day’s activities to answer questions and coach the drivers. Each driver was given a 20-minute test and tune session to work on the setup and get more comfortable in the car. After the crew did a final check of the car, the driver competed a 40-lap run of timed laps. The cars were equipped with data acquisition equipment to assist in evaluation of driver’s performance. Approximately 1,400 laps were run with just four minor spins and no damage sustained to any of the cars; a strong testament to the talent of the drivers participating in the evaluation program.

        Stage II of the program was held September 19-20, at Dale McDowell Dirt School located at North Georgia Speedway, Chatsworth, GA. Three different dirt track cars — crate-motor dirt late model stock car (approximately 450 hp); a spec-motor dirt late model stock car (approximately 550 hp) and an open-motor dirt late model stock car (approximately 800 hp) -were setup and a baseline established by veteran dirt late model champion Dale McDowell. Again, with over 1,000 laps completed, there were no significant incidents on-track despite the wide variety of dirt track experience, ranging from none to full-time competitor.

        The final stage is scheduled for October 10-11, 2006 at Nashville Superspeedway, Nashville TN. Drivers will again be showing their skills in RCR-prepared Busch Series cars.(GM Racing PR )(9-27-2006)

      • Chevy holds their own ‘Gong Show At Caraway Speedway this week, General Motors officials set up cars in Chevy’s version of theGong Show [Rosuh Racing does it years running drivers to run a Truck team]. Drivers ran in a Ron Hornaday-prepared Busch car. Two days of testing at Caraway, with a platoon of engineers from Richard Childress’ operation, under the watchful eyes of GM racing execs Pat Suhy and Alba Colon, then the group will go next month to a Georgia dirt track and then to Nashville’s high-banked concrete track. The drivers being tested are: Jeff Earnhardt [Dale Sr’s grandson via Kerry], Joey Logano, Ryan Hunter-Reay, Colin Braun, Chase Austin, Landon Cassill, Jeremy Clements, Marc Davis, Jay Gerst, Drew Herring, Woody Howard, Tim McCreadie, Chad McCumbee, Josh Richards, Jason Sarvis and Kody Swanson. One of last year’s diversity drivers, Allison Duncan, is running this year for Childress at the same Virginia track at which Jeff Earnhardt is running. But there’s no word yet on whether Childress plans to move Duncan up next season. Car owners Childress and Rick Hendrick were the most visible in this round of testing, but Kevin Harvick, who has his own NASCAR teams in addition to his day job with Childress on the Nextel Cup tour, is expected to have some input, too, along with several other Chevy teams.(in part from/see full story at the Winston Slaem Journal )(9-15-2006)
      • GM, Renault and Nissan to team Up? Nissan Motor Co. on Monday approved opening talks with General Motors Corp. over a possible alliance, the Japanese automaker said. Nissan’s board of directors met earlier in the day and decided the company should proceed with exploratory discussions concerning a potential alliance with General Motors, Nissan said in a statement. The talks will be conditional on GM endorsing a proposal by its major shareholder, Tracinda Corp. that GM join the alliance between Nissan and its partner, Renault SA, the statement said. The announcement came ahead of a Renault board meeting where executives were expected to discuss the purchase of a significant stake in General Motors with Nissan. Local media reports have said Renault and Nissan could buy up to 20% of outstanding shares in GM. Details of the possible investment plan surfaced after billionaire investor and major GM shareholder Kirk Kerkorian proposed on Friday that the troubled American carmaker join the Nissan-Renault alliance.(Associated Press ), no word how or if this would effect Auto Racing/NASCAR, too early to know.(7-3-2006)
      • Chevy engine to submit new engine: General Motors officials plan to submit their proposed new Cup engine to NASCAR executives for review in mid-August, ahead of the Sept. 1 deadline. GM hopes for a quick answer from NASCAR so that its teams can get started on the new engine if it’s approved.(Winston Salem Journal )(6-26-2006)
      • Penske to lead GM? on Sunday’s Wind Tunnel [Speed Channel on Sunday’s at 9:00pm/et], Robin Miller said he heard from someone a little bit connected in Detroit [home of Chevy/Ford] that General Motors is thinking about pursuing Roger Penske to take over General Motors [Chevy]. Not much more to it and have to wonder since Dodge is signed with Penske Racing in NASCAR thru at least 2007.(4-25-2006)
      • UPDATE 2 — Comments from all 3: Reports that one of Detroit’s Big Three auto manufacturersmay be considering dropping out of NASCAR racing swirled through the Cup garage, possibly stemming from the report that Ford’s SVT (Special Vehicle Team) program may be shut down in October. But Ford’s Kevin Kennedy, the company’s public-affairs manager for racing, said that there are no plans to get out of NASCAR: We’ve seen that story, and I can assure you Ford does not plan on getting out of NASCAR. Our racing program has support at the highest levels of the company, and our research and data has shown conclusively that there’s a viable business case for us being involved in the sport in terms of our market share and purchase consideration among race fans. Racing is part of the Ford DNA and has been since Henry Ford raced back in 1901.

        General Motors’ Pat Suhy, the company’s NASCAR director, said that GM isn’t leaving, either: We’re here in NASCAR and we’re here to stay. It makes good business sense for us to be here. We get a great return on our investment. We have a lot of activation around this around the country with our dealers and our regional dealer groups. And we have great sponsorship partners with our teams. So if there is any truth to that, I don’t know about it, and it certainly isn’t us.

        Ray Evernham, owner of the season’s winningest operation, which is sponsored by Dodge dealers, said: I can’t speak for Dodge, but I can tell you I know they’re happy. If you look at their stock, it’s up. And they’re the only American manufacturer with an increase in market share. I’ve got a really long-term contract with them, and if I were a betting man, I’d bet it’s not Daimler.(Winston Salem Journal )(4-22-2006)

        2005 News

      • New Chevy to be announced Thursday: on Thursday, August 4th, GM Racing will unveil the 2006 Monte Carlo NASCAR NEXTEL Cup race car at Indianapolis Motor Speedway.(8-2-2005)

        UPDATE: Chevrolet will debut an all-new Monte Carlo SS race car for NASCAR NEXTEL Cup and Busch Series competition in 2006. The new car will carry the legendary name and heritage of the SS line, relating to a powerful, new V-8-powered production Monte Carlo SS that is making its debut on the 50th Anniversary of the introduction of the Chevrolet Small Block V-8 engine. The new race car was developed over a 14-month period using the full complement of engineering and design tools available to the people at GM Racing and Chevrolet. The company’s engineers worked in concert with their key partners on pit lane, the real customers for the new Monte Carlo SS race car. The new race car retains the overall dimensions of the 2005 model, based on the sport’s requirements. NASCAR continues to emphasize retaining stock dimensions, which means a good body design is essential for success in stock car racing. Unlike other manufacturers who race family sedans, Chevrolet remains the only marque in NASCAR racing that sells to fans the same two-door sports coupe that it races.

        Following NASCAR approval, teams will begin building development cars in preparation for testing that leads up to its debut at Speedweeks. The car will make its competition debut at Speedweeks at Daytona International Speedway in February, 2006. On the street, buyers of the new Monte Carlo SS will notice the similarities to the car that is the choice of NASCAR stars. The exterior features large headlamps that have a premium, jeweled appearance with three independent lighting units. These details complement other high-quality attributes to provide an overall feeling of solidity. All models receive a sporty rear spoiler. The muscular Monte Carlo SS has a new 5.3L small block V-8 developing 303 horsepower (226 kw) and 323 lb.-ft. (438 Nm) of torque, propelling it from 0-60 mph in 5.7 seconds. The 5.3L V-8 uses Displacement on Demand technology to regulate between eight-cylinder and four-cylinder operation, providing up to 8 percent improved fuel economy in certain driving conditions. The Monte Carlo SS has a distinct front-end appearance, with a dual-split grille that has a black-diamond crosshatch pattern. The rear spoiler is unique, too, suggesting the purposefulness of NASCAR spoilers. Corvette-inspired bright exhaust outlets also are standard on the Monte Carlo SS.

        Like a tuned NASCAR racer, the Monte Carlo SS comes with a unique suspension as well. The FE4 suspension, which is tuned to provide a sporty ride that complements the 5.3L small-block V-8’s performance. It offers increased stiffness and ride control, with reduced body lean and greater high-speed stability. The 34-mm hollow front stabilizer bar and 18-mm solid rear stabilizer bar are larger in diameter than the bars of the two FE2 suspension settings, providing increased roll control. Eighteen-inch alloy wheels with W-rated P235/50R18 AL3 Goodyear Eagle RS-A performance tires are included with the FE4 suspension.(GM PR )(8-4-2005)

      • 2006 models to be unvieled: Ford will unveil its new Cup car in Charlotte on the Thursday before the first New Hampshire race. Chevrolet will do the same with its new Monte Carlo right before the Allstate 400 (formerly the Brickyard 400) in Indy.(Yahoo Sports )(6-28-2005)
      • Ford and Chevy submit 2006 models, Toyota. Ford and Chevrolet have submitted prototypes to NASCAR for the 2006 season. Ford’s car is expected to be named the Fusion, and Chevrolet will retain the Monte Carlo brand. The big question surrounds Toyota. The NASCAR rulebook says any new car model to be considered for approval for competition in the 2006 season must be submitted by the manufacturers to NASCAR for initial consideration not later than July 1. NASCAR officials will not confirm Toyota’s intention to offer a stock car. There has been talk that Toyota will pull out of the Indy Racing League at the end of this season, which frightens the big three American automakers currently competing in NASCAR because of the generous budgets the Japanese company devotes to racing. An announcement regarding Toyota’s intention could come as early as this weekend at Daytona—perfect timing for the July 1 deadline.(Sporting News )(6-27-2005)
      • More of new 2006 models: Both Chevrolet and Ford have been busy working on their new models for Cup and Busch competition starting next season. Chevrolet will debut the newly-redesigned Monte Carlo at Daytona in February 2006, while Ford will switch from the Taurus (which is no longer being built) to the Ford 500 [other reports have the car being the Fusion] next year.(Yahoo Sports )(6-6-2005)
      • Manufacturers not leaving: Billion-dollar losses by the U.S. automakers, sagging sales, loss of market share to foreign manufacturers, soaring health-care costs and high fuel prices. Sounds like trouble for the sport of NASCAR racing, which relies heavily on support from automakers to keep fleets of Fords, Chevys and Dodges on the track. Not so, say the automakers’ representatives at the race tracks. This is the time, when you are in difficult situations, when in fact you rely on racing even more to move your product, said Dan Davis, director of Ford Racing Technology. I don’t think racing is in any jeopardy at this point or that the racing program is going to be somehow eliminated. In fact, it’s possibly the opposite. When you have programs like racing that work, and you have limited funds, that’s when you start to really rely on those areas. Racing works. We know it works. It’s solid as a rock.

        Alba Colon, Nextel Cup program manager for General Motors, said her company isn’t planning any changes either. We are very committed to the deal, Colon said. We are committed to NASCAR, and we have long-term contracts with our teams.

        Ray Evernham, who fields Dodge Chargers and is sponsored by Dodge, said he worries about the finances of his sponsor and the other auto makers, but he’s confident they’ll stick with him and NASCAR. I still believe American manufacturers realize this is a place where they need to be, he said. It’s still the best bang for the marketing buck. That’s why we have so many Fortune 500 companies in NASCAR.

        But there is concern in NASCAR about the health of the U.S. auto manufacturers. The withdrawal of any one manufacturer in the series can have awful consequences throughout the garage, Roush Racing president Geoff Smith said. If any one decided not to play any more, there would be a number of teams that would immediately be underfinanced to be able to compete with the people that had the budget. Smith said he sees only two scenarios that would cause any of the Big Three or Toyota, which now competes in the Craftsman Truck Series, to leave NASCAR. One would be if global consolidation eliminates a nameplate. The second scenario that could cause manufacturers to leave NASCAR is if one gained a huge competitive advantage on the track. Historically, if one manufacturer comes in and makes a big investment that the others think alters the playing field, they quit, Smith said. That is part of NASCAR’s challenge, to try to keep the economic playing field somewhat level, with no one party too low or too high. Smith and others say that even with the evolution of NASCAR rules, which has created a type of car that has little resemblance to those on showroom floors, the Win on Sunday, Sell on Monday adage still applies.(Atlanta Journal-Constitution )(5-31-2005)

      • NASCAR Manufacturer Support in Trouble? Given the choppy financial outlook for the Big Three automakers, some NASCAR team executives are beginning to wonder whether the cascade of financial and technical support they receive from Detroit will begin to run dry. oes it really make sense for General Motors, which lost $1.1 billion in the first quarter of this year, and Ford and DaimlerChrysler, which saw profits slip 30% or more, to maintain estimated nine-figure NASCAR budgets? It’s a legitimate question that a shareholder would ask, says Jim Andrews, editorial director of the IEG Sponsorship Report. But there’s also a danger in saying, ‘The company’s doing badly, let’s just start dumping stuff.’ Executives representing automakers’ racing programs say sales slumps make NASCAR more important than ever. While manufacturers are beginning to find ways to spend money more efficiently in racing, executives rule out wholesale cutbacks that would jeopardize their teams’ ability to compete. Andrews notes that GM actually is expanding its sports marketing budget, having signed a deal with Major League Baseball earlier this year. I doubt very much that these companies are looking at NASCAR racing and saying, ‘We should be getting out,’ Andrews says. Andrews believes automakers’ support of NASCAR is more defensive than anything else; they’re racing because their competitors are racing. If they weren’t there, other companies would say, ‘Why aren’t you there?’

        Manufacturers’ executives tell a different story, one of positive media exposure and fan demographics. We absolutely believe that it’s a great return on our investment, from the standpoint of getting exposure, says Bob Wildberger, senior manager of NASCAR operations for Dodge Motorsports. Mark Kent, director of GM Racing, says GM is in NASCAR for the long haul. But Kent says they have cut back on travel expenses and are working with Chevy teams to consolidate research and development projects. Obviously, like anything else in our business, we’re looking to do more with less, Kent says.(USA Today )(5-11-2005)

      • GM Plans to stay in racing: Despite General Motors’ quarterly loss of $1.1 billion, the largest deficit since the first quarter of 1992, the newly appointed director of GM racing, Mark Kent, will defend the racing program to stockholders and is optimistic that Chevrolet will be able to compete with Toyota when Toyota enters Cup, which is expected in 2007. Insiders expect Toyota’s technology to make it a strong contender immediately.(Sporting News )(4-26-2005)
      • Chevy SSR Returns to Pace the Field in NASCAR: A Chevrolet SSR will perform pace duties for the Auto Club 500 at California Speedway on Sunday, Feb. 27, and continue those duties for a total of 20 NASCAR NEXTEL Cup races this season. This weekend will be the first time the Chevy SSR, a unique blend of an open-air roadster with pick-up truck functionality, will pace the field during the 2005 race season. The 2005 Chevy SSR pace vehicle has a four-color paint scheme with a Sling Shot Yellow nose blending into hot orange and Torch Red racing flames throughout the body and ultimately transitioning to a Kinetic Blue truck bed. The event logo for each race will be featured on both door panels with a red Chevy bowtie displayed on the hood. The Chevy SSR pacing the field is nearly identical to the vehicles available in dealer showrooms. As the Official Pace Vehicle of NASCAR, Chevrolet will perform pace duties for 60 NASCAR events in 2005, including 28 NASCAR NEXTEL Cup, 17 Busch Series and 15 Craftsman Truck Series races, featuring vehicles such as Corvette, Monte Carlo and Silverado.(GM PR )(2-26-2005)
      • Chevrolet Donates $688,300 to The Dale Earnhardt Foundation: Brent Dewar, general manager of Chevrolet, presented a check for $688,300 to Teresa Earnhardt as a donation to The Dale Earnhardt Foundation. The contribution was generated by sales of Signature Series Monte Carlos honoring the late Dale Earnhardt and Dale Earnhardt, Jr. The Dale Earnhardt Foundation is committed to carrying on Dale’s legacy and the charitable causes he supported during his lifetime in the areas of education, children, the environment and wildlife preservation. Teresa Earnhardt created the foundation in 2002 and continues to be involved in its overall operations. We are so pleased to be able to continue Dale’s vision of caring for others, said Teresa Earnhardt, president and CEO of Dale Earnhardt Incorporated. I want to thank Chevrolet for their generous contribution and for playing an instrumental role in carrying on his legacy for years to come. The build of the 2004 Monte Carlo Intimidator SS was limited to 4,000 units as a tribute to seven-time NASCAR champion Dale Earnhardt. The second model, a 2004 Dale Earnhardt, Jr. Signature Series Monte Carlo SS, was a salute to one of the sport’s most popular and competitive drivers. A total of 2,883 Dale Earnhardt Jr. units were produced. We created the Earnhardt-themed Monte Carlos as a way for fans to support the sport’s most legendary father-and-son racing duo, said Dewar. We are delighted that the Signature Series Monte Carlos have also raised significant funds to benefit the charities important to Dale Earnhardt. Both models are based on the Monte Carlo Supercharged SS coupe. Each is powered by GM’s 3800 Series II supercharged V-6 engine, delivering 240 horsepower at 5200 rpm and an impressive 280 lb-ft. of torque at 3600 rpm. The vehicles were sold at select dealerships in the U.S. and Canada with a portion of the proceeds of each sale benefiting The Dale Earnhardt Foundation.(GM PR)(2-19-2005)
      • New GM Racing Head Appointed: General Motors has named Mark Kent its new director of racing. Kent will oversee engineering and marketing activities for all of GM’s motorsports programs, including NASCAR, NHRA, SCCA, Grand American, American Le Mans and IRL. Kent, 44, replaces Doug Duchardt, who held the position for the last two years. Kent has experience in powertrain development both for production and race vehicles. From 1987 to 1992, he held motorsports engine engineering and program manager positions for winning IMSA GTU and SCCA Trans Am programs. Most recently, he was the GM Powertrain design systems engineer for the Northstar V-8 line-up of engines. Our racing efforts will benefit from Mark’s motorsports engineering and program management experience and his competitive nature, said Steve Shannon, executive director of GM Marketing Services. He has a strong track record of leading and supporting successful racing programs for the company. Kent takes the reins to GM’s extensive motorsports program on March 1, 2005.(GM PR)(2-17-2005)
      • New Chevy Monte Carlo for 2006? A year after re-designing the Chevrolet Monte Carlo, General Motors wants to do it again for the 2006 season. The new production model of the 2006 Monte Carlo was unveiled in January at the Detroit Auto Show. Chevrolet must win support for its changes from NASCAR by a Sept. 1 deadline so teams will have time to build new cars in time for the next season. Since most of the templates in NASCAR are the same for Chevrolet, Ford and Dodge, the only areas open for change are the front and rear bumpers.(Augusta Chronicle )(2-17-2005)

        2004 News

      • CHEVY Notes UPDATED:

        To date, Chevrolet has collected 32 victories at Darlington Raceway — more than any other manufacturer in the Modern Era (1972 — present).

        At Sunday’s Mountain Dew Southern 500, Chevrolet will be going for its seventh straight win in as many races. Chevy drivers have won the past six races (since Talladega, Oct. 3). #48-Johnson won, 8 straight.

        At Darlington, Chevrolet got it’s 23rd victory of the season, which matches its best Modern Era record of 22 wins set in 1980.

        Chevrolet has led more laps than any other manufacturer this season with 5334 of 10,484 possible.

        Chevrolet is the most successful manufacturer of all time in NASCAR Cup racing with a total of 556 victories since 1949 (Ford currently has 553).(see the list on my Manufacturers Champiobship page )

        Jimmie Johnson’s victory in the UAW-GM Quality 500 at Lowe’s Motor Speedway Oct. 16 clinched the 2004 Manufacturers’ Championship for Chevrolet in the NASCAR NEXTEL Cup Series. The title is the 28th for Chevrolet since 1952 and the 24th in the Modern Era (since 1972). Ford ranks second with 15 titles.(GM PR)(11-13/15-2004)

      • Intake Manifolds Submitted: According to NASCAR sources all three manufacturers have submitted new intake manifolds for consideration of approval by NASCAR for the 2005 season. The deadline for new part submittal was Sept. 1. The Ford piece doesn’t represent an earth shattering improvement, and actually the new item was submitted to help the engine builders assemble and seal the intake system. The current intake posses a problem due to the orientation of the bolts used to secure it to the head and the fasteners don’t allow a seal to the quality of the other manufactures. The GM types are keeping their cards close to their vest, but cited assembly issues. The Dodge Boys weren’t available to learn their desires for a new intake.(Team Ford Racing )(9-6-2004)
      • New Chevy Nose? Kevin Harvick got a nose job when he tested last week at Texas Motor Speedway. According to sources at the test, Harvick’s #29 Chevrolet was sporting a variety of noses, including pieces from Ford and Dodge. General Motors tested the different combinations of the noses in the wind tunnel before putting the car on the track but did not find an advantage.(FoxSports/Sporting News )(3-29-2004)
      • Chevy Looking for Help? the GM camp is uietly lobbying NASCAR for a new nose for their one-year old Chevrolet Monte Carlo. The very same nose that led to a near panic in ‘03 when it’s odd shape seemed to give the Monte a lot of bang for the buck.(Ford Racing )(3-9-2004)
      • Chevrolet Donates $242,400 to Pair of Charities: The results are in and the 2003 Chevrolet Monte Carlo SS Jeff Gordon Signature Edition was a sell out. As a result of this marketplace success Chevrolet has donated a total of $242,400 to charity as a way to acknowledge of two key individuals who supported the vehicle program – 4-time NASCAR driving champion Jeff Gordon and team owner of Gordon’s #24 Dupont Chevrolet, Rick Hendrick. The Jeff Gordon Foundation and the Hendrick Marrow Program each received a check for $121,200. See full story on my Racing Charities Page .(2-28-2004)

        2003 News

        • #400 for Chevy: #48-Jimmie Johnson, driver of the Lowe’s Monte Carlo, won the New England 300 at New Hampshire International Speedway and gave Chevrolet its 400th victory of the modern era (1972-present) in NASCAR Winston Cup racing. Chevrolet’s 400th victory of the modern era began with Bobby Allison’s win at Atlanta International Raceway [now Atlanta Motor Speedway] on March 26, 1972. His car owner at that time was Richard Howard, and his team manager that season was Junior Johnson. Allison’s victory at Atlanta was the first for a Chevrolet on a superspeedway since Johnson won at Charlotte in October 1963.(GM Racing PR)(7-21-2003)
        • New Chevy Engine: NASCAR tentatively approved the new R99 engine General Motors wants to use in the Craftsman Truck Series next year. The R99 is expected to generate more horsepower than the current SB2 engine, but GM is more focused on durability. The R99 has larger camshafts and more bore spacing that is similar to the engine Dodge uses now and that Toyota will run in 2004. If the R99 performs well, GM will push to use it in Winston Cup races in 2005, but NASCAR isn’t likely to grant approval before Toyota joins the Cup series.(Sporting News )(6-9-2003)
        • GM Boss to Retire: General Motors announced Wednesday that Herb Fishel, executive director of GM Racing, will go on special assignment to GM Service and Parts Operations on June 1 and retire Sept. 1. Doug Duchardt, group manager for GM Racing’s oval track group, will assume Fishel’s responsibilities at GM Racing effective June 1. Pat Suhy Jr. an engineer at GM Powertrain, will replace Duchardt. Duchardt, 39, has been responsible since 1999 for all program management and technical development for engines, chassis and aerodynamics for the Chevrolet and Pontiac entries in NASCAR’s Winston Cup, Busch and Craftsman Truck series.(Winston Cup Scene Daily Newsletter )(5-15-2003)
        • Chevy TV Commercial: hearing that filming of a new Chevrolet commercial wraps up this week at Atlanta Motor Speedway. The commercial will prominently feature the #8, #18, #24, General Motors-Pontiac representative, will take a new job starting in two weeks, with Michael Andretti’s IRL Indy Car team. Larsen will work his last NASCAR race this weekend at Richmond. A replacement for Larsen isn’t known at this time.(Insider Racing News )(4-28-2003)
        • Chevy Cheating? UPDATE: Rusty Wallace fanned the flames of suspicion yesterday when he insisted that Chevy teams were fudging: Four or five of them were cheating really, really hard and didn’t get caught. The NASCAR guys know it, and they’re out for them when they get to Talladega.(Winston Salem Journal and Roanoke Times ). yikes.

          UPDATE: The grumblings have started between the different car makes, with most teams thinking the Chevrolets are at a decided advantage and Rusty Wallace even making allegations of cheating. Monte Carlos from Dale Earnhardt Inc. won four races during Speed Weeks and Richard Childress-owned Chevys won the fifth race and the pole for the Daytona 500. I don’t know why (the Chevys) were so good at Daytona, said Wallace. They had more power and a little less coefficient of drag. Four or five of them were cheating really, really hard and didn’t get caught. The NASCAR guys know it, and they’re out for them when they get to Talladega.

        • Worried about Toyota? GM and Ford teams are both worried that when Toyota comes into Winston Cup racing, it will raise the financial stakes considerably, and that GM and Ford executives in turn will have to cut back on the support they give their own teams if they have to start matching Toyota’s expected surge of TV ads.(Winston Salem Journal )(2-17-2003)
        • 2002 News

          • 2003 GM cars test at Talladega: The 2003 version of the Chevrolet Monte Carlo and Pontiac Grand Prix hit the track running fast on Wednesday for the first of a two-day General Motors test session at Talladega Superspeedway. “I think it’s better. I really do,” said Dale Earnhardt Jr. the driver of the #8 Chevy Budweiser team and the winner of the past three races at the track. “It’s a little too early to really tell, but it’s fast.” Dale Jr. and the #8 Budweiser Dale Earnhardt Inc. team were among 11 General Motors teams testing at Talladega. Junior was joined by fellow DEI drivers Michael Waltrip with the #15 NAPA Auto Parts Chevy team and Steve Park with the #1 Pennzoil Chevy team. “We were just working on qualifying runs this morning,” said Dale Jr. while taking a break playing solitaire and eating a few crackers and cheese. Asked what the major changes were, he looked over the car front to back and replied, “All of it; it’s all new.” Dale Jr. isn’t kidding. When fans see the new Monte Carlo, they will easily recognize its sloping hood, short rear deck and rear quarter glass panels. The car also appears to be sleeker in overall shape. The nose of the car is also new, with a continuing slope from the hood of the car. Eleven General Motors Teams Put 2003 Models Through a Workout at Talladega Superspeedway. Joining the three DEI teams on Wednesday were fellow GM drivers Jeff Green with the #30 America Online Richard Childress Racing team, Ron Hornaday with the #31 Cingular Wireless RCR team, Mike Skinner with the #4 Kodak Film Morgan-McClure Motorspo rts crew, Jack Sprague with the #60 Haas Automation Hendrick Motorsports team, David Green with the #5 Kellogg’s Hendrick Motorsports crew, Andy Hillenburg with the #10 MBV Valvoine Racing team, Ricky Craven with the #32 Tide PPI Motorsports crew and Bobby Labonte with the #18 Interstate Batteries Joe Gibbs Racing team. The two-day GM test ends Thursday. NASCAR approved the 2003 Pontiac Grand Prix in late July and the 2003 Chevrolet Monte Carlo about a month later. Since that time the teams have been working on the 2003 cars. DEI, RCR, Joe Gibbs Racing and Hendrick Motorsports were credited with pooling their talents to aid in the design of the new Monte Carlo. Joe Gibbs Racing will make the switch from Pontiac to Chevrolet in 2003 and PPI Motorsports switches from Ford to Pontiac.(Talladega Superspeedway )(10-31-2002)
        • 2003 GM Test Scheduled The GM teams will test their new cars at Homestead-Miami Speedway the day after the season finale at Homestead, Fla. No 2002 models will be allowed during the open test session. It is expected the GM teams will thoroughly test the front downforce in the new noses.(Ford Racing )(10-27-2002)
        • Templates: For the 2003 season, each of the manufacturers has been given 32 templates, 18 which are identical for all cars. There’s a bigger agenda with incorporating similar templates and a standard body location — which will be officially announced sometime over the next few weeks as measuring 60 inches from the top of the windshield to the middle of the rear tires — and that is to even up the playing field.(more at the Sporting News )(9-14-2002)
        • Template Meeting UPDATE: Crew chiefs, car chiefs and head fabricators were expected to meet at the NASCAR Technical Center in Conover, N.C. to discuss the templates the teams will use in 2003. Because there was confusion between NASCAR inspectors and teams at the Daytona 500 this season, series director John Darby doesn’t want any misunderstandings when the teams return to Daytona for the season opener in 2003. NASCAR also will use the time for teams to sound off about the cars’ body placement on the chassis for next year.(Sporting News )(9-2-2002)

          UPDATE: According to well-placed NASCAR sources a Wednesday meeting could bring the Winston Cup teams an early Christmas present. All crew chiefs are expected in NASCAR’s Hickory, N.C. Research and Development Center to discuss inspection policies for the 2003 season. The NASCAR source said that Winston Cup director John Darby would like the teams to have a very good idea of what to expect in the inspection bays when they arrive at Daytona International Speedway in 2003; and lower the anxiety levels that comes with preparation. Several teams worked on Christmas Eve and Christmas Day 2001 to get ready for 2002 Daytona testing. Advance notice of templates and inspection process could allow building of most of the fleet built prior to Christmas. The meeting is anticipated to focus closely on the car templates, featuring the new “greenhouse” template that will go into use in 2003. The greenhouse template, which will fit onto the car from the base of the “A” pillar and run over the roof to the bottom of the “C” pillar, will be the identical for all makes and models competing.(FordRacing )(9-3-2002)

          UPDATE 2: the meeting will be held Wednesday.(Fox Sports Net/Totally NASCAR)(9-4-2002)

        • UPDATE: While no bulletin has been issued, yet, NASCAR has all but issued the paperwork to make the body locations standard for the 2003 season. The prospect has been looming during the past several weeks, but issuance of the rule has been slowed, somewhat, by team politicking. In the final analysis NASCAR will call for the car bodies to sit at a 60-inch measurement, plus or minus three-quarters-of-an-inch as measured from the center of the roof at the windshield seem to the center of the rear axle housing. Generally the ruling is being hailed in the garage as a plus, but it does represent a lot of work for several car owners. Robert Yates, just today, learned from his crew chiefs – Michael McSwain and Todd Parrott – that about 40 of the Yates’ 42-car fleet will need to be re-skinned to meet the new NASCAR specification. NASCAR, while tightening down body mounting locations, will also take a bite out of the team’s creativity in outlawing twisted roofs and hoods. Changes here will prohibit the teams from getting too wild with the bows and bends on the roofs of these cars. There was talk that NASCAR would issue the greenhouses, the area above the doorsills, for the cars complete with A, B and C pillars along with a roof stamping, but that apparently has been taken off the table. The critical measurements of the greenhouse, however, will be captured in the new NASCAR 2003 templates and will make all windshield rakes and measurements standard across all brands. Dodge and Ford are supposed to be currently running the same windshield rakes this year, but something with the templates allowed the Dodge to lay their windshield back slightly more than the Ford teams. This reduced angle is helpful to the Dodge cause as it helps reduce drag.(Ford Racing )(8-31-2002)

        • 2003 Chevy Approved: The all-new 2003 Chevrolet Monte Carlo race car has been given the green light by NASCAR. Officials with Chevrolet and GM Racing received the final approval this week. For the past six months, key representatives from GM Racing have been working diligently with NASCAR and Chevrolet Winston Cup drivers, team owners, and engineers to develop, build, and submit a brand new Monte Carlo for Winston Cup competition. Hendrick Motorsports (HMS), Dale Earnhardt Inc. (DEI), Richard Childress Racing (RCR), and Joe Gibbs Racing (JGR) pooled their talents to design the new race car, which will make its official debut at Daytona Speedweeks in February 2003. With valuable input from Joe Gibbs Racing, which was one of the teams leading an earlier 2003 Pontiac Grand Prix submission, GM Racing engineers were able to streamline their entire course of action and accomplish the task in a relatively short period of time. Each team played a significant role in the development of the new Monte Carlo. RCR built the downforce car, DEI built the superspeedway car, and HMS built the final submission car. GM Racing concentrated on the challenge of building a car that not only conforms to the new aerodynamic platform established by NASCAR, but that also retains the styling characteristics of the street Monte Carlo.(GM PR)(8-24-2002)
        • ‘Big’ cars not until 2003? NASCAR is telling Winston Cup teams not to expect the new low-downforce cars until next season, maybe late next season, depending on the financial health of Busch tour car owners. NASCAR is looking at incorporating the larger greenhouse roll cage with the low-downforce tweaks, possibly not rolling out the project until the October Talladega race. Because of serious structural issues in roll- cage welding, apparently discovered during last year’s fatal ARCA crash at Charlotte, NASCAR officials will require the new roll cage to be completely new construction, and will not allow teams simply to cut off the current roll cage and weld a larger greenhouse in place.(Winston Salem Journal )(7-6-2002)
        • Chevy Behind UPDATE nope: The development of the 2003 Monte Carlo, isn’t moving forward as smoothly as the Pontiac. The car is nearly six weeks behind schedule, and GM is expected to ask NASCAR for an extension beyond the July 1 submission date. The car has been to the GM wind tunnel three times in the last two weeks.(Sporting News )(6-17-2002)

          UPDATE: According to John Darby, the new 2003 Monte Carlo currently meets all the criteria of a NASCAR submission. This assertion by Darby answers the question on whether the new Monte Carlo will make the July 1 date for new car submissions. “Its initial concept submission has already happened,” says Darby of the 2003 Chevrolet hardware. “We have already been invited to go look at a 2003 Monte Carlo. The concept is there. Actually the car was probably about 70 percent complete. Enough of it was complete that we understood very easily that number one, it was a Chevrolet Monte Carlo and that the car was being built in regards to the NASCAR race car templates and so on and so forth. So that part’s already happened.”(Ford Racing. direct link doesn’t work)(6-20-2002)

        • Secret rules/template change? NASCAR officials have [supposedly] quietly made a secret rules change to help Pontiacs, and the secrecy is bothersome to several rival teams that insisted that NASCAR should be following a more open policy by announcing any rules changes. That raises the question of what other rules NASCAR might be adding to the rule book from behind closed doors. The new rule is an alteration to the long template, which stretches the silhouette of the car from the nose to the tail; the alteration is a new hump in the middle of the hood, which allows Pontiac engine men to run a taller intake manifold. The change, Pontiac team members say, is worth seven to eight horsepower, which some rivals confirmed yesterday.(Winston Salem Journal )

          AND Earlier this week NASCAR announced that the Pontiac Grand Prix was the recipient of a concession on the nose and tail. The changes that NASCAR announced included an additional half-inch of kickout to the nose and an extra quarter-inch on the rear spoiler. But there was another change to the Pontiac that was not announced by NASCAR. This undocumented change allows the Pontiac teams to raise the rear point of the hood by three-quarters-of-an-inch. The modification is in place here at Michigan. The change allows the Pontiac teams more flexibility on how they mount their motors in the Grand Prix with the increase in clearance above the motor. Until this change the Pontiac teams were juggling the motor low in the car to accommodate a larger air filter/spacer /intake setup. Or, if they decided that the motor needed to be raised for some chassis or suspension consideration, a low profile air cleaner and intake arrangement needed to be used. NASCAR officials were not available for comment, but the Pontiac teams seemed excited to have the added headroom.(Ford Racing — sorry, their direct links don’t work)(6-17-2002)

        • ‘Big Car’ tested in wind tunnel: The larger Winston Cup car, with a larger ‘greenhouse’ (between the windwhield and rear window) was tested at the wind tunnel in Marietta, GA on Monday.(FSN’s Totally NASCAR)(6-14-2002)
        • Volkswagen in NASCAR? German automaker Volkswagen is considering following Toyota’s lead in joining the NASCAR marketing world, eventually with a Winston Cup effort, according to NASCAR sources. One question now is what model might Volkswagen want to brand and market under the NASCAR logo. NASCAR’s common-template car project makes both a Toyota and VW Winston Cup effort easier. But Honda is not expected to show any interest in NASCAR’s stock-car series, according to industry sources, because that company is not interested in playing the political games that must be played to placate the sport’s rulers. Toyota wants to field a Tundra truck in NASCAR’s Truck series next season, and company engineers are discussing various technical options with NASCAR officials.(Winston Salem Journal ). A NASCAR Beetle?(a joke of course)(6-3-2002)
        • More new Chevy/Pontiac for 2003 news: Richard Childress [owner of the #’s 29,30,31] says he expects NASCAR to approve a significantly modified Chevrolet Monte Carlo body style for 2003. Pontiacs also are due for a change (has submitted a 2003 Grand Prix body to NASCAR for approval, Chevy has not). Childress hopes the new Monte Carlo will narrow a perceived aerodynamic disadvantage to rival Ford and Dodge teams. NASCAR cars’ bodies are only loosely based on street cars’, and NASCAR officials regularly tinker with the aerodynamic characteristics of different car makes’ bodies to keep competition equal. That causes teams to argue over which make has an advantage and lobby for changes. Winston Cup series director John Darby hopes to reduce the bickering next year by making all four car makes almost identical, primarily different in the nose and tail. The current Ford and Dodge bodies already are similar; Chevys and Pontiacs likely will get more rounded-off roof sections in 2003. Darby says making the cars more similar also will make it easier to accomplish NASCAR’s broader goal of making its cars less dependent on aerodynamics to stick to the track, a move it hopes will make racing more competitive.(USA Today )(5-29-2002)
        • New Chevy Body in 2003? UPDATE: hearing that Chevrolet will roll out a new body for the 2003 season which basically be a Pontiac with a new nose and tail.(4-8-2002)
        • No Common Templates: Common templates are not on the horizon, according to NASCAR President Mike Helton. “I don’t know that you’ll ever reach a point where there’s definitively a set of templates that are uniquely common. I think there is a benefit for Chevrolet, Pontiac, Dodge and Ford to have brand identity in these garage areas,” Helton said March 16. “That’s the backbone of the competition and the business. So the controversy that surrounds that, I don’t think will ever go away. You look at the NASCAR stock car that’s in the Cup and the Busch garages, and they’re uniquely NASCAR race cars. They have bowties and blue ovals and ram shields and Pontiac triangles in them, but they are NASCAR race cars. If you took a set of templates from a Pontiac and went to a showroom, they’re not going to fit that car. They’re going to fit the NASCAR race car that carries the Pontiac brand on them.(Winston Cup Scene — need sub to read)(3-21-2002)

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          stand up for the anthem Time is running out’, by Unity Pacific

          140 mya — 140 million years ago Middle East and North Sea oil forms from the continuous rain of dead bodies of tiny plant and animal plankton in the seas of this time.

          90 mya — 90 million years ago North and Central American oil forms from the continuous rain of dead bodies of tiny plant and animal plankton in the seas of this time.

          74 mya — 75 million years ago — oils generated from the organic-rich marine carbonates deposited in the Jurassic era thermally mature and are expelled from the carbonate rock into anhydrite capped reservoirs deep within the ground. These trapped oils form the worlds largest oilfield, the super-giant Ghawar field of Arabia.

          1848 — the first ever oil well is drilled in Baku, Georgia.

          1850 — most homes in the west are lit by smoky, smelly, whale oil lamps. The beginning of a turn to clean burning kerosine.

          1858 — The first oil well drilled on the continent of North American is drilled in Ontario, Canada.

          1859 — first ever U.S. oil well drilled in Pennsylvania by the Pennsylvania Rock Oil Company at the site of seeping oil at Oil Creek, Titusville. Oil is struck at 21 meters. Numerous refineries spring up in the oil region. Gasoline is an unwanted by-product of kerosine refining.

          1870 — John D Rockerfeller founds the Standard Oil Company.

          1878 — Standard Oil controls 90% of the refining capacity in USA. Kerosine for lighting is a main product, as whale oil for lighting is now increasingly expensive as whale catches have peaked, and are now declining year on year.

          1877 — Worlds first oil tanker (steam driven) plys the Caspian sea, carrying kerosine.

          1878 — Invention of the lightbulb -death knell of the kerosine lamp.

          1882 — Karl Benz, a German inventor, develops and builds the first automobile. The vehicle uses ‘benzine’ distilled from coal. Later, Benz switches to ‘petroleum’, refined from crude oil.

          1892 — In a technological breakthrough, French car builder Peugeot creates the first petrol-engined 4 wheel car that has rubber tyres.

          1901 — Spindletop oilfield in Texas drills a well that gushes 100,000 barrels of oil a day.

          1901 — William Knox D’Arcy, ultimate founder of British Petroleum company, buys a 480,000 square mile concession from the Grand Vizier in Teheran, Persia (Iran) to search for oil.

          1901 — Englishman Wheatman Pearson buys oil concessions in Mexico.

          1903 — Ford motor company incorporated.

          1903 — the British Foreign Secretary warns Russia and Germany that Britain would regard the establishment of a naval base or of a fortified port in the Persian Gulf by any other power as a very grave menace to British interests, and we should certainly resist it with all the means at our disposal. The economic importance of the region to colonial corporate interest was recognised as a prize worth fighting for.

          1905 — William Knox D’Arcy, in a partnership with the Burmah Oil company, finally strikes oil in his Persian concession. The partners form the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, later to be renamed British Petroleum.

          1906 — There are about 100,000 cars and trucks in USA.

          1908 — First mass production of automobiles, with the introduction of the model T ford.

          1908 — Irans first oilfield, the Masjed Soleiman field in southwestern Khuzestan Province, is discovered. It is estimated to hold 6 billion barrels.

          1908 — Shell oil buys oilfields in Egypt.

          1910 — Shell oil buys the Ural-Caspian oilfields in Russia.

          1910 — the British navy commences switching from coal powered ships to oil powered ships.

          1911 — In a world of relatively small companies, the oil companies are already giants. Standard Oil and Royal Dutch Shell have oifields in Indonesia, Russia, USA, Venuezuela and Mexico. These two giant companies have pipelines, refineries, tankers, storage depots, and huge shipping fleets operating worldwide.

          1911 — Standard Oil found by US courts to be an unreasonable monopoly as is broken up into 34 smaller companies.

          1912 — Peugeot create the first petrol engine with twin overhead cams and 4 valves per cylinder.

          1913 — world navies switch from burning coal (steam) to increase the speed and range of warships.

          1914 — The British Government takes a 51% holding in the Anglo-Persian oil company just prior to world war 1, and changes the rules so that only British citizens may be company directors. This company will provide handsome profits to the British government treasury.

          1914 — major industrialised nations give up the gold standard whereby each currency was fixed at a given amount of gold, and could be freely exchanged for that physical gold equivalent. All balance of payment deficits between one country and another were settled by transfer of gold, reducing the currency available for circulation in the debtor nation and curbing public spending in the debtor nation, thus driving down domestic prices and making exports competitive once more.

          By abandoning the gold standard, long term bonds could be raised to finance war.

          1914 — 1918 — oil found to be of even greater militarily importance as use of trucks and tanks in battle commences. First oil supply shortage, but the Allied army has a much greater access to oil.

          member of the British War Cabinet

          1918 — The British, aware Mosul and Bhagdad are rich prospects, seize the oil region of Mosul, fighting on after the armistice in order to seize it, and block French interests in the area. In the aftermath of the collapse of the Ottoman empire, Britain draws up the boundaries of the British-created state of Iraq, making sure it contained the most oil-prospective sectors for its oil companies. The UK Secretary of the War Cabinet, noted in cabinet letter that oil was a saying,

          concerned about domestic oil shortages, and without overseas sources, demands that USA oil companies be included in concessions in Iraq. A new consortium was created, including USA companies, and named the ‘Iraq Petroleum Company’. It consisted of of BP, Exxon, Gulf, Texaco, Mobil, and a private entrepreneur.

          1919 — Shell buy Wheatman Pearson’s by now large Mexican oil concessions.

          1919 — Exxon buys significant sized Texas oil company.

          1920 — Exxon buys Russian oilfields.

          1920’s — ‘roaring twenties’ — the British Empire is declining, British Imperial forces are overextended across the globe. British armed forces occupy Iraq and spend 10 years ‘pacifying’ Iraq with poison gas, troops, incendiary munitions and armoured vehicles in order to protect their oil company interests. Maintaining the Imperial reach is a huge drain on government funds. As a result, Britain has a huge government budget deficit, which it ‘manages’ by devaluing the pound and borrowing heavily from overseas. It imports far more by value than it exports, i.e. has a huge foreign trade deficit. By the late 1920’s the western world start to abandon ‘holding’ British pound debt and repatriate their capital. The pound falls heavily as a currency of value.

          In USA, from 1921 to 1929, there is a huge expansion of easy credit. Undercapitalized banks and loan agencies proliferate. Huge amounts — an estimated $US28 billion — of money are created through easy loans. Banks cut each others throats to match low interest rates and attract borrowers. America promotes unsound loans of American dollars overseas in order to stimulate overseas markets to buy US farm exports, thus keeping unemployment in the USA low.

          1920’s — Competition between oil companies is fierce, with much price slashing and below-cost selling to gain market share. The two main oil exporting countries are USA and Mexico. All oil prices are ‘benchmarked’ to the price of oil in the Gulf of Mexico plus transportation costs from the Gulf of Mexico to the point of delivery, regardless of where in the world the oil was actually produced or actually delivered. All contracts are in USA dollars.

          1920 — there are approximately 9 million cars in USA, consuming about 3 billion US gallons of petroleum a year. The US Geological Survey expresses concern that at this rate of consumption, there may be only enough oil for about the next 20 years.

          1924 — North America is by far the world’s largest oil producer, pumping out 2.3 million barrels a day. Europe is a far distant second, producing 179,000 barrels a day. The Far East produces 95,000 barrels of crude a day, and the Middle East, only 83,000 barrels of oil a day.

          1926 — Arabian tribal king, Ibn Saud, completes his conquest of the Arabian Peninsular and names the country after his family — ‘Saudi’ Arabia.

          1927 — Gulf oil buy the oil concession of the Sheikdom of Kuwait.

          1928 — (september) Major USA and UK oil companies Exxon, Shell, and BP meet at Achnacarry Castle in Scotland and agree not to compete against each other in a global price-fixing collusion.

          1928 — An agreement is signed by USA and the UK giving the Iraq Petroleum Company oil-drilling rights in every part of the old Ottoman Empire, from Turkey to the southern tip of Saudi Arabia. In the post-Ottoman era boundaries were somewhat fluid, so a red line was drawn by USA and UK on a map to show what areas where covered. This came to be known as the ‘red line agreement’. The line enclosed almost all likely oil prospects, except for Kuwait and Persia (Iran).

          The Iraqi British ‘puppet’ government ‘settles’ on a royalty of 4 gold shillings per ton. Oil companies make a profit of around two times the sum they pay the Iraqi government.

          1929 — The ‘great depression’. USA credit bubble collapses as shonky US banks fail in July 1929, paper companies on the US sharemarket fail and the sharemarket bubble pops in october 1929.

          1930 — by the early months of 1930 the USA economy more or less collapses.There is 30% unemployment, house prices collapse, domestic farming prices fall as spending power disappears. Small farmers in some impoverished states with endemic erosion problems are badly hit, other regions are much less badly affected. In the UK there is depression in the north, but little effect in the south as new industries around based on electricity and new technologies expand.

          1930 — USA imposes the Smoot-Hawley tariffs to protect local industry. The US protectionist anti-fair trade impulse first established by the US Constitution is re-invigorated. World trading economies are chilled.

          1932 — Iraq is granted independence by Britain, the occupying power. But Britain continues to rule by indirect proxy means and via stooges. It leaves a large military force and a large military air base in the country to ensure it’s highly profitable oil interests are protected.

          1933 may 29th — King Saud follows the advise of his English advisor Harry Philby and sells a concession to Standard Oil of California to search for oil reserves. Short of capital, Standard Oil of California (SOCAL) on-sells half its concession in Saudi Arabia to Texaco, via a joint venture called Aramco.

          1934 — Gulf Oil and BP form a joint venture to develop prospects in Kuwait.

          1938 — First Middle East oil well commences production at Dhuhran, eastern Saudi Arabia.

          1938 — Kuwaits giant Burgan field discovered by the Gulf Oil-BP joint venture.

          1938 — Mexico nationalises all 17 foreign oil companies controlling Mexico’s oil resource, and established the state run Permex company. Permex is forced to pay compensation for nationalised fields.

          World War II — Britain attempts to persuade King Saud to transfer the Texaco-Standard Oil concession to BP by advancing the King around 20 million dollars. The American companies lobby USA president Roosevelt, and the USA government trumps the British offer. Britain and Russia invade Iran to secure oil and supply routes after the ‘shah’ of Iran harbours nazi operatives.

          USA supplies allies with goods to prosecute the war, including most of the oil. Payment in gold is demanded. USA accumulates a large portion of the worlds gold reserves.

          1941 (July) — USA freezes all Japan’s financial assets in USA. These assets were used by Japan to pay for oil imports — 80% of which come from USA. Three days later Japan invades Indonesia to seize control of the Royal Shell Petroleum oil fields in southern Indonesia.

          1943 — Realising the huge strategic importance of oil to a modern army, President Roosevelt declares the the defense of Saudi Arabia is vital to the defense of the United States.

          1944 — Bretton Woods agreement leads to the gold standard being re-introduced, but this time the US dollar is allowed to be exchanged for gold — i.e. a gold/US dollar interchange standard, but only with foreign governments, not citizens. IMF established, with USA having veto rights on any major decisions made.

          1945 — As oil is of clear military strategic significance, US President Roosevelt meets with King Abd al-Aziz Ibn Saud, feudal monarch of the around 5 million people of the vast Arabian desert and commandeer of vast Arabian oil reserves. Agreement is reached to protect the founder of the Saud dynasty from competitors and external forces in return for privileged access to Saudi oil. Secret plans are made to destroy oil fields — even nuclear bombs are considered — if the Russians gain influence or control of the Saudi fields.

          1945 — The USA government forms an agreement with Saud that Aramco would pay it’s USA taxes to Saud, not to the USA government. This became known in USA government circles as ‘the golden gimmick’ that kept Saudi Arabia happy while USA supported the return of some of the ‘Israeli’ arab diaspora into a specially contrived ‘homeland’ separated from the other indigenous arab tribes of the Palestinian area.

          early 40’s — US oil companies — State Oil and Texaco bring Exxon and Mobil into the partnership Company, Aramco.

          1945 — US State department recognises that the Middle East oil reserves are a stupendous source of strategic power, and one of the greatest material prizes in world history . ref

          1940’s and 1950’s — Giant oil fields found in the Middle East, including the world’s largest oilfield (supposedly holding 115 billion barrels of oil), the Ghawar field (discovered in 1948, and first production in 1951). As British colonialisation melts away, Middle East nations take back control of their only significant resource, oil. Iran regains its own oil resources by nationalising all oil production. Resentment of foreign control of the impoversihed middle easts only worthwhile resource grows.

          1945 — Oil from the Middle East is so important in Europe that the oil price ‘benchmark’ is left at Gulf of Mexico prices plus the actual cost of transport (i.e. not the ‘make believe’ system of using the cost of transport as if from the Gulf of Mexico for calculating the transport cost of Middle East oil to Europe!).

          1947 — The Arabian American Oil Company (ARAMCO) is formed in 1947 with the Saudi feudal king, finally achieving the USA’s objective of elbowing British and French oil interests out of the Arabian Peninsular.

          1947 — (october) — first oil producing well drilled 10 miles offshore from Louisiana, in the Gulf of Mexico, USA

          1949 — Qatar’s Dukhan onshore oil and gas field comes into production.

          1950 — the Saudi King demands a higher price for the oil concessions granted Aramco. In response, the USA State department allows Aramco to deduct the money paid to Saud from their USA tax liability, making oil companies one of the lowest taxed industries in USA.

          1950 — world oil consumption is about 10 million barrels a day.

          1950 — China uses about 10,000 tons of oil a month, almost all from domestic production.

          1951 — The two most common plastics derived from petroleum products (polythene is best known) are invented.

          1951 — Korean war causes a boom in market economies as supply contracts for the war stimulate western industries.

          1951 — Iran elects Dr. Mossadeq Prime Minister. He nationalises the BP oilfields and creates the ‘National Iranian Oil Company’. BP boycotts Iranian oil. The British Government uses a fighter plane to highjack a Panamanian oiltanker that had loaded at an Iranian oil terminal and force it to the British colony of Aden.

          1951 — oil prices briefly spike, and with them, inflation (to around 8%)

          1952 — USA Senate Committee releases a report ‘The International Petroleum Cartel’ accusing the seven largest oil companies (the ‘seven sisters’) of colluding to ‘fix’ world prices and ‘fix’ global market share between them. However, with the change in presidency, the focus of concern became ‘the communist threat’, and concerns about cartels were forgotten.

          1953 — USA’s CIA. with British help, backs a plot (‘operation Ajax’) against the legal government of Iran, successfully installing their puppet, the son of the previous ‘shah’ of Iran, complete with CIA trained secret police to murder and torture. The head of the CIA at the time, Allen Dulles, was previously a leading oil industry corporate lawyer. American and British companies formed a consortium to buy and develop Iranian oil resources. While nominally Iranian, the ‘National Iranian Oil Company’ is placed under USA, British and French oil company operational control.

          1953 — USA Departments of State, Defense and Interior say USA oil companies are instruments of US foreign policy.

          1953 — USA government directive to USA oil companies says it is in the security interests of the United States for those USA companies to help provide to the friendly government of Iran substantial revenues on terms which will protect the interests of the Western World in the petroleum resources of the Middle East. The USA is ordering USA oil companies to join a consortium to exclusively exploit Irans oil resources, as was done in Saudi Arabia.

          1953 — USA president calls for the antitrust actions being taken against the USA oil companies to be dropped.

          1954 — USA uses about 3 million barrels a day in motor vehicles, and about 2 million barrels of oil a day in industry. Another 1.5 million barrels or so are used in various other sectors, including shipping and heating.

          1954 — there are 511,000 oil wells in the USA, with an average production of 12.4 barrels of crude a day .

          1955 — USA oil companies now control 40% of Iranian oil production.

          1956 — Suez Crisis — Egypt seizes the Suez canal from the foreign-owned ‘Suez Company’. With the main route to the Mediterranean blocked, oil shortages develop and fuel prices climb abruptly.

          1956 — USA geophysicist M King Hubbert predicts in a paper presented to a meeting of the American Petroleum Institute that oil production in continental US would peak sometime between 1965 and 1970. He predicts world production will peak around the turn of the millenium.

          1956 — The number of motor vehicles in the UK is now 6.3 million.

          Late 50’s — following the Suez fuel crisis, Germany produces a range of ‘bubble cars’, tiny cheap low fuel consumption cars made to transport two people without getting wet. The most popular are the three wheeled BMW Isetta, the Messeerschmitt, and the Heinkel Trojan. The UK produces a few three wheelers — Scootacar, Bond, Peel — before the mini is introduced in 1959, when their popularity then plummets.

          1960 — world oil consumption about 20 million barrels a day. A plant at Abqaiq is built to compress and liquify the waste petroleum gas into ‘liquefied petroleum gas’ (LPG). The ‘natural gasoline’ liquids in the gas were also captures. Previously the gas was ‘flared off’ at the wellhead as there was no market for it, piping it onshore to remove it was hugely expensive, and it often contained elements corrosive to the oil pipelines.

          1960 — ARAMCO finds a way to use the waste gas from oil fields. 1960, the company constructs a plant in Abqaiq, Saudi Arabia, to compress and liquefy what are called natural gas liquids (NGL) — composed of propane, butane and natural gasoline.

          1960 — Peak of discovery of Chinese oil, with nearly three quarters of discoveries being in parts of giant fields. The Daquing megafield is brought into production in may of this year.

          1960 — OPEC forms with five members — Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Venezuela

          mid 60’s — historically, the peak of new oil discovery (in volume terms), with an all-time annual record rate of 45 billion barrels of oil discovered per year. The yearly consumption rate at this time was about 15 billion barrels — far below the rate at which new discoveries were adding to the global pool of oil reserves. Global oil reserves continue to swell and build.

          1961 — (april) E.F. Schumacher states in a report published by the UK National Coal Board entitled ‘Prospect for Coal’-

          The oil crisis will come, not when all the world’s oil is exhausted, but when world oil supplies cease to expand. If this point is reached, as our exploratory calculation would suggest that it might, in about twenty years’ time [1980], when industrialization will have spread right across the globe and the underdeveloped countries have had their appetite for a higher standard of living thoroughly whetted, although still finding themselves in dire poverty, what else could be the result but an intense struggle for oil supplies, even a violent struggle, in which any country with large needs and negligible indigenous supplies will find itself in a very weak position.

          1961 — December — first shipments of LPG leave Saudi Arabia. Capacity is about 4,000 barrels of liquid a day.

          1958 to 1972 — price of oil slowly falls in real terms (inflation adjusted), from $US3 (about $US15 when adjusted to 2005 dollars) in 1958, to $US3.75 in1972, i.e. about $US11 (2005 adjusted).

          1952 to 1971 — USA dollars pouring postwar reconstruction into Europe are not looked on favorably, as the France, Germany and Switzerland regard the printing of dollars as inflationary. Huge dollar printing to fund the American war against Vietnam compounds the inflation. As a result, European central banks convert the greenback into its redeemable gold value from the USA central bank. The 20,000 tonness of USA Fort Knox gold reserves falls to about 8,500 tonnes.

          1965 — Russias giant Samotlor field discovered. The Samotlor field has reserves of about 57 million tons of high-viscosity oil in Cenomanian deposits.

          1967 — Iran — a five-megawatt research nuclear reactor is given to Iran by the United States under the Eisenhower ‘Atoms for Peace Program’.

          1967 — Arab oil embargo. Texas, with unused production capacity, pumps furiously and floods world markets with oil.

          1967 — In the absence of the gold standard, there is no way to protect savings from confiscation through inflation. There is no safe store of value. If there were, the government would have to make its holding illegal, as was done in the case of gold. If everyone decided, for example, to convert all his bank deposits to silver or copper or any other good, and thereafter declined to accept checks as payment for goods, bank deposits would lose their purchasing power and government-created bank credit would be worthless as a claim on goods. Alan Greenspan.

          1967-1968 — Russias giant Siberian fields developed.

          1968 — the giant Shaybah oilfield straddling the United Arab Emirate and Saudi Arabian border is discovered. This field is one of the largest onshore oilfields in the world.

          1968 — USA one of North Americas largest oil fields is found at Prudhoe Bay in Alaska.

          1969 — USA production of oil from Prudhoe Bay starts.

          1970 — major oil export pipeline (the TAP line) taking oil from Saudi Arabia to the Mediteranean is attacked in Syria. Oil has to be taken by tanker, resulting in high tanker transport rates until the end of the year. This is the first significant exposure of the vunerability of the west to oil and gas pipeline attack as a means of political suasion.

          1970 — (october) US (lower 48 states) oil peaks. US demand for petrol and oil products continues to increase.

          1970 — USA produces 10 million barrels of oil a day (peak production, pretty much as Hubbert predicted).

          1970 — Oil is about $US16 a barrel adjusted to todays (2005) dollars.

          1970 — The USA Department of Commerce estimates the net assets of the petroleum industry in the Middle East alone at $US1.5 billion, with a profit yeild of $US1.2 billion — a return on investment of an astonishing 79%.

          1970 — (december) OPEC meeting sets a minimum tax rate of 55% on foreign oil companies operating in OPEC countries.

          1970 — UK consumes 28 million tonnes of oil in road transport (private and commercial).

          1970 — UK now consumes 1.2 million tonnes of oil per year in rail transport (passenger and freight).

          1971 — Qatar, Libya, United Arab Emirates, Algeria, Nigeria and Indonesia have added to OPEC’s member nations.

          1971 — (feb 14) Foreign oil companies operating in OPEC countries accept a 55% tax rate, and further progressive increases. In return, foreign oil companies are given freedom to extract as much oil as they like for the next five years. However, only Saudi Arabia has significant spare capacity.

          1971 — (feb 24) Algeria nationalises just over 50% of French oil company concessions in Algeria.

          1971 — (april 2) Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Algeria and Libya negiotiate an increase in the price per barrel of oil delivered to the Mediterranean from US$2.55 to US$3.45. The price is also indexed to inflation.

          1971 — (july 31) Venezuela introduces a law to transfer all unexploited concession areas to government ownership by 1974.

          1971 — (august 15) America under Nixon unilaterally decouples the dollar from the gold standard. The dollar can no longer be redeemed for gold. America now has an alarming federal budget deficit of 23 billion dollars. European banks prudential practise to redeem US dollars holdings from the USA gold backing is unilaterally defaulted on. USA, with huge debts it has no intention of paying with real money (gold) is technically bankrupt.

          Now the US dollar is the only world reserve currency that can be printed at (USA) will. No longer is the dollar a benchmark currency interchangeably backed by gold, with other currencies pegged to it, with little need to adjust relative values, little need for cross border currency flow for financing, and thus no ability to speculate on currency movements.

          The US dollar is currently the sole currency of trade for oil, so the dollar is, for now, backed and inter-changed with ‘black gold’.

          No longer backed by gold, and with vast amounts of dubious ‘promise to pay paper treasury bonds on issue’ the US dollar devalues immediately.

          Nixon brings down a 90-day wage, price, and rent freeze to try to control inflation.

          1971 — In the US, oil is placed on governmental price control.

          1971 — (september 22) — OPEC commences negotiations with oil companies to raise oil prices to retrieve the value lost by the sudden drop in value of the US dollar.

          1971 — (december) — Libya nationalises the BP oil concession.

          1971 — Norway — oil production commences.

          1971 — Russias giant Samotlor oil field in western Siberia commences production, initially producing over 100,000 barrels of oil a day.

          1971 — The single largest gas reservoir in the world is found off the shores of Qatar. Recoverable reserve estimates are put at around 380 trillion cubic feet.

          1971 — Up until now, Texas oil producers had held the balance of power, manipulating oil price by limiting production. USA energy requirements meant Texan rate limiting had to be abandoned, and OPEC gains strategic degrees of freedom to copy the USA and rate limit supply.

          1972 — With rate limiting gone, production in Texas increases, but only by very little — Texas oilfields have peaked at about 3.5 million barrels a day.

          1972 — (january 20) — Agreement is reached with Western oil companies that crude oil prices from the Middle East will increase by 8.49% to offset the loss rising from the devalued US dollar.

          1972 — oil interests contribute an estimated $US2.7 million to Richard Nixon’s campaign for presidency.

          1972 — Iraq nationalises some of its oil. Exxon, BP, Shell and Chevron lose control of Iraq’s oil.

          1972 — Iraq’s North Rumaylah field starts production, producing about 29 million barrels of crude.

          1972 — Oil is just over $US2 a barrel in dollars of the day. Weak US dollar means returns to exporters are lower than they seem.

          1972 — large US oil companies maintain USA domestic reserves at low levels, waiting to produce more when global prices rise again.

          1972 — december 21 — OPEC (with the exception of Iraq) signs an agreement with western oil companies providing for 25% government ownership of all Western oil interests operating in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and Abu Dhabi. The agreement is to begin on January 1st, 1973. Ownership is to increase to 51% by January 1st, 1983.

          1972 — (september 11th) Chile — Democratically elected president Allende is murdered by military general Augusto Pinochet and his army conspirators in an act of criminal terrorism sponsored by the USA presidential offices ‘secret agent’ branch, the ironically named ‘Criminal Investigation Agency’. Pinochet, his army, airforce and navy form an ‘axis of evil’, whose ‘rogue state’ commits horrific crimes against humanity including the brutal murder of more than 3,000 innocent citizens and the torture of 27,000 more.

          The USA, a very very weakly democratic country, says voters in Chile are irresponsible to exercise their democratic right to select the government of their choice in their own country; and the USA government says that irresponsible behaviour (i.e. democracy) needs to be rectified (i.e. subjugate citizens under an unelected, totalitarian, criminal, fascist regime). To rectify something is to make it ‘right’. Apparently murder and torture are ‘right’ in the view of the USA government of the day. Therefore, the USA government view of democracy at that time was that democracy is ‘wrong’.

          1972 into 1973 — economic boom times in Europe and USA creates an accelerated demand for oil. Many OPEC producers are near the limits of their pumping capacity — except for Saudi Arabia.

          1973 — (april) USA’s Henry Kissinger, in a Year of Europe explicitly gives voice to the USA administrations fear that Europe could become an economic and political entity as strong as the U.S. and might develop the same strong bilateral economic and political links with the Middle East and North Africa America currently considers to be its ‘right’. He goes on to state that if that were ever allowed to happen, the U.S. would no longer be the only pre-eminent world power. Clearly, the doctrine of preventing economic rivals from having access to oil has deep roots .

          The illegal we do immediately. The unconstitutional takes a little longer

          — Henry Kissinger, New York Times, Oct. 28, 1973

          1973 — (jan) USA experiences a cold winter. Price controls are now ‘voluntary’. Heavy demand and low US heating oil reserves cause a shortage of product. Heating oil prices skyrocket. Price control on heating oil is re-imposed.

          1973 — USA government guarentees to support the tribally-based feudal Saud family dictatorship in exchange for guarantees the Saud family will accept only the rapidly de-valuing USA dollar for oil. Saudi oil is effectively being used as a ‘black gold’ backing for the dollar.

          1973 — USA oil companies state they plan to continuously expand Saudi oil production into the future based on the premise that continously expanding Saudi production would be required to offset the declines elsewhere in the world.

          1973 — the Saudi Government increases its share in the US oil company Aramco (which has ‘locked up’ the rights to Saudi oil field exploration and production) from ‘tiny’ to ‘minor’ (25%).

          1973 — (jan) Shah of Iran decrees that the 1954 operating agreement between a government and oil company consortium would not be renewed when it expires in 1979. The consortium is made up of USA’s Standard Oil, SOCONY-Vacuum, Texas Oil, Gulf Oil, Europe’s Royal Dutch-Shell and Compagnie Francaise de Petroles. It included the government backed but relatively powerless Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC).

          1973 — (march) USA re-imposes price control on the 23 largest oil companies selling oil products in USA.

          1973 — (march) Iraq and oil consortium members agree to nationalise oil immediately in return for a guarantee of 20 years supply.

          1973 — (june 14) USA has a 60 day price freeze re-imposed by Nixon.

          1973 — Oil is about $US8 a barrel in dollars of the day — approximately $US13 in todays (Q1 2005) inflation-adjusted dollars

          1973 — (september 1) Libya takes a 51% part of nine foreign oil companies concessions ( Mobil, Esso, Texaco, Libyan-American (ARCO), SoCal, Grace, Shell, Gelensberg, Libya/Sirte)

          1973 — (early october) Arab countries win control of their own oil resources by repudiating all previous agreements with foreign oil companies and nationalising many of the foreign oil businesses operating in their countries. Oil producing countries governments now decide how much oil should be produced and sold, and at what price, not the foreign oil companies.

          1973 — (october 6) The Arab-Israeli war. Syria and Egypt attack Israel. USA backs Israel. Syria and Egypt suffer a humiliating defeat.

          1973 — (october 7) Iraq nationalises Mobil and Exxon oil companies 23% share of Basrah Petroleum.

          1973 — Saudi’s Abqaiq oil field peaks at just over a million barrels a day.

          1973 — USA is now importing 33% of its oil requirements. It can no longer influence oil prices by flooding the market with US oil to moderate prices

          1973 — USA conventional natural gas production peaks at about 63 billion cubic feet per day, or about 11.3 million barrels of oil equivalent per day.

          1973 — USA bankers bring Japan, emerging as an industrial giant, into the dollar system. Japan has no oil resources, so imports huge quantities of oil, which it now agrees to pay for exclusively with American dollars, in effect helping back the US dollar with gold, black gold. Oil. The export earnings are ‘invested’ in USA treasury bonds (IOU’s written by the American government). The Japanese funds help pay the US government deficit.

          1973 — (october 16) the so-called ‘Gulf Six — Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait — raise the posted price of Saudi light crude by 17%, from $US3.12. to $US3.65 a barrel. Simultaneously, they announce they will cut production, returning them to more normal levels (after the oil companies had sold increasingly large volumes of Saudi oil at low prices).

          1973 — (october 19-20) Oil embargo placed on Israel and it’s supporters in the west by OPEC to punish Israels western supporters. Saudi Arabia and other Gulf states refuse to sell oil to the United States. (USA imports around 36% of its oil needs.)

          1973 — (november) — oil embargo now also includes Netherlands, Portugal, Rhodesia, and South Africa.

          1973 — (november and december) Gas station run out of petrol. Petrol supply is rationed in many western countries.

          1973 — (november and december) — peak of the oil embargo by members of Arab OPEC (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, the United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Libya, Algeria and Iraq). About 2.67 million barrels a day of production is lost.

          ‘The first oil crisis’. While at the peak of the crisis around 2.57 million barrels a day are lost to world production due to the direct effect of the oil emabargo, another about 1.3 million barrels a day drops out due to indirect recessionary conditions, more unemployment, less driving, less demand. (1 million barrel is regained from extra pumping capacity by non-OPEC suppliers).

          At its peak, the nett drop in world production is about 6%.

          Recession spanning late 1973 into 1974 in many Western countries, the worst since World War II.

          1973 — USA — Oil shock recession. 97 billion dollars is wiped from the New York stock exchange. The Dow-Jones Stock Market index falls 47%. Some interest rates hit 20%. Extensive unemployment and under-employment.

          1973 (november 27) USA Nixon signs the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act to enable the government to control the production, marketing, and pricing of petroleum in USA.

          1973 — The USA presidential/military/industrial complex considers (but does not act on) plans to use the USA military to invade parts of Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and Abu Dhabi and seize some of their biggest oil fields for USA use. Instead, major OPEC countries are required to ‘invest’ all their US dollar profits from oil sales in USA treasury bills, with half the interest payable by the USA in the form of USA goods and services — substantial parts of it being USA built military equipment and training.

          1973 — (november) USA — The US president, Nixon, announces Project Independence which he claims will free United States dependence on foreign oil by 1980. He is unlikely to believe this is feasible — it is likely he is lying to the public in order to justify US oil companies exploiting Alaskan hydrocarbon resources .

          1973 — USA trans Alaska pipeline from ice bound Prudhoe Bay 800 miles to ice free Valdez is initiated.

          1974 — (january) Kuwait takes 60% in the BP-Gulf Oil Kuwaiti concession.

          1974 — (early) Oil prices skyrocket by 400% due to OPEC continuing to limit supply. Prices reach $US25, which is about $US40 in todays (Q1 2005) dollars.

          1974 — (january) USA — law passed to limit speed to 55 miles per hour in order to conserve petrol and diesel during the petrol shortage crisis.

          1974 — (january) USA — the winter is particularly cold. Natural gas inventories are alarmingly low. The US government orders businesses, shops, malls and all public buildings to reduce their hours of operation during weekends and at night in order to conserve gas used for space heating.

          1974 — (january) USA — independant truckers livelihood hit hard and they strike in protest at the high cost of diesel and difficulty in getting supply.

          1974 — (january) Saudi and Kuwaiti oil embargo is, for practical purpose, over. Oil prices remain at a new higher, more realistic level.

          1974 — (february) — USA — petrol now 50 cents a gallon (dollars of the day). People ‘garage’ or sell large ‘gas guzzling’ cars, Some switch to public transport, some buy small cars. Demand for fuel efficient cars skyrockets within the space of a few months.

          1974 — (february 11) USA announces Nixons project Independance’ to make USA energy independant.

          1974 — (february 11) Libya nationalises the 3 USA oil companies which refused to allow a Libyan controlling interest in september last year.

          1974 — (march) OPEC embargo against USA officially ends. Embargo on other countries continues. The repercussions continue to reverberate through western economies.

          1974 (june 4) — the Saudi Government increases its share in the US oil company Aramco (which has the rights to Saudi oil field exploration and production) to 60%.

          1974 — (may) Nigeria takes a 55% controlling ownership of all foreign oil concessions.

          1974 — (june) — USA petrol is about 55 cents a gallon, or $2.29 a gallon in 2005 dollars.

          1974 — (june) German oil import costs have now risen by an additional 17 billion Deutchemarks. Inflation has reached 8%. Transport, agriculture and the industrial sector have been badly hit, especially energy intensive businesses such as steel production, chemical industries and shipbuilding. The oil shock is estimated to have caused 500,000 job losses by now.

          1974 — (october) Saudi Arabia increases the tax rate on the oil consortium profits to 85% and royalty rate to 20%.

          1974 — structural inflation from high oil prices has fed throughout the western economies by the end of 1974. Inflation in western oil-dependant economies is 11% — 15%. Resultant recession, with low economic activity and high unemployment, continues. The combination of stagnant economies and high inflation is tagged ‘stagflation’.

          1974 — Less-developed economies suffer a 400% overnight increase in the cost of energy imports. Indias total foreign exchange reserves of $US629 million cannot meet the the oil import bill of $US1,241 million a year. This deficit in the balance of payments is now echoed around all the third world nations. Developing countries now have an enormous trade deficit of $US35 billion, which is, unco-incidentally, four times (400%) larger than their deficit prior to the 1973 oil shock.

          1974 Onward — the ‘petrodollar era -vast flood of dollars into Middle East as USA and Europe have to pay higher oil prices in US dollars. Deposited in US and UK banks, these dollars were interest-bearing to the oil nations, so had to be re-lent by the depository banks. Banks can loan ‘fictional money’ of up to around 10% of actual deposits they hold. These ‘imaginary dollars’ were re-lent as eurodollar bonds to third world countries that didn’t have the dollars to pay for oil imports. This recycling from oil nations to third world nations and back to oil nations became known as ‘recycling petrodollars’. Banks ‘clicked the ticket’ via interest rates each time it went around. Both banks and oil companies make huge profits from the third world.

          1974 — In the USA, the consumer price index increases by 12%. High meat prices spark consumer revolts. Some Washington State butchers offer horsemeat for sale. Recipes for cheap pasta based dishes abound. A drought in Washington State makes life worse by reducing water supply to the hydro dams. Brown out results.

          1974 — USA. The higher price of oil leads to an increase in the number of US wells brought into production, wells which prior to 1973 would not have been economic to produce oil or gas from (and would have been regarded as ‘dry’ for economic reasons, in spite of the presence of oil). It also leads to the major US oil companies urging the Saudis to pressurise their reservoirs with water to increase flow from the pumps, in spite of the risk it might reduce the ultimate yeild expected from the reservoirs.

          1974 — UNESCO consultant Harry Lustig writes in ‘Courier’ monthly magazine of January 1974 —

          To what extent is the world energy crisis upon us now and how much time do we have before it will reach truly disasterous proportions?

          What is the lead time necessary for producing needed technological innovations and economic and social rearrangements?

          How reliable are the estimates of fossil fuel reserves?

          How long will the world’s stocks of natural nuclear fuel last and how good are the prospects for controlled fusion?

          What is the relative availability. exploitability and cost (economic and environmental) of the natural substitutes: solar, wind, geothermal and tidal energy?

          1974 — Norways Statfjord oilfield discovered.

          Expressed in todays dollars (Q1 2005), oil prices will remain, on average, around $US38 — $US40 level for the next 5 years.

          1974 — Iran — the ‘shah’ announces a policy of developing 23,000 megawatts of nuclear energy in Iran for electricity and to desalinate water. It is clear to the government that by 2100 Irans oil and gas reserves would be too expensive to waste in generating electricty. The option of also exploring its use for military purposes is quietly discussed with USA and other Western states. The US react by using their influence with to ensure that two US constructors, General Electric and Westinghouse, have a preferred status in pitching their reactors to Iran. Ultimately, the shah awards the contracts to France and Germany.

          1975 — USA economy still in the worst business slump since the great depression. In the worst week, there are 1 million newly unemployed register for jobless benefit. LA police department trains its officers in crowd control in case of possible food riots.

          1975 — (December 22) USA — law signed to establish a ‘Strategic Petroleum Reserve’ as a result of the lesson of the ‘oil shock’. It also allows government control of domestic oil prices if necessary.

          1975 — Saudi agree that to accept American dollars exclusively for the sale of their oil .

          1975 — (december) Iraq completes the nationalisation of Basrah oil by re-nationalising the concessions controlled by BP, Shell and CFP.

          1970’s — as the US dollar becomes the de facto world reserve currency. central bank gold reserves become a ‘non-performing asset’ as they do not yeild interest. Many central banks begin to reduce their holdings of gold.

          1976 — number of USA oil workers (mainly US controlled ARAMCO oil company) in extremely fundementalist feudal Saudi Arabia now peaks at 30,000. USA exports from the USA industrial-government-military complex to Saudi Arabia reach $2.8 billion. Saudis increasingly concerned about US de facto economic colonisation.

          1976 — date all benefits of Armaco are ear-marked to go to the Saudi government in several years time.

          1976 — Saudi Arabia has somewhere between 5 and 10 billion dollars ‘invested’ in USA treasury bonds by now. The dollar firms as a result, and the stockmarket has now rebounded. ‘Kindness’ must be rewarded .

          1976 — the year the last new oil refinery is built in the USA

          1976 — Saudi’s Berri oil field peaks at around 800,000 barrels a day.

          1976 — China’s Daqing mega-oilfield peaks at 916,191 barrels crude a day.

          1976 — USA president Ford signed a directive offering Iran an option to buy and operate a US-built nuclear fuels reprocessing facility as part of an Iraqi owned and operated nuclear energy program using Iraqs own uranium deposits. The proposal is for reactors powered by nuclear fuels processed from Iraqi-mined yellowcake which are then reprocessed after use in the reactor to extract plutonium. This regenerated fissile material is then used as fuel once more. The plutonium created from the spent nuclear fuel could, of course, be further processed into a grade usable in nuclear weapons. The chief of staff of the White House, Dick Cheney, and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld both endorse the proposal.

          1976 — oil (Saudi light) is $US12.37 a barrel.

          1977 (july) — USA — The purchase of salt caverns in the Gulf of Mexico for the ‘strategic petroleum reserve’ for use in emergencies is now complete, and filling commences — 412,000 barrels of light crude oil are deposited in the first of the salt caverns in southern Louisiana and East Texas, close by oil refineries. Total capacity of the reserve is 117 million barrels.

          1977 (july) — oil is $US13.66 a barrel.

          1977 — USA — Oil imports are now 6.6 million barrels a day.

          1977 — 8 billion dollars and 800 miles later. oil flows from the trans-Alaskan pipeline from Prudhoe Bay.

          1977 — USA — Severe winter co-incides with a natural gas shortage. Prices rise dramatically.

          1977 — USA — President Carter gives a televised address in which he warned that oil consumption was exceeding the rate at which new oil was being found and outlining a government programme of conservation and switch to coal, nuclear, and renewable energy.

          1977 — Iraq completes a pipeline from Kirkuk oilfields across Turkey to a terminal in the Mediterranean at the port of Dortyol.

          1977 — Saudi Arabia now produces 10 million barrels of crude a day.

          1977 — Saudi Arabia’s production is cut in half due to a fire in a separation facility in the Abqaiq field. Prices barely move, as many other countries have spare capacity.

          1978 — crude oil is $US14 a barrel.

          1978 — Prudhoe Bay oil field pipeline to Valdez (the Trans Alaska Pipeline) finally opens after 2 years of construction and expenditure of around $US8 billion.

          1978 — Saudi Arabia — last exploration well brought into production from the salt domed structures of northern Arabia, mostly offshore. Since start of exploration of this province in 1938, 12 oilfields yeilding a million barrels a day of oil were found. The earliest fields discovered have the greatest total reserves. The 6 fields found 1938 to 1963 had total reserves of about 5,500 million barrels of oil. The 6 fields found this year have a total of about 1,000 million barrels of oil.

          1978 — (june) — bloc of OPEC members seek higher prices for crude, and try to get acceptance for oil being priced in a more stable currency than the US dollar. Saudi Arabia and Iran block the move.

          1978 — Iran’s ‘Shah’ puts the country under military control as agitation for a muslim religion-based state continues.

          1978 — (october) Fire in an Iranian pipeline drops production by over 300,000 barrels a day.

          1978 — (mid december) Iranian production is 1.5 million barrels a day.

          1978 — (end of december) Iranian production drops precipitously to about 500,000 barrels a day.

          1979 — OPEC, mainly Saudi, production increases by an additional 1.6 million barrels a day by end of february to make up Iran’s shortfall as Iranian domestic turmoil continues.

          1979 — (january 20) Saudi Arabia turns up the heat by announcing that it will cap its production at 9.5 million barrels a day during the first quarter of 1979 (in the end it doesn’t). Oil prices rise by 36%.

          1979 — (january) USA uses its compulsory buy-sell laws to allocate crude oil resources and to cap the price of oil products.

          1979 — UK becomes oil independant — all domestic requirements are met from the North Sea fields. However, while supply is secure, oil is sold by the oil companies at global prices. The UK pays the same high prices as everyone else, albeit the government receives a better royalty.

          1979 — Mexicos supergiant oil field, the Cantarell Complex, with massive reserves of 35 billion barrels of oil, (destined to become the second largest oil producing field in the world, after the massive supergiant Saudi Ghawar field), comes into production.

          1979 — Final audit of Saudi oil fields by foreign petroleum companies to establish true value of Saudi field assets. The audit established around 110 billion barrels of proven reserves.

          1979 — (feb 12) Iranian revolution commences as the Shah has fled and the interim government loses the support of the military.

          1979 — (march 5) Iran starts to export oil again.

          1979 — (Q2) oil once more plentiful, but global stocks of refined petrol have been drawn right down, and refineries are playing ‘catch-up’ and can’t meet demand. Some states in USA are short of gasoline and ration it, other states have ample supply.

          1979 — USA — Energy saving policies introduced, including requiring public buildings to be heated no higher than 65 degrees in winter. In order to conserve petrol, gas stations in some states open only on alternate days.

          1979 — July 15 — USA President Carter gives a speech to the nation —

          In little more than two decades, we’ve gone from a position of energy independence to one in which almost half the oil we use comes from foreign countries, at prices that are going through the roof. Our excessive dependence on OPEC has already taken a tremendous toll on our economy and our people.

          This is the direct cause of the long lines which have made millions of you spend aggravating hours waiting for gasoline. It’s a cause of the increased inflation and unemployment that we now face.

          This intolerable dependence on foreign oil threatens our economic independence and the very security of our nation.

          1979 — Uranium yellowcake spot prices reach a record high of $US43

          1979 — (july 30) New Zealand faces a petroleum shortfall and institutes fuel conservation measures, including ‘carless days’ when owners must designate (via a windshield sticker) a day of the week on which they will not drive their car. The speed limit is reduced, and sale of gasoline in weekends is banned. The restrictions remain in place for the next 6 months.

          1979 — (october) Canada stops supplying light crude to USA refineries in order to conserve domestic supplies.

          1979 — (november) Iranian ‘revolutionary guards’ take USA embassy hostages. USA stops all Iranian imports. Iran cancels all contracts with USA oil companies.

          1979 — (december) nervousness over the Iranian revolution continues. Oil is $US32.50 a barrel (dollars of the day)

          1979 — USA president Carter sets up the US Central Command — a military quick reaction strike force prepared to bomb, invade and control any oil supplying Middle East country at any time the presidential-administrative/military/industrial complex dictates.

          1979 — the world uses about 63 million barrels a day.

          1980 — USA — the Maryland Cove Point LNG regasification plant is closed.

          1980 (january) — Iranian ‘shah ‘ deposed. The second ‘oil shock’. Oil production of 2 to 2.5 million barrels a day disappears from the market. ‘The second oil crisis’. Oil price literally skyrocketed straight up from $US15 per barrel to nearly $US40 per barrel (dollars of the day), also partly fuelled by a surge (and speculation) in the prices of commodities in general. In 2004 dollars this is estimated at about $US110 a barrel.

          1980 (january 23rd) — following the deposing on the US supported ‘shah’ of Iran and the Russian invasion of Afghanistan, US president Jimmy Carter establishes what became known as ‘the Carter Doctrine’, the doctrine of openingly using the presidents military for economic purposes — to both secure other countries oil resources for USA use, and keep Middle East supply lines under USA control.

          Let our position be absolutely clear: An attempt by any outside force to gain control of the Persian Gulf region will be regarded as an assault on the vital interests of the United States of America, and such an assault will be repelled by any means necessary, including military force. — President Jimmy Carter (emphases added)

          The USA presidential office will in future use his soldiers to kill and maim civilians (including children), to fight and themselves die, to either maintain direct access to (mainly) Middle East oil reserves, or maintain other nations oil-supply access to the Middle East, whether via the Straits of Hormuz, or in general.

          A blockade in the Straits would make no direct impact on USA as it gets less than 20% of its supply from the Middle East; but if other countries cannot obtain Middle East oil they will bid up the price of oil from other sources outside the Middle East, oil that USA relies on.

          1980 — USA funds and supports Saudi Arabia’s Osama bin Laden . amongst others, to fight the Russians in Afghanistan. He, and others like him, promote the brutally violent and chauvinistic Saudi Arabian fundementalist version of their religion — including killing anyone who doesn’t hold their particular religious views.

          1980 — Saudi regime agrees to pump excess oil to keep prices low so that Russia will have insufficient revenue to spend on the arms race at the same time as it has to finance a brutal invasion of Afghanistan.

          1980 — Saudi government given retroactive ownership of all Saudi National oil via full ownership of Aramco. In addition, all financial benefits of the company since 1976 are given to the Saudi government. Payback time .

          1980 — (september 17) Iraq unilaterally breaks the 1975 treaty with Iran over territorial rights in the Shatt al-Arab waterway and claims it in its entirety for itself.

          1980 — (september 23) Iraq invades Iran. Both sides bomb each others oil installations.

          Iraqi oil production falls by 2.7 million barrels a day.

          Iranian oil production falls by 600,000 barrels per day.

          Oil prices reach an all time high — $US35 a barrel by years end, or $US92 when translated to todays (Q1 2005) dollars (some commentators compute it at $US80 in inflation adjusted terms, others at $US100, inflation adjusted).

          Gold price is inflated by speculation to an all time high — $US840 in dollars of the day.

          1980 — Post oil shock deep recession in the west — partly created by a major shift in USA monetary policy by Federal Reserve Chairman Paul Volker (restricted money supply to try to curb Americas raging inflation, causes volatile and high interest rates, reduced business investment, and an historic low in the value of the greenback).

          In addition, structural oil-inflation helps overall inflation reach 10%. Unemployment in USA is 8%, interest rates reach nearly 20%. Double digit interest rates mean some businesses and households can no longer pay their savings and loan debts. The USA Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation fails under the sudden burden of savings institutes declaring bankruptcy, and has to be bailed out.

          1980 — the deep recession results in global demand destruction and a consequent drop in demand for crude. More than this, it prompts a move to insulate new homes, retro-insulate existing homes, attention to energy efficiency in industry as well as in housing. In countries with heavily taxed petrol, there is a re-focus on fuel efficient cars and public transport.

          1980 -1988 — US and the UK governments and businesses supply Saddam Husein with armaments, chemical and biological weapons of mass destruction precursors, naval support, military training, and access to satellite targeting.

          As the Iraq-Iran war drags on, great damage is done to oilfields and civil infrastructure on both sides. Oil supply is interrupted. More than a million people are killed, combatants and civilians alike.

          1980-1981 — Oil supply shortfall has created actual shortfalls in supply in some countries. Some countries institute a system of carless days, when private automobiles may not be driven on a self-selected designated day. The car-less day is indicated by a sticker on the windscreen. Transgressors are heavily fined.

          1980-1981 — winter heating oil in USA tips over $US2.50 a gallon in 2004 inflation adjusted dollars.

          1981 — US government removes price control on US domestic oil produced, domestic producers raise their prices rapidly.

          1981 — (january) major offensive by Iraq against Iran is beaten back by the Iranians.

          1981 — USA residual petrol price and allocation controls are lifted.

          1981 — (march) ‘oil shock’ gasoline prices in USA reach an historic high — $US1.42 per gallon; inflation adjusted, about $US3.10 per gallon in 2005 dollars.

          1981 — Predictions of crude oil prices reaching $US100 a barrel sets off an oil exploration frenzy within USA

          1981 — USA has 324 refineries whose total capacity to refine crude oil is18.6 million barrels a day.

          1981 — USA strategic reserve capacity is increased to 257 million barrels.

          1981-1982. In the period 1979 to 1982 global oil demand growth falls off by 9.6%.

          1981 — the East-West Crude Oil Pipeline (Petroline) operated by Mobil Oil Co is completed. This single, 48-inch pipe line (AY-1) transports Arabian light and super light crude to refineries in the Saudi Arabia’s Western Province and to terminals on the Red Sea for export to Europe. Capacity is 1.85 million barrels a day.

          1981-1982 — Recession drops demand for oil at the same time Saudi Arabia completes major new pumping capacity. Oil glut results. OPEC temporarily loses control of price setting for oil.

          1981 — Saudi’s Ghawar super-giant field (the world’s largest) peaks at a little less than a massive 5.7 million barrels a day.

          1981 — Saudi’s Safaniya field peaks at a lttle more than 1.5 million barrels day.

          1981 — Mexicos giant Cantarell complex reaches peak of supply at 1.1 million barrels a day.

          1981 — Russia giant Samotlor field peaks at about 3 million barrels a day. The around 16,700 wells of this giant field produce close to a quarter of Russias oil, almost 150 million tons a year.

          1982 — USA — Texas oil production has now dropped by 29% since peak of production in 1972, in accordance with the curve described by Hubbards theory of oil production in a field increasing, peaking, and declining.

          1982 — Number of rigs looking for oil and gas in USA (due to 1980 oil shock) has doubled from 1980 levels.

          1982 — (march) Syria closes the 400,000 barrel a day trans-Syria pipeline carrying Iraqi oil in support of Iran.

          1982 — (june) tide of war turns against Iraq. Iraq announces a ceasefire. Iran pushes into Iraqi territory. Iraq responds by launching missiles into Iran.

          1982 — (august) Mexico defaults on the vast debt owed to banks recycling petrodollars .

          1983 — Colombia — USA’s Occidental petrol commence production from the giant Ca and increased the quick replacement of oil lost from source (for whatever eason) with oil from another source (via intermediaries). Targeted embargoes are now virtually impossible — any oil sold to a trader can be re-sold numerous times, and end up literally anywhere. The producing country no longer controls the destination.

          1983 — world consumes reduced oil due to higher prices and recessionary effects — still only roughly 55 million barrels of oil a day.

          1983 — (july — October) Heavy fighting between Iraq and Iran, with Iraq close to capturing the Kirkuk pipeline, and the USA threatening military intervention to keep open the Persian Gulf tanker navigation ways.

          1984 — Iraq Iran war moves into the tanker war phase. 44 ships and tankers — Saudi Arabian, Iranian, Iraqi, Kuwaiti — are attacked and damaged by Iraqi or Iranian warplanes or mines.

          1984 — Saudi LPG production capacity is now 600,000 barrels of liquid a day.

          1982 -1985 — Oil is now over-supplied, partly due to the ‘demand destruction’ lingering on from the second ‘oil shock’, with Norway, UK and Nigeria cutting prices in 1984. Oil drops to about $US60 in 2004 dollar terms (in 1984 light crude was around $US57 — $US69 in adjusted year 2005 terms). OPEC members regularly exceed their OPEC quotas as there is no method of enforcing breaches. Saudi Arabia regularly acts to cut its own output to try to prevent the price falling too far. OPEC members suddenly ‘find’ much larger reserves in order to have a larger quota for sale. OECD and US escape the recession slipping into depression — resume previous growth off the back of the balanced budgets of 1979/80.

          1985 — after a series of oil price dips due to dampened demand due to previously high crude prices and OPEC lack of discipline, Norwegian and North Sea oil comes on stream creating even higher supply, OPECs market share falls by 50%. New capacity allows better market balance.

          These finds mark the very temporary return to ‘ cheap oil’ for the next decade or so. until they start to peak and the Middle East fields once more gain greater world market share.

          mid 1980’s — Cheap oil and US government need to artificially back its dollar with oil, combined with US ‘petrodollar’ greed, start to destroy western manufacturing and jobs as USA banks, via the IMF. require deeply indebted third world countries to make their natural resources, infrastructure assets, and labour available very cheaply to foreign firms (‘globalisation’) as a price of rolling over their crippling petrodollar debt. A debt now totally unmanageable due to interest rate increases. A debt denominated in dollars, supporting USA ability to print money. ‘Outsourcing’ starts to erode the viability of European and USA manufacturing businesses as they can no longer compete with the semi-slave conditions and absent pollution regulations of third world labour and industry.

          1980’s — USA — uneconomic oil refineries are closed down.

          1985 — continuous decline in USA capacity to produce oil relative to the previous years confirms USA oil fields have indeed passed their peak of production and are declining overall. [2 ]

          1985 — USA — increased local production plus residual demand destruction keeps imports of oil to USA at 3.2 million barrels a day, about half pre-oil shock levels .

          1985 — Iraq and Iran commence heavy bombing of each others cities, Iraq responds with lightening raids into Iran, Iran responds with strikes against Iran’s Kharg Island oil terminal, from which a large part of Iran’s oil is exported.

          late 1980’s — Iran — work starts on rebuilding the war damaged economy. Hydrocarbons — oil and gas — are earmarked for sale to earn foreign exchange to fund reconstruction. Work starts on rebuilding the Bushehr nuclear power plant to provide replacement electricity now provided by oil and gas burning generators.

          december 1985 — OPEC in disarray as members undercut agreed prices in order to secure market share. A price war develops. OPEC countries are allowed to produce and sell oil in proportion to their reserves. The more reserves a country reports it has, the more its share of the OPEC quota it gets.

          1986 — USA oil exploration industry is severly cuts as oil prices drop (one of the biggest one day drops was from $US29.00 to $12.00 for Gulf coast sweet). Staff cuts of experienced oil personnel reach 50% in some firms. Many experienced riggers leave the industry entirely, as no jobs can be found. No young staff are taken on. As the domestic industry implodes into depression, some oilmen commit suicide, some escape to drugs and alcohol. Many take enforced pay cuts.

          1986 — Saudi Arabia stops trying to keep prices up by cutting its own production and links prices to the spot market. The Saudis increase production from 2 million barrels a day to 5 million barrels a day, substituting volume for reduced price. In the face of this huge oversupply, prices collapse below $10 a barrel (dollars of the day).

          Expressed in todays dollars (Q1 2005), oil prices will once more remain, on average, around the $US38 — $US40 level for the next 15 years. Drilling becomes much more cost effective, using enhanced techniques such as 3-D seismic data, targeted directional drilling, and CO2 flooding to maximise success and enhance productivity from existing reservoirs. In spite of these techniques, exploration in USA is increasingly unproductive, and exploration falls away steadily. The wells that are drilled are much more successful than in earlier years. Technology allows far more accurate decision to be made about whether to drill or not, and only highly prospective formations are tested.

          1986 (may) — Iraq bombs a refinery in the capital city of Iran.

          1986 (june and july) — Iraqi jets attack a satellite station and the city of Arak in central Iran. Iran threatens to use missiles against any gulf state supporting Iraq.

          1986 — (august) Iran launches missiles against a refinery near Bhagdad. Iraq responds by damaging the Iranian export terminal at Sirri Island.

          1986 — (december) — USA — unleaded petrol is now US0.80 cents a gallon.

          1986 — Peru — The gas Camisea fields are discovered. Reserves are estimated at 13 trillion cubic feet of natural gas and 660 million barrels of condensate.

          1987 — Monday October 19th — Global stock market crash. Under conditions of cheap oil, frenzied buying and selling of stock, some in ‘shell’ companies that produced nothing, leads to insider trading and clampdown by regulators. In reaction, institutional investors buy heavily into futures contracts to cut loss in case of stock devaluations. In the USA, computers are now widely used to automatically trigger ‘sell’ orders if stocks reach a certain low point. As the USA dollar is devalued, the dollar-based Hong Kong exchange is sold down. A cascade of more sellers of both stocks and futures contracts than buyers leads to a lack of buyer confidence, panic selling of stock and (wildy leveraged) futures contracts. The Hong Kong market crashes, followed by Europe. In USA a cascade of selling occurs, quickening pace as further computer generated automatic sell trigger points are reached, and with no time for buyers to step in. $US500 billion of value in the Dow Jones index is wiped out — within 1 day. Other markets had similar experiences, with Hong Kong’s crash the most spectacular — over 45% of the value of the stocks on the market wiped is out.

          USA responds by creating the ‘Working Group for Financial Markets’, known cynically as ‘the Plunge Protection Team’. It is made up of of the US Federal Reserve, the Dept of Treasury, the Securities and a few powerful banks and a parallel 56-inch pipeline (AY-1L) is added.

          1987 — Iraq/Iran war continues unabated.

          1988 — Iran accepts a ceasefire offered by Iraq.

          1988 — Article in Scientific American called and soon, is the end of the abundant and cheap oil on which all industrial nations depend

          1988 — Vast Russian Shtokman gas field discovered in the Barents Sea. It is believed to contain 113 trillion cubic feet of gas

          and 31 million tonnes of condensate. The hugely difficult arctic environment, and lack of capital, makes it impossible to develop.

          1989 — Prudhoe Bay, which had produced around 1.5 million barrels a day for nearly 12 years reaches peak of its production.

          1989 — Russia Samotlor oil field now produces about 2.75 million barrels of oil a day, and, only eight years on, enters a period of very steep decline.

          1990 — Saudi Arabia re-estimate of its reserves takes them from 170 gigabarrels to a claimed 258 gigabarrels overnight .

          1990 — (august 2) Iraq invades Kuwait. Oil price almost instantly doubles, from $US15 to more than $US30 (dollars of the day) as 4 million barrels a day (544 000 tonnes/day) are removed from supply.

          1990 — (august) USA secretary of defense Cheney notes I think, are well known. We obviously also have a significant interest because of the energy that is at stake in the gulf. he was clearly in a position to be able to dictate the future of worldwide energy policy, and that gave him a stranglehold on our economy and on that of most of the other nations of the world as well. a 48-inch Iraqi pipeline running across Saudi Arabia to the Saudi Red Sea port of Mu’ajjiz, just south of Yanbu, is closed by Saudi Arabia indefinitely due to the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The line has capacity of 1.65 million barrels a day.

          1990 — (september 21) USA refinery problems generate reports that 200,000 barrels of crude a day may not be able to be processed. This news, coupled with Saddam Hussein saying he would strike first against regional oil facilities if threatened causes oil prices to soar once again.

          1990 — (october) UK asserts force will be used if Iraq does not withdraw from Kuwait.

          1990 — (november) Sufficient US forces are now in place to finally ensure the safety of Saudi Arabian oil fields. UN Security Council approves a U.S. sponsored resolution that if Iraq does not withdrawal from Kuwait by january 15th 1991 then force may be used to remove Iraq from Kuwaiti territory.

          1990 — (december) Iraq agrees to withdraw from Kuwait if it can keep the Rumailah oil and gas field and keep Bubiyan and Werbah islands. Peace talks break down.

          1991 — U.S. launches cruise missiles into southern Iraq to help defend the Kurdish safe haven areas of northern Iraq. This is followed by an historically large over-pumping of oil onto the world market, reduced Asian demand due to the Asian financial crisis and warm winters in the West cutting demand for winter fuel oil.

          1991 — (january) Oil prices spike upward by $US5 to over $US30 a barrel in dollars of the day as the ‘deadline’ draws near for Iraq to quit Kuwait.

          1991 — (january 16) USA declares war on Iraq and commences air attacks on Iraqi military targets. On the same day, USA releases over 38 million barrels of oil from its strategic reserve for sale or use. Oil prices immediately drop by up to $US10 a barrel on the news.

          1991 — (january 17) USA liberation of Kuwait — Operation Desert Storm begins; 17.3 million barrels of USA ‘strategic petroleum reserves’ are dumped on the world market by Bush snr. The International Energy Agency also release oil and oil products from members strategic reserves. The price of oil drops even further to about $US15 (dollars of the day). Saudi Arabia uses excess productive capacity to help increase supply.

          1991 — (january) Iraqi missiles launched against Saudi Arabian oil facilities.

          1991 — USA bombs Iraqs civilian electricity generation stations. USA destroys around half the Iraqi generating capacity — reducing it from about 5,100 megawatts to about 2,300 megawatts.

          1991 — (february 28) End of war. Saddam Hussein orders his troops to return. Iraqi forces set fire to or sabotage 700 Kuwaiti oil wells as they retreat.

          1991 (november) Last damaged Kuwaiti oil well finally capped. Millions of tonnes of oil have been lost since January.

          1991 — Columbian Cruz Beana oil field discovered, the largest oil resource found in the Western hemisphere since the 1970’s.

          1991 — $US256 billion surplus taken from US Federal Social Security Trust Fund (alone) to help finance budget deficit rather than let it accumulate to finance the coming increased rate of retirees due to the ‘baby boomer bulge’. This trend increases year-on-year as USA to fund gross oil dependance.

          1991 — post Gulf war recession. People stop spending. Air travel is hit hard, with $US13 billion being wiped off airline income.

          1991 — Russias Samotlor oil field has just experienced precipitous decline, and now only produces about 0.75 million barrels a day, partly as a result of poor field management practices.

          1991 — (october) — Soviet Union suspends exports of petroleum products as a domestic shortage grows. Oil prices rise by about $US2 a barrel.

          1991 — Qatars North gas field comes into production.

          1991 (december) — Collapse of the Soviet Union, US oil companies were barred from bidding for the reserves.

          Early 1990’s — high expectations that significant amounts of the world’s new oil and gas resources would come from the countries of the former Soviet Union and from China. Canadian consortium takes up concession in Sudan to develop its oil.

          Early 1990’s — expert opinion in the oil industry generally agrees oil demand will remain at 66 million barrels a day far into the future

          1992 — China imports oil for the first time ever.

          1992 — USA oil field service and drilling costs per well (adjusted to 2005 dollars) are $US582,510.

          1992 — Kuwait is now able to produce 400,000 barrels of oil a day. It’s OPEC quota was 1.5 million barrels a day.

          1992 — Dubai is now producing almost 400,000 barrels of oil a day

          1992 (december) — Canada and Mexico sign a ‘free’ trade agreement with USA by which they are obliged to sell oil and gas to USA ahead of conserving it for their own future domestic needs.

          1992 — Mexico produces an historically high amount of oil for the year, 2.75 million barrels a day.

          1993 — Mexio buys a half interest in Shell’s Deer Park refinery near Houston, Texas. The refinery is upgraded and converted to allow Mexicos Mayan medium sour (sulfurous) crude oil to be processed. This heavy grade makes up about 50% of Mexicos oil production. ‘Residuals’ from this heavy grade are used to generate electricity in Mexico City, contributing to air pollution. The initial shipments are around 140,000-160,000 barrels per day. In return Shell is guarenteed a thirty-year contract (expires 2023) of supply of the cheaper Mayan crude The joint venture produces 35,000 to 45,000 bbl/d of unleaded gasoline which is sold to Mexico, filling roughly half Mexicos import needs for erfined fuel. Mexico has insufficient refinery capacity to refine enough for its domestic needs.

          1993 — Europe — about 20% of passenger cars are powered by diesel engines.

          1993 (november) — OPEC and North Sea overproduction weakens demand. Prices drop to almost $US15 a barrel.

          1993 — Saudi Petroline capacity is now increased to 5 million barrels a day by boosting the pumping capability on the line. This was a strategic move, in case the Gulf was blocked by war.

          1993 — China — as demand for fuels continues to surge, China becomes a nett importer of refined oil products.

          1994 — Oil prices reach their lowest point in inflation adjusted terms since 1973 following the post Gulf War (1) recession. OPEC disciplines its members to cut oil production to drag the price off the ridiculously low $US10 per barrel mark (in inflation adjusted dollars, the lowest prices ever.). As supply decreases and demand increases again as the US and Asian economies pick up, we are back to about US$30 per barrel.

          1994 — end of the flurry of oil exploration offshore in Saudi Arabia that started in 1987 and spurred on by the Gulf war. No wells capable of a million barrels a day are found, in contrast to earlier explorations.

          1994 — China fills almost all its demand from oil from domestic supplies. China uses only about 3 million barrels of oil a day, but even so, China is now the world’s fourth largest oil consumer, after USA (more than 15 million barrels a day), Japan and Russia. Coal is in temporary short supply, forcing a turn to oil as a substitute.

          mid 90’s — Columbian Cruz Beana oil fields production peaks at 500,000 barrels a day

          1994 — USA gas fields in the ‘lower 48’ states (excludes Alaska) reach their peak of productive capacity, at 55 billion cubic feet a day. Production slides from this point.

          1994 — Mexicos Cantarell complex, the second biggest oil producer in the world, continues down the decline side from peak. producing only 890,000 barrels of oil a day. Cumulative production from its very high initial reserves at the time of commencement of production is only 4.8 billion barrels.

          1994 — USA imports about 600,000 barrels of oil a day from Iran.

          1994 — The Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline contract is signed between US and British oil interests and Azerbaijan’s Heydar Aliyev ( head of the local KGB in Soviet times). The objective is to secure oil for the US and Europe from other than Russian or Middle East sources.

          1994 — some international financial institutions may now be commencing to artificially manipulate the price of gold so that it remains at about $US400 an ouince less than the expected price relative to currencies, and ‘de-links’ from the price of oil. Central banks, prohibited from selling more than 500 tons a year under the Washington Agreement, have devised various means to sell gold. One system is to ‘swap’ gold with each other, with each central banks ‘swapped’ gold being ‘leased’ to a lower tier bullion banks (who also trade in oil) at a very low interest rate, virtually ‘on call’. These bullion banks sell the gold and invest the proceeeds in bank and treasury bonds at a yet higher rate of return. But if the central bank ever wants its gold back, bullion banks would then have to re-buy the gold at current market rates. Other manipulations involve complex forward hedging of undelivered gold. These schemes may fail when forward contracts are written for a higher volume of gold than is physically traded on the markets.

          1995 — early — USA signs a rescue package with Mexico, loaning $US50 billion. In return, Mexico agrees to deposit a portion of oil revenues with the USA federal reserve as collateral for the loan, thereby helping back the USA dollar with oil.

          1995 — Norwegian oil and gas companies sign a long-term supply contract with Gaz de France to supply 1.4 trillion cubic feet of gas to France starting 2001 and running to 2027.

          1995 — Russia’s Yeltsin, with the country nearly bankrupt following the breakup of the Soviet Empire and disasterously low oil prices, signs a $15.2-billion ‘ Production Sharing Agreement’ (PSA) with ExxonMobil to develop oil and gas fields offshore Sakhalin Island at desperate ‘giveaway’ prices.

          PSA and are usually used by major Anglo-American oil companies when dealing with weak and corrupt third world countries to maximise profit and minimise risk to the oil company. The PSA stipulates Russia will get nothing until all costs have been recovered, and only then will receive a share of oil or gas that is eventually produced. In effect, Russia pays all development and production costs. The deal also allows the oil majors to pay no tax to the Russian government.

          The project — dubbed ‘ Sakhalin 1’ — will develop the Shayvo, Odoptu, and Arkutun-Dagi fields. These fields are estimated to contain about 2.5 billion barrels of oil and about 15 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Exxons stake is 30%.

          1995 — (april) USA unilaterally announces an oil embargo against Iran. No USA company may buy Iranian oil.

          1995 — July 6 — Venuezuela commences a regime where it will open up exploration concessions to foreign companies, so long as the government retains a majority stake in developing fields where oil is found.

          1995 — Saudi Arabia gives the development of the 7 billion barrel Shaybah oil field to the USA Parsons Corporation. When it comes on line it is expected to produce 500,000 barrels of crude a day.

          1995 — Mexico starts pressurising the declining Cantarell formation with nitrogen gas to increase oil flow back to earlier levels. New holes are added to increase the extraction rate.

          1995 — US president signs an Executive Order (12959) prohibiting US oil companies from oil exploration or development with Iran.

          1995 (august) — Iran cannot find a market for 200,000 barrels a day of crude oil since the USA imposed its unilateral oil embargo on Iran. Before the USA embargo, USA companies were buying about 400,000 barrels of oil a day from Iran so far this year.

          1995 (october) — a rare late-season hurricane, hurricane Roxanne (category 3), stalls for days over the southern Bay of Campeche and severely damages much of Mexico000 barrels a day. Most of this would have been sent to USA refineries on the USA Gulf coast. The refineries have insufficient time to fully compensate for the sudden disruption to their throughput planning.

          1995 — Mexico now oil production increase to 2.85 million barrels a day by years end. This is the highest flow rate yet. and comes about from application of aggressive new technologies such aas horizontal drilling.

          1995 — Mexico’s revenues from oil exports are $US1 billion.

          1995 — nearly 80% of Mexico’s oil is exported to USA. In august it increased to 83%, about 1.25 billion barrels a day.

          1995 — Iran commences a promotion of natural gas as an automotive fuel and electricity generating source. The objective is to conserve the oil reserves for export, as it is easier to ship oil than to ship compressed gas.

          1995 — Syria is now producing 600,000 barrels of crude per day, and about 2 million cubic metres of natural gas per day.

          1995 (december) — Angola is now producing about 690,000 barrels of oil a day.

          1995 — Peak of funding in USA for research into hydrogen as a fuel. A CRS report for Congress notes Since considerable energy is consumed in the extraction process [of hydrogen from coal or gas or water], hydrogen should properly be considered an energy carrier rather than an energy source. hydrogen is somewhat like electricity, which must also be produced from some other energy source. In spite of this obvious fact, congress seems oblivious; funds are spent researching hydrogen fuel cells and storage systems, rather than exploring renewable energy sources such as photovoltaics.

          1996 — Syria crude oil production peaks at around 604,000 barrels per day.

          1996 — China is now a nett importer of crude oil for the first time .

          1996 — The China National Petroleum Corporation, owned by the Communist Party government, buys a majority stake (40%) of the Sudan/Indian/Malaysian oil consortium (the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Co). It builds Sudans largest oil refinery in conjunction with the Sudanese Energy Ministry.

          1996 — The Iran-Libya Sanctions Act 1996 passed in USA. Having prohibited US companies from joining Iran in oil and gas development, the US administration attempts to frighten other countries away from benefiting from Iranian oil and gas. The chief purpose, however, was to prevent US oil companies investing in a proposed pipeline from the Caspian oil fields through Iran to the Persian Gulf. For strategic reasons, USA wants the Caspian oil to flow west to Turkey via the much longer and more expensive Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. The objective was to break the Russian monopoly on oil exports from the region, and further isolate Iran.

          1996 onward — From 1965 up to about 1996 the price of both gold and oil have been highly co-related. From about 1996 the price of gold ‘de-couples’ from the price of oil in the face of central bank manipulation of gold supply and a huge credit bubble from run-away bank lending for housing and lifestyle in both Eurasia and North America.

          1996 (april 30) — USA — 28.1 million barrels of crude sold from the strategic reserve to raise money for the USA government. There are a total of 3 sales. The purpose the money was applied to was ostensibly to ‘reduce the federal deficit’; but in truth it remains unclear .

          1996 — Asian economies booming, with Asian banks making ill-advised business loans for expansions, mergers and aquisitions.

          1996 — Start of trend of global growth in per capita consumption of coal, oil, and gas, structurally more heavily weighted to developing countries (initially low due to late industrialisation) with large, urbanising, and expanding populations as industry is out-sourced from the West. The Wests per capita consumption (already high due to early industrialisation) increase is less or level, as it has a smaller and slower growing population that is already urbanised, and whose per capita engagement in industry is falling with mature efficiency practises and outsourcing, while at the same time per capita engagement in less heavily oil dependant financial and service industries continues to rise. Even a small increase in demand per capita in China and India translates to a huge increase in global consumption demand. This means, even as decline in global production commences, higher oil prices are botth supported and made relatively price insensitive. When West Eurasian and North American demand for cheap goods is destroyed by internal recession and unemployment, then so to is per capita demand in East Eurasia, and recession and unemployment there is equally inevitable.

          1996 — Russia exports over one billion barrels of oil a year, bringing in 20% of its foreign exchange earnings.

          1996 — Cantarell flows are now producing 1.08 million barrels of crude a day as the fields are pressurised.

          1996 — the Straits of Hormuz in the Persian Gulf now see 15 million barrels of oil a day tankered through them.

          1996 — Venezuela signs a joint venture deal with USA’s ARCO to develop and upgrade about 200,000 barrels of very heavy ( 9 API gravity) crude a day from the 270-billion barrel Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt. Once upgraded to 25 API it will be exported to USA refineries. A similar deal has been signed with Conoco Oil.

          1996 — USA — The national average per-well production for natural gas wells is about 174 million cubic feet of gas per day.

          1997 — Over the last 7 years daily oil consumption has increased by an additional 6.2 million barrels a day, mostly driven by new Asian demand. OPEC increases its members quoatas to meet the increased demand.

          1997 — Iraq — Looking ahead to when UN sanctions are lifted,

          • France’s TotalFina Elf enters an agreement in principle with Iraq to develop the Majnoun (containing up to 30 billion barrels of crude) and Bin Umar oil fields.
          • Russia’s Lukoil signs a 23 year contract with Iraq to jointly develop the West Qurna-2 oil field, and invests heavily in preliminary work.
          • China’s China National Oil signs a deal with Iraq to jointly develop the huge North Rumailah field, near the Kuwaiti border and the Halfayah field, which may yeild 300,000 barrels a day
          • Italy’s ENI signs a deal to develop the large oil fields in the south, at Nasiriyah and Halfaya.
          • Malaysia and India also sign small development agreements.
          • US oil companies are not on the list

          • With costs of production the lowest in the world, rates of return of up to 20% are available to favoured oil companies. No non-US or UK oil company will be allowed to fulfil it’s agreement.

            1997 — UK — continuing its long association with the oil industry, British Petroleum Chief Executive David Simon is made ‘lord’ Simon of Highbury, and takes a place as an unelected Parliamentarian in the class-ridden British house of ‘lords’. Simon is given the job of Blair at least 12 BP executives will hold government positions or be appointed to government advisory committees.

            1997 — total ‘North American’ oil production (presumably USA and Canada combined) peaks [2 ]

            1997 — USA — The strategic Petroleum Reserve capacity remains at a nominal 750 million barrels, as it has for the last 5 years. But the reserve has never been filled to capacity, usually holding around 550 million barrels of crude.

            1997 — Oman’s Yibal field peaks at 225,000 barrels a day. The field is intensively produced with all the latest technology of the day to maximise production flow.

            1997 — Qatar inaugerates the world’s largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporting facility, with a total output capacity of 6 million tons of LNG a year. An associated new sea port will have a capacity to handle 25-30 million tons of LNG a year. Qatar claims natural gas reserves of about 237 trillion cubic feet.

            1997 — Norway — the Ormen Lange offshore field is discovered, containing an estimated 375 billion cubic metres of gas.

            1997 — Nigeria — Shell oil experiences 210,000 barrels a day of disrupted production at its Bonny terminal due to local protests.

            1997 — Colombia — USA’s Occidental Petroleum and Colombia’s Ecopetrol oil pipeline from the Cano Limon field is repeatedly attacked by dissendents, significantly disrupting oil exports.

            1997 — (december) Slump in Thai Baht triggers Asian currency crisis and economic slump.

            1997 — Commencement of deregulation of USA electricity supply. Commencement of wildly fluctuating prices in the energy daily ‘spot market’. Commencement of un-cordinated overbuilding of plant based on gas tubines.

            1998 — Asian economic crisis sees a reduction in demand in Asia coupled with an increased OPEC production quota. Weak consumption/demand leads to falling crude prices.

            1998 — (december) The OPEC meeting of the previous month fails to reach agreement to reduce excess pumping. Oil again sells for ‘give-away’ prices of $US10 a barrel, a 12 year low. Some crudes hit a price slump of $US8 a barrel.

            1998 onward — Dirt cheap oil and gas fuels an economic ‘good times’ boom in the ‘developed’ western countries. Natural gas sells for around $2 a Gigajoule (around US0.08 cents a cubic metre), even in winter.

            1998 onward — major oil producers experience squeezed profit margins. Needed capital intensive new refineries in USA and Europe are pushed off the drawing board. Refineries provide less profit than pumping oil, and even pumping oil out of the ground is not that profitable right now.

            1998 — Russia is in trouble at the new democracy falters in the face of low oil revenue and the cessation of international financial aid. Russia defaults on its debts after continually rolling over its (worthless) short term treasury notes finally fails. Unregulated and highly indebted hedge funds betting on currency value movements (long term capital management) lose heavily, the US Federal Reserve (US taxpayers) then subsidise the financial ‘geniuses’ stupidity by bailing them out.

            1998 — Extremely low oil returns coupled causes the Saudi budget deficit to reach 10% of GDP. Loans from the Gulf oil state of Abu Dhabi cover the cash crisis. With no cash on hand to pay for ‘make work’ schemes, unemployment rises to around 17% and 20% in those aged 20-29. Disaffected youths become prime recruits for the violent factions within Saudi Arabia’s already extreme fundementalist version of Islam.

            1998 — China — With its huge internal economy under state control, subsidised industries continue to burgeon, worsening the recurrent fuel shortages and requiring increasing levels of imports. China allocates 11 billion yuan (about $US1.31 billion) to the countries largest (state owned) coal producer to research and develop coal to liquids technology.

            1998 — UK — Brent field starts its collapse. Decline rate doubles to an astonishing 20%. Production is now about 11,000 barrels a day.

            1999 — UK North Sea fields reach overall peak of production at approximately 6 million barrels a day (small fields come into play, but nett of consumption there is an overall loss). Effective zero production is likely some time around or after 2020.

            1999 — India — Reliance Industries Ltd’s Jamnagar refinery, with a capacity to refine 660,000 barrels of crude per day, commences exporting petroleum products.

            1999 — UK is the world’s 9th largest oil producer. UK is an important nett oil exporter. A third of the North Sea oil production is exported.

            1999 — BP buys Amoco oil for $US55 billion. BP would like to use AMOCO’s sophisticated imaging technology in the deeepwater Gulf of Mexico, where, to date, its exploratory wells have been dry. Each well costs about 10 million dollars.

            1999 — Canadian Ladyfern gas deposit discovered in Northern British Columbia — the largest natural gas discovery in North America. This deposit initially thought to be large enough to meet 25% of Canada needs. It is produced at a rate of 785 million cubic feet a day.

            1999 — South Korea’s Korea Gas Corporation (KOGAS) takes delivery of its contracted 4.9 million tonnes per annum of Qatari LNG.

            1999 — (january) oil drops below $US10 a barrel. One estimate is that in real terms, this is half the price that oil was in the 1950’s. Pump prices in USA are around 90 cents a gallon. Smaller oil companies fail. Hundred of thousands of long-time experienced oil employees lose their jobs. No one in their right mind signs up to work in explorations and drilling.

            1999 — Saudi Arabia is now the single largest supplier of crude oil to the USA. Saudi Arabia preferentially supplies the USA as the USA guarentees the Saudi regimes safety from democracy. Oil sent to the USA earns less due to distance than if the oil was sent to adjacent Asian markets.

            1999 — (february) US energy secretary persuades the Saudi regime to restrict the output of oil in order to push up the price and save the Russian economy. The US ‘expects’ oil to reach a more realistic $US18 a barrel.

            1999 — (march) Saudi Arabia announces moves to cut its output from over 8 million barrels a day to 7.4 million barrels a day, and OPEC to cut output more than 2 million barrels a day

            1999 — (may) oil prices recover steadily, now stand at $US18.

            1999 — Saudi dictatorship panic levels rise further as sharply decreased oil revenue from the past few years impairs the ability to pay for social benefits for the unemployed. The huge and youthful population increase has been created out of years of oil plenty. The current population is about 21.3 million, up by about 7 million people from a decade ago, when the population was about 14.4 million.

            1999 — (july) Oil expert tells a British Parliamentary Committee that oil production has peaked, that after many years of growth we may then experience a new downward trend, and that in his view it was absurd that the depletion of the world Chairman of Halliburton oil services company, (and soon to be vice president of the USA) notes the difficulty of finding enough oil to offset our seventy one million plus barrel a day of oil depletion, but also to meet new demand. He bemoans the fact that nations and nation-owned oil companies are in control of 90% of their own oil resources, rather than USA and International private businesses owning it. He predicts by 2010 we will need on the order of an additional fifty million barrels a day above existing world oil production. He notes, from an American oil business perspective, the Middle East with two thirds of the world’s oil and the lowest cost, is still where the prize ultimately lies, but that while American private companies want access to oil owned by nations of the Gulf, progress in gaining access is slow.

            1999 — USA Central Command has a plan to quickly invade and control Iraq.

            When I was commander of CENTCOM, we had a plan for an invasion of Iraq, and it had specific numbers in it. We wanted to go in there with 350,000 to 380,000 troops. You didn’t need that many people to defeat the Republican Guard, but you needed them for the aftermath. We knew that we would find ourselves in a situation where we had completely uprooted an authoritarian government and would need to freeze the situation: retain control, retain order, provide security, seal the borders to keep terrorists from coming in. — General Anthony Zinni

            1999 — after 3 years of exploration and the expenditure of $US410 billion, oil companies around the world have found only enough oil to keep their production static at 30 million barrels a day. While declining production from existing wells is compensated for by the new wells, not enough is found to meet rising demand.

            1999 — Following the election landslide victory for Hugo Chavez in 1998 Venezuela adopts a new Constitution banning further foreign investment in the oil sector, in order to prevent oil profits enriching already wealthy foreigners when Venezuela is wracked with poverty — according to government figures, about 12% of people live in extreme poverty, 25% in poverty. The democratically elected government has a huge social deficit from years of corruption, breath-taking International Monetary Fund ‘debt for oil’ loans, dictatorship, and sequestration of national wealth by the ‘self-privileged’ few. This minority of mostly white people with racist attitudes live in luxurious ‘gated communities’ isolated from the rest of the impoverished population, and regard the wealth of the nation as ‘belonging’ only to them. This small group has controlled the oil profits for their exclusive benefit more than a century. Venezuelas birth rate means it will be constantly playing catch-up even to stand still; a situation analogous to the exploding populations of the Middle East. Venezuela’s economy and social well-being is utterly oil-dependant. 70% of Venezuelan exports are oil; 60% of government tax revenue is from oil.

            The major oil companies currently in Venezuela are foreign owned American and West Eurasian — ChevronTexaco, Royal Dutch Shell, ExxonMobil, and British Petroleum. Venezuela has estimated reserves of 78 billion barrels of crude, and 1.2 trillion barrels of ‘unconventional’ super-heavy crude. Venezuela is relatively close to the USA, supplies 10% of USA domestic oil, and therefore likely to be a target for installation of a puppet regime under USA control.

            1999 — First substantial revenue from Sudanese oil fields. Revenues reach $500 million. 80% of the money is used by the repressive Sudanese government to buy predominantly Chinese armaments, and build armaments factories to kill resistance fighters.

            1999 — OPEC continues to try to reduce supply to meet slower demand. Prices start to regain from a 30 year low (inflation adjusted to year 2000 prices) of about $US10.

            1999 — (september) — Iraq reduces exports by 1.2 million barrels per day in order to restrict supply and further drive up oil prices, which quickly reach $US22.

            1999 — (november) Iraq suspends its UN sanctioned oil-for-food sales.

            1999 — USA and the IMF discover there is a willing market for ‘unused’ central bank gold reserves when some stocks are offered at auction. Both banks are unnerved by the vote of confidence in gold versus the US dollar, in spite of moves to hold gold prices artifically low. Washington Agreement signed with 15 central banks — Gold remains an important element of Monetary Reserves and banks will not sell more than 400 tonnes of their gold reserves in any one year for the next 5 years.

            1999-2000 — (december- January) increased world oil demand growth coupled with OPEC and Iraqi pumping cut backs causes rapid rise in oil price.

            2000 — (february) oil prices reach $30 a barrel.

            2000 — (jan-feb) — USA shortage of heating oil in Northeast USA as very cold winter conditions increase fuel oil demand and hamper deliveries.

            2000 — (march) Traders betting on future price oil price spike crude above $US30 per barrel.

            2000 — Iraq resumes selling oil for food at the new higher price, and increases its smuggling of oil, mainly to Turkey.

            2000 — Iraq takes payment for part of its oil in Euros, setting a precedent for other Middle East nations, and removing some of the value of the US petro-dollar. This move shakes USA’s administrative/business/military complex deeply.

            2000 — Two US professors at the University of Houston (and energy advisors to corporate America) state oil supply cuts could be used to damage the American economy, and that nothing short of a ‘military response’ could counteract a reduction in oil production by Saddam Hussein. They make no mention of Saudi reductions in supply.

            2000 — (march) US administration does an ‘about face’ and threatens Saudi Arabia and OPEC that if they don’t increase oil production to bring down the price, the US will dump it’s strategic oil reserve on the world markets to flood them with oversupply and drive down the price.

            2000 — Most OPEC suppliers — except for Saudi Arabia — are now pumping at full capacity to meet global demand.

            2000- The world’s oil tanker fleet is now operating at 97% of capacity — the first time since 1973.

            2000 — global production of light sweet crude peaks, as predicted by Hubbard (the prediction was in effect for light crude as it was based on the production curve for West Texas sweet). From now forward, the amount of easily refined crude will fall year on year. Most light crude comes from OPEC countries. Saudi Arabia’s Ghawar. Abqaiq and Berri fields supply almost all of the Saudi light crude supply. Non — OPEC countries have relatively small amounts of light crude, and it is this that has been in demand, and has been produced first. The world must increasingly turn to those refineries able to handle ‘heavy’ and ‘sour’ sulphurous oils.

            2000 — USA and European oil refineries are operating at, or near, full capacity.

            2000 — USA oil stocks are at their lowest levels for 24 years as increased consumption keeps levels low.

            2000 — USA now consumes 8.3 million barrels of crude in producing its petrol supply (43% of all crude is used to make petrol).

            2000 — (march) OPEC (i.e. Saudi Arabia) agrees to pump more oil. But increased demand, eroding global pumping capacity, huge social debt in Saudi Arabia and Venezuela, speculation by the futures traders, and diminishing oil refinery capacity work together to hold prices. Saudi Arabia produces about a third (7.4 million barrels a day) of OPEC’s output, and is the only OPEC nation with significant spare production capacity (around 2 million barrels a day).

            2000 — (July) The Financial Times notes that troubling trends are provoking turmoil in a commodity market where knowledge of true supply/demand balances is sketchy if not deliberately obscured by participants.

            2000 — (July 10th) USA president Clinton orders the Department of Energy to establish ‘the Northeast Heating Oil Reserve’. This 2 million barrel reserve is intended to provide a ten day ‘cushion’ in the event of especially cold winters causing an unmet demand due to Atlantic refineries not being able to produce enough. It takes ten days to bring ships (usually 1 million barrel class tankers) from the Gulf of Mexico refineries to New York.

            2000 — By the end of the year oil is back at its historic value of about $US30 a barrel (when inflation adjusted to year 2000 dollars). This magnitude of price increase has not the slightest effect in stopping or even slowing demand growth. Gold re-links to the price of oil, albeit lagging in the relationship relative to previous history. OPEC members all strongly support the current pricing. The President of OPEC, Hugo Chavez, observes We understand that they [consumers] start to feel uneasy when crude prices reach $30 a barrel, but they can imagine how it must have been for us when it fell to $8 .

            2000 — Prices spikes to $35, prompting some West Eurasian consumers to protest at the consumption tax on petrol — around 60-80%.

            2000 — Eurozone governments ask OPEC to insist on a price lower than the market will freely pay. They argue oil costs Saudi Arabia $2.50 a barrel to pump from the ground (Dubai $6) so there is room to artificially accept a lower than market price. OPEC producers note that they take only 16% of the gas station pump price charged to the consuming public. Eurozone and other Western governments (except USA) take 60% — 80% of the sale price of petrol in tax, thus helpfully (for those governments) obscuring the real taxation rate its citizens must pay.

            2000 — (august) USA — ‘Sports Utility Vehicles’ (SUVs) and other light trucks now comprise almost 50 percent of the new vehicles sold in USA. SUVs are not required under Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards introduced in 1975 to achieve good fuel economy (SUVs and light trucks only have to ‘achieve’ 20.7 miles per gallon), unlike cars (which have to achieve a pathetic 27 miles per gallon), so gas-gulping monsters continued to be churned out by the American auto industry.

            2000 — Russia has greatly increased oil production from its mature Siberian fields to ovecome its financial problems. and is now meeting a very significant portion of new demand, due in part to greatly increased Chinese demand.

            2000 — Asia-Pacific oil producers oil production peaks [2 ]

            2000 — the Masjed Soleiman field in Iran has still only produced 1.2 billion barrels.

            2000 — global consumption is about 68.4 million barrels crude a day — 2.4 million barrels a day higher than earlier expected .

            2000 (september) Financial analysts are unaware of the increase in demand for oil and the proximity to supply limits to pumping and to refining what is pumped — The oil price has gone from $10 to $35 a barrel yet production has only altered by around 3%, the market is not functioning properly. Production has only increased by 3% because that is close to all it is physically able to increase by. Demand is there. Supply is uncertain at the margin. The market is functioning perfectly well.

            2000 (september) Financial commentators speculate that crude oil prices could be driven up above $US35, even as high as $US40 for a period, and that this would be an ‘oil shock’. Pump prices in USA are around $US1.60 per gallon.

            2000 — (september 5th) UK truckers block the channel tunnel in response to additional duty (tax) on already high diesel prices. They follow by blocking the UK’s largest oil terminal and almost all the UK oil refineries. Panic petrol buying breaks out. Huge queues form at gas stations, and over half the forecourts run out of supplies. Some public transport services are reduced, and some critical supplies critical health sector supplies such as oxygen almost run out. The blockade ends within a week when proposed fuel duty increases are postponed. The estimated cost is nearly 1 billion. The lesson is that most industries, food distribution, and health services will run out of supplies within two weeks of a sudden and near-total switching off of petrol and diesel supplies. Coal, gas, and nuclear powered stations are relatively impervious, leaving around 70% of the generation capacity largely intact.

            2000 — (september) USA tries to pressure the Saudi regime into pumping more of its excess capacity to bring down oil prices. Saudi Arabia refuses, noting that there is now a consensus in OPEC not to oversupply oil. In fact, only Saudi Arabia could in theory over-pump.

            2000 — (september) USA a scorching summer cranked up demand for electricity as new high tech industries such as web server farms demand extra electricity supply. Low investment in gas exploration in the late 1990’s due to low gas prices means there is a supply shortfall to generate electricity. The de-regulated electricity market means those building gas powered power plants have no idea how much competing demand for natural gas there is. Plants are built with no assured supply. Californian utilities are forced to cut power to some companies, colleges and office buildings. Winter power prices are expected to double.

            2000 — (september) USA is faced with high prices for winter heating fuel — expected to cost 30% more — at the same time as a shortfall in natural gas supply for electricity. There is near panic in some US states. A wood-stove buying frenzy is sparked in the wooded north-eastern states, where over a third of homes rely on heating oil for winter warmth. Home owners stockpile barrels of heating oil to beat the rises ahead of winter peak demand. Californians buy diesel and petrol powered portable electricity generators. President Clinton orders the release of 30 million barrels of oil from the 571 million barrel US strategic reserve in order to bring down the price. It was intended to yeild an additional 3 to 5 million barrels of heating oil, but as USA refineries have almost no spare capacity to increase production, it was largely symbolic. This is the first time the strategic reserve has has been used for domestic economic purposes rather than military purposes.

            2000 — (september) In response to intense pressure from USA, the Saudi regime finally agrees to increase production by 800,000 barrels a day. 500,000 barrels a day is probably a return to previous pumping levels. Only 300,000 barrels a day is available to meet the growth in demand.

            2000 — (october) Following the terrorist attacks on the USS Cole in Yemen, the commander in chief of the US Central command testifies in Congressional committee his command’s mission is to deter aggression and stand ready to respond to attacks on our forces, our allies, our interests. to ensure uninterrupted access to regional resources and markets. (and) to counter the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and other transnational threats. The region is historically unstable, yet remains vital to U.S. national interests. It contains vast energy resources. key air and sea lines of communication, and critical maritime choke points. Economic and political disruptions in our AOR have profound global consequences .

            2000 — (0ctober) Iraq convinces the United Nations it should be allowed to sell its oil for euros, not dollars, to come into effect November 6.

            2000 — (october) Iraq converts its $10 billion oil for food reserve fund from dollars to euros. Oil backs the USA dollar, as it is worthless without it. Converting to the euro, a fiscally sound currency, would erode the US governments ability to sell US treasury junk bonds in exchange for ‘petrodollars’. Treasury junk bonds fund the large USA internal and external deficit.

            2000 — High US treasury interest rates (6%) due to suspicion the US dollar may no longer be fully backed by oil, making bond purchases less attractive and other currencies more attractive. US stock market declines steadily.

            2000 — Central banks respond to lack of confidence in the dollar by driving down their interest rates on bonds. This allows the USA fed to print and successfully sell more bonds. Central bank USA dollar reserves retain their value, and allows USA to import oil at a lower price than would otherwise have been the case, subsidising USA drivers.

            2000 — November — Russia’s Lukoil buys Getty Petroleum and its 1,300 gasoline service stations.

            2000 — the U.S. Geological Survey estimate world oil reserves at nearly 416 billion tonnes. Oil industry sources estimate it at about 140 billion tonnes.

            2000 — USA domestic and cargo airlines now consume 20.3 billion gallons of jet fuel a year .

            2001 — Norways giant fields peak at 3.2 million barrels of crude and condensate a day.

            2001 — India’s Bombay High North and South oil fields, providing over 30% of Indias domestically produced oil, have been declining for some years. Production has dropped from 20 million tonnes to 12 million tonnes a year. A programme to redevelop’ them, probably by pressurisation, now starts.

            2001 — Russia once highly productive giant Samotlor oil field now produces only about 0.25 million barrels of oil a day. This giant field collapsed from peak in only about 20 years, and its decline was precipitous. It is a warning of what is likely to happen in Mexico and Saudi Arabia.

            2001 — London’s International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) is bought by a consortium of oil companies and financiers that includes BP, Goldman Sachs and Morgan Stanley. Money is made by predicting movements in oil prices and exchanging contracts for future delivery. Volitility and flux is a money earning asset for the exchange. Volatility and flux drive the ability to profit, with knowledge of the economy, and access to expert analysis from within the oil industry being key factors.

            2001 — USA authorities forecast abundant future supplies of North American natural gas, meaning prices would not rise.

            2001 — USA — California. Power crisis, with some ‘brown outs’. Major energy companies accelerate the building of gas powered — electricity generation plants.

            2001 — North American gas prices spike high over winter — increasing by nearly 300% in 6 months due to shortages. Gas prices peak at over $US12 a Gigajoule (about US.50 cents per cubic metre) Gas industry puts over 1,000 gas rigs to work (compared with 700 in 2000). Gas production increases by about 4%.

            2001 — USA strategy to isolate Russia by actively engaging with and bringing former Russian colonies such as Poland and other Baltic Sea nations into NATO (in spite of Russia’s alarm at its perceived ‘encirclement’ by USA forces) means that Russia’s existing crude oil transit pipelines through Poland, Latvia, and Lithuania to its West European markets (and beyond) may fall effectively under USA-NATO control. In response, Russia’s President Putin initiates a plan to build a new pipeline from the West Siberian and Timan-Pechora oil provinces to the port of Primorsk on the Russian shores of the Gulf of Finland. It is to be known as the Baltic Pipeline System (BPS), and is expected to carry 1.3 million barrels of oil a day. The projected cost is $US2.2 billion.

            2001 — The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) is completed. This $US2.6 billion crude oil pipeline pipeline runs for 935 miles, from the Tengiz oil field in Kazakhstan to the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk in Russia. The initial capacity of 500,000 barrels per day is expected to expand to around 1.4 million barrels per day by 2015.

            2001 — American president installed allied to the oil industry. According to a 2005 BBC report, planning began within weeks of Bush’s first taking office in 2001 to install a puppet regime in Iraq via an American organised coup d’etat, and thus control Iraqs estimated 112 billion barrel oil reserves. the second largest in the world.

            2001 -(february) — several weeks after Bush jr. becomes president of USA, an ‘energy task force’ headed by (oil-industry participant) vice-president Cheney is convened. Few details have been forced from the US Govt (via the Freedom of Information Legislation), but according to one correpondent

            divided into nine exploration blocks. The accompanying list of suitors revealed that dozens of companies from 30 countries — but not the United States — were either in discussions over or in direct negotiations for rights to some of the best remaining oilfields on earth.

            — Mark Levine, in The Nation .

            The National Security Council directed staff to cooperate fully with the Energy Task Force as it considered melding two seemingly unrelated areas of policy. and join the review of operational policies towards rogue states such as Iraq and actions regarding the capture of new and existing oil and gas fields.

            The State Department had already created the Future of Iraq Project, an Oil and Energy Working Group whose members were, according to The Financial Times. Iraqi oil experts, international consultants and State Department staff ( names were classified as a state secret). According to the book ‘The Bush Agenda’ by Antonia Juhasz one member would later serve as Iraq’s oil minister. The working group stated that Iraq’s oil should be opened to international oil companies as quickly as possible after the war.

            2001 — (april) — the Bush cabinet claims Iraq remains a destabilising influence to the flow of oil to international markets from the Middle East and military intervention’ is necessary and labels this an ‘unacceptable risk’ to USA interests.

            2001 — (may) Dick Cheney, now the vice president of America, tells the American president Bush via the ‘National Energy Policy Report’ that By 2020, Gulf oil producers are projected to supply between 54 and 67 percent of the world long on rhetoric about reducing demand for oil by promoting innovation and technology to make USA the world leader in efficiency and conservation, is actually intended as a deliberate smokescreen.

            In fact, it appears to be the mother of all smokescreens.

            • Its hydrogen and biodiesel ‘solutions’ are unsustainable. Even a schoolchild could see the flaws.
            • No genuine effort to conserve or become fuel efficient is proposed.
            • No reduction in oil consumption at all is proposed.

            Toward the end of the report, the true policy is hinted at — a chart of net US oil consumption and production over time reveals US domestic production will decline from around 8.8 million barrels a day in 2002 to 7 million barrels a day in 2020. Demand in 2020 is expected to be 6.5 million barrels a day greater than 2002 levels, reaching 25.5 million barrels a day. Thus, of the 25.5 million barrels a day USA expects to consume, 18.5 million barrels a day will need to be imports from other countries.

            Instead of discussing how to reduce this increased demand, it discusses ‘removing’ political, logistical, and legal obstacles to ‘obtaining’ it from oil rich regions and specified countries.

            In other words, this policy is short-term ‘me-generation’ expediency in face of a crisis whose dimensions are known.

            • It is an impotent policy.
            • It is an intellectually bankrupt policy.
            • It the childish self-delusional policy of the addict living in a fantasy world of ‘cheap energy forever’.
            • It is a policy of those in frightened of the reality of the impending consequences of what they have failed to do.

            2001 — uranium ‘yellowcake’ hits an historic low price of $US7 per pound on the spot market.

            2001 — USA, summer. Natural gas prices drop back nearly 300% to the normal trend line after winters demand spike.

            2001 — USA backed big business in Venezuela uses the right-dominated Petroleum Workers Union to organize a general strike.

            2001 — the highly nitrogen-gas pressurised declining Cantarell field in Mexico now produces 2.1 million barrels a day — nearly twice the flow rate achieved at the ‘natural’ peak of production for the field.

            2001 — Iran signs a 25-year deal with the USA’s ally Turkey to supply 4 billion cubic metres of natural gas, making Iran the second biggest supplier to Turkey after Russia.

            2001 — (july) — Russia — Azerbaijan — Iran — UK — Azerbaijan joins agreements with Russia and Kazakhstan that the seabed only of the Caspian sea be assigned territorial rights to bordering states. Azerbaijan needs access to Russias pipelines to export oil and gas. Azerbaijan sends oil exploration vessels to explore the Araz-Alov-Sharg oilfields in these waters knowing the territorial boundaries are vigorously disputed by Iran. Iran threatens them with a warship and fighter planes and masses troops on the land border with Azerbaijan. The exploration was commissioned by British Petroleum.

            The Caspian Sea is bordered by Russia, Kazakhstan, Azerbaijan, Iran, and Turkmenistan. Prior to the break-up of the Soviet Union, Russia and Iran split control of the Caspian between them. After the USSR breakup in 1998, in spite of agreements with the new states that Soviet divisions of the Caspian would remain in force, Russia and Kazakhstan agreed to divide their portion of the seabed only between them, and leave the issue of sea surface control unresolved.

            Iran and Turkmenistan wanted condominium use of the sea or, alternatively, division of the Caspian into five equal sectors (not based on a countries abutting shore length). The Caspian is supposed to hold reserves of between 17 and 33 billion barrels of oil, and maybe 300 trillion or so cubic feet of natural gas.

            Most of the reserves are offshore, but closest to the new post-Soviet states of Kazakhstan (which has the Tengiz and Kashagan fields) and Azerbaijan (which has the Baku Fields). Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan continue to contest ownership of the Chirag and Azeri oilfields.

            2001 — Turkey on-sells part of its Iranian gas to USA’s dependent ‘oil and gasless arab state’ — Israel.

            2001 — Ford Motor Company introduces a car, the P2000, with a hydrogen internal combustion engine saying it could help bridge the gap between gasoline vehicles and the fuel cell vehicles of the future. Engine efficiency is about the same as a diesel, but the range is only 62 miles. Liquified natural gas or compressed natural gas gives much better range, and is a mature technology. Hydrogen gas must be ‘made’ by decomposing these gases, or by using electricity from a coal or gas fired power station (or nuclear station) to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen. The idea a hydrogen powered vehicle could ever be widely and popularly available as a ‘substitute’ for mined gas shows no understanding that there are no ‘reserves’ of hydrogen to be ‘mined’; hydrogen can be brought into existance only through burning fossil fuels or uranium.

            2001 — September 11 — Saudi Arabian terrorists murder over 3,700 Americans in New York, setting the stage for America to invade Saudi Arabia Iraq. and kill an estimated 20,000 Iraqis.

            2001 — (november) a paper published by eminent geologist Kenneth Deffeyes of the prestigous Princeton University says The biggest single question is the year when world oil production reaches a Hubbert peak and then declines forever. Both the graphical and the computer fits identify 2004 as the probable year. The largest single uncertainty is the enormous reserves of Saudi Arabia.

            2001 — USA — USA natural gas production peaks at 19.6 trillion cubic feet per year.

            2002 — USA White House spokesperson Ari Fleischer not in [Iraq Pedro Carmona Estranga, head of the Venuzuelan federation of business, dissolves the constitution, dissolves the Supreme Court, dissolves the democratically elected national assembly. A massive popular uprising of over a million people takes to the streets, with support from the lower rank of the military, stops the terrorists and restores the popularly elected president. Astonishingly, the terrorists are not tried for treason, or homeland crimes, but are allowed to go free.

            2002 — director and executive Vice-President of ExxonMobil existing production declines. To put a number on it, we expect that by 2010 about half the daily volume needed to meet projected demand is not on production today and that Vol 5 No 3, 2002).

            2002 — a report from the Colorado School of Mines, titled ‘The World’s Giant Oilfields,’ notes that nearly 50% of the world’s crude oil supply come from the 120 largest fields in the world. The 14 ‘largest of the large’ supply over 20%, and these 14 have an average age of nearly 44 years. The conclusion is that there are no more super giant fields in the world to be found.

            2002 — USA gas production falls back to 2001 levels.

            2002 — USA oil field service and drilling costs are now $1,057,510 per well (expressed in 2005 dollars). This reflects more geologically ‘extreme’ drilling conditions, where drilling would never in the past have been viable.

            2002 — 2003 Oman’s (Middle East) oil field drop production significantly as fields age

            2002 — Columbian Cruz Beana oil fields production drops from previous levels to 200,000 barrels a day

            2002 — Latin American oil production might have peaked, but still a little too close to call [2 ]

            2002 — (november) USA invades Afghanistan and installs ‘the pipeline president’. USA wants to access all Central Asian former Soviet State gas and oil and send it south to Pakistan. The Pakistani president is suitably grateful. This means a pipeline has to cross Afghanistan — impossible while the Taleban and the Saudi terrorists control the country.

            2002 — Commencement of the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) pipeline to bring oil from the Caspian Sea to the Mediterranean for on-shipment.

            2002 — (december) The Caspian sea area, previously touted as a new Saudi Arabia has drilling results in that show not the expected 200 billion barrels, but about 39 billion barrels, much of it lower quality crude.

            2002 — This years USA additional government debt is $US158 billion, most of which will be funded by issuing more treasury bonds.

            2002- Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and the United Arab Emirates peg their currencies to the US dollar to benefit by its strength. Almost 85% of the excess income of oil-producing Persian Gulf countries is invested overseas in US dollar-linked financial instruments.

            2002 — Volkswagen announces a project to develop a super-economy car that can travel 100 kilometers on 1 litre of fuel. It is called the a lightweight single cylinder diesel capable of 120 kph (75 mph) does even better, 0.890 litres to the 100 kms (264 miles per gallon).

            2002 — 1.2 million new cars were purchased in China this year.

            2002 — China’s national oil company buys an oil field in Indonesia from Spain’s Repsol YPF SA and becomes the largest offshore oil producer in Indonesia.

            2002 — The price differential between the more difficult and expensive to refine ‘heavier’ (more viscous) oils and ‘sour’ (higher sulfur content) crudes and the easily refinable ‘light’ ‘sweet’ (low sulfur) crudes is about $2 a barrel for the entire year. There is relatively little change in the differential in the US refinery ‘stock up’ period prior to the summer driving season in USA.

            2002 — USA — Roughly 17,000 new natural gas wells were drilled this year.

            2002 — Canada — About 9,000 new natural gas wells were drilled this year.

            2002 — USA now imports 13% oil supply from Africa.

            2002-2003 — USA winter demand over this period draws gas reserves dangerously low (40% below normal by the end of winter). Reserves were low because increased demand required increased storage in the ‘off season’ but pumping capacity was insufficient due to decreased supply. Spot market prices created ‘spikes’ as high as US$30 per million cubic feet ($US10.00 per Million British Thermal Units ), in equivalent energy terms, about $US9 a gallon for gas. Natural gas is also the primary feedstock to be decomposed into the risible USA ‘hydrogen economy’ smokescreen.

            2003 — (january) — USA — demand for heating oil in the Northeast surges due to record cold temperatures in some regions. Consumption reaches 4.9 million barrels a day in the last week of january — a record high. Some regions experience a plunge in inventories of more than 30%, making supplies in some areas short. Concerns are raised that if the cold weather is prolonged, the emergency fuel oil reserve may need to be released. $200 million in emergency funds are released to states, most of which is used to subsidise heating fuel for low income households. Requests for heating assistance are up from 20% to 50% as the proportion of the USA population who are on low incomes or are impoverished increases year on year.

            2003 (February 7) USA commercial crude oil stocks fall to about 270 million barrels (week ending February 7), the lowest crude oil stock level since 1975.

            2003 — In the UK the number of petrol stations also equipped with LPG (liquified petroleum gas) reaches 1,200 — nearly twice the number of suppliers that existed in 2001. Government tax on LPG is considerably lower than petrol, and subsidises the cost of installation of dual fuel systems in new cars (and in some used cars, albeit at a lesser rate) at around 1,000. Savings on petrol pay for the buyers share of the installation within about 20,000 miles.

            2003 — The number of motor vehicles in the UK is now 31.2 million.

            27.7 million of these are private autos and light goods vehicles such as utes and vans.

            Road transport accounts for about 75% of all oil used in the UK.

            2003 — UK now consumes 42 million tonnes of oil per year in road transport (private and freight).

            2003 — UK now consumes 0.3 million tonnes of oil per year in rail transport (passenger and freight)

            2003 — China’s oil resource probably peaked (as assessed from the Uppsala Hydrocarbon Depletion Study Group model). Remaining reserves estimated at 25.7 billions barrels.

            2003 — China’s largest oilfield at Daqing, produces 48.3 million tonnes for the year. This is the first production drop (down from about 50 million tonnes per year) in 27 years.

            2003 — China relies on Iran for 14% of its oil needs.

            2003 — China spends $US300 million doubling the capacity of the Sudan-China oil refinery.

            2003 — (January) — A speech said to be by by China’s Minister of Defense and vice-chairman of China Chi Haotian is put onto the internet under various titles, including Do You Still Have Ten Years and to import raw materials such as lumber, in order to protect its environment from deforestation. This is very reasonable. But big powers have their own and 200 million tons in 2020. Will these big powers tolerate this. Only by being prepared for war can China win space and time for her further development. Just what this space might be was uncertain at the time of publication, but would be clarified later. What is now clear to China is that China’s oil imports will increase year on year, driving up the cost of manufacture, putting China in the same boat as the rest of the world.

            2003 — the giant Shaybah oilfield on the border of United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia has now produced 1 billion barrels of crude (136 million tonnes).

            2003 — Australias oil fields have peaked. Total production has fallen from about 650,000 barrels a day to around 430,000 barrels a day.

            2003 — Oman’s Yibal field production has in effect collapsed. It now produces only about 80,000 barrels per day, losing well over half its production in just 6 years.

            2003 — Mexico’s giant Cantarell field has 53 additional wells sunk to try to maintain falling production levels.

            2003 — Indonesias production slide continues. It now exports 100,000 barrels of crude a day.

            2003 — (early) Japanese companies take a 20% stake in developing the Iranian 1 billion barrel Soroush-Nowruz offshore field in the Persian Gulf, and later sign contracts for natural gas and gas liquids from it and other Iranian offshore fields.

            2003 — USA national gas field production decline is estimated at roughly 3% a year.

            2003 — UK North Sea fields production drops by 8.5% as decline continues (small fields come into play, but nett of consumption, there is an overall loss).

            2003 — Canadian Ladyfield gas deposit now producing at only 300 million cubic feet per day, and the decline rate continues to be steep. Some charge the field has been overproduced, and should have yeilded more.

            2003 — (january) US president Bush announces Tonight I am proposing $1.2 billion in research funding so that America can lead the world in developing clean, hydrogen-powered automobiles. Either he had been badly advised, or he is incredibly ignorant of the science and previous reports. The technology to do it reasonably is not, and never will be, there. Technological feasibility is a trivial side issue anyway — hydrogen must come from gas or coal; or from electricity. There are no ‘hydrogen mines’ available to exploit; there is no cheap and abundant source of hydrogen even if it were a practical option for automotive transport. Which it isn’t. Much of the funding will flow to Sandia Research Labororatories, a Lockheed Martin subsidary long involved in contracts for the business/military/presidential-administrative complex, a complex extremely heavily ‘influential’ in USA.

            2003 — (february) — Irans phases two and three of the South Pars natural gas field come on-line. Together, they will produce an additional 55 million cubic meters (1.9 trillion cubic feet) of natural gas, and 1 million metric tons (11.6 million barrels) of liquefied petroleum gas a year, as well as 85,000 barrels of condensate liquids a day.

            2003 — (february) Angola’s Kizomba B offshore development project commences. The joint venture between the oil companies Exxon Mobil, BP, Eni, and Statoil is expected to cost $US3 billion. Production of 250,000 barrels of crude oil a day, starting 2006, is expected. Total recoverable reserves are estimated at around 1 billion barrels.

            2003 — (march) Nigeria experiences fighting between soldiers and militants of various ethnic groups and factions in the Niger Delta. ChevronTexaco, Royal Dutch Shell, and TotalFinaElf are forced to shut in operations in the area, resulting in 800,000 barrels a day being lost — about 40% of Nigeria’s total production.

            2003 — (april) Production in Nigeria returns to normal.

            2003 — (april) Brazil’s largest ever natural gas field is discovered about 85 miles off the coast of Sao Paulo. It is estimated to have reserves of about 2.47 trillion cubic feet of natural gas.

            2003 — (january) Iraqi oil production is about 2.8 million barrels a day. Saddam Husseins regime uses 80% of oil revenue to pay for food, 20% (worth about $US3 billion) for the military, governance, and kick-backs.

            2003 — over the last 12 years United States has received about 37% of Iraq’s oil, almost all of it via a network of foreign intermediaries.

            2003 — Report for the Italian Government recommends that if USA invades Iraq Italy should make the oil field regions of Nasiriyah and Halfaya secure to protect their 1997 oil deal. a deal worth 300 billion dollars.

            2003 — (before April) According to reported information from a former Energy and CIA oil analyst, a secret plan was drafted by the American administration to the sell-off all Iraq’s oil fields after a planned invasion. Republican administration ‘hires’ are said to have had the secret intention to destroy the power of the Opec cartel by large increases in oil production from the seized iraqi oil fields, busting the Opec quota levels.

            2003 — (January) The pentagons darling Ahmed Chalabi, having already met with executives of three US oil multinationals, tells an American newspaper that American companies will have a big shot at Iraqi oil. Not only does Iraq have the second largest oil reserves in the world, Iraqi oil is also one of the cheapest to produce in the world — some estimates are as low as 97 cents per barrel. North Sea oil cost around 3 to 4 dollars per barrel to produce. Estimated annual production would be worth somewhere between $US40 billion and $US80 billion per year (at 2003 oil prices). The USA proposes a ‘production share agreement’ with US and UK multinational oil companies, giving the multinationals heavily discounted concessions to Iraqs oil.

            2003 — (january) Unnamed ‘sources’ in the office of Vice president Cheney claim some in the administration want to seize Iraqs oil as spoils of war. Others argue that the proceeds of oil sales should go to pay the Americans for their costs incurred in invading and occupying Iraq. Some argue that Iraqs money belongs to Iraq, and should be held in trust to pay for repair to the damaged infrastructure and for normal governance. The Congressional Budget Office estimates the cost of occupation would be $12-48 billion per year, and occupation would only need to last until 2004 or 2005 before exiting. presumably leaving a puppet administration in place that will deliver Iraqi oil to USA and UK oil companies.

            2003 — (march) USA president uses authorities in his International Emergency Economic Powers Act to confiscate the property of the Iraqi government under U.S. jurisdiction and vest the assets in the U.S. Treasury.

            2003 — (march) USA General Franks, well aware of the 1999 invasion plan and in concordance on the troop numbers required to quickly restore order, assist establishment of a democratic government and get out of Iraq (as assessed in the 1999 plan) now refuses to supply General Eric Shinseki, the USA army commander with the agreed number following discussion with Rumsfeld.

            2003 — (march) USA Navy SEALs seize the huge Basra off-shore oil terminal, of pivotal importance for exporting crude out of Iraq, and the smaller Khwar Al Amaya oil terminal.

            2003 — (april) USA business/military complex attacks Iraq on the pretext of the prescence of unspecified weapons of mass destruction. All major government buildings are attacked and either damaged or destroyed. The Iraqi Oil Ministry building is the only building left untouched. Only a little more than a third of the numbers of troops required to quickly impose civil order are sent. The least prepared units are sent, while the best prepared are held back. No plan or mandate for regulating or restoring civil life is given to the troops. Unsuprisingly, chaos results, with riots, theft, sabotage, burning of buildings, further damage to infrastructure, and the coalescing of previously minor insurrection groups.

            The need for a US and UK long term military prescence in Iraq, ostensably to ‘maintain order’, is achieved.

            2003 — (march) Lukoil declares it will sue any oil company developing Iraq’s West Qurna oil field for at least $20 billion in the International Commercial and Industrial Arbitration Court. The case could take up to eight years, and all work by any party on the field would be stopped. Lukoil threatens to have the court seize tankers of Iraqi crude to recoup its $3.7 billion investment in West Qurna.

            2003 — USA business/military complex achieves its objectives of protecting and controlling the more southerly oilfields. Saudi Arabia co-incidentally pumps at full capacity, something it has never done in recent times. The price of oil falls by $US10 for a few months.

            2003 — (april) Iraq — civilian oil field engineers employed by Houston-based KBR travel with the invading USA Army Corps of Engineers to take the highly productive southern Iraqi fields and immediately assess and repair the most productive oil wells and the key oil pipelines, and collection and storage facilities.

            2003 — Iraq — Prior to invasion, British Petroleum engineers in Kuwait, and retired engineers from Royal Dutch Shell in England teach troops of the 516 Specialist Team Royal Engineers how to run southern Iraqs oil fields. Immediately post-invasion, a senior BP manager is seconded by the UK government to manage the rebuilding of Iraqi refineries.

            2003 — (may) — USA president George Bush signs executive order number 13303 stating any attachment, judgment, decree, lien, execution, garnishment, or other judicial process is prohibited, and shall be deemed null and void, with respect to all Iraqi petroleum and petroleum products, and interests therein. that come within the possession or control of United States persons [corporations]. In effect, Iraqi oil is made a safe prospect for any USA oil company, by presidential decree, and regardless of previous contracts or work by others.

            2003 — (may) Russia’s Yukos oil company signs an agreement worth $US150 billion with China’s China National Petroleum Company. CNPC will buy 5.13 billion barrels of oil between 2005 and 2030; the oil to be delivered via a $2.5 billion pipeline from Russia’s western Siberia fields to China’s Daqing oil field.

            2003 (june) — Russia signs a contract with Royal Dutch Shell and a consortium of Russian and Japanese companies to build Russia’s first natural gas liquefaction facility in Sakhalin, on the Russian far Eastern coast. Design capacity is to produce 9.6 million tonnes a year. Tokyo Electric Power Company and Tokyo Gas sign an agreement to buy nearly a quarter of the projected production.

            2003 — (june) Australia and East Timor agree on the development of the Bayu-Undan gas fields in the Timor Sea ‘Joint Petroleum Development Area’. ConocoPhillips announces it will go ahead with its $1.5 billion liquefied natural gas liquefaction plant in Australia’s Northern Territory.

            2003 — (June) — Chevron oil company is awarded the right to buy an initial shipment of 8 million barrels of oil from Southern Iraqi fields, and thereafter 2 million barrels a month until december.

            2003 — (July) — BP oil company is awarded the right to buy an initial shipment of 8 million barrels of oil from Southern Iraqi fields, and thereafter 2 million barrels a month until december.

            2003 — (July) — Shell oil company is awarded the right to buy 2 million barrels of oil a month until december.

            2003 — (July) Quote of the month by Paul Wolfowitz. USA Deputy Defence Secretary, in an interview in the July 2003 issue of magazine Vanity Fair-

            For bureaucratic reasons we settled on one issue, weapons of mass destruction, because it was the one reason everyone could agree on.

            2003 — Saudi Arabia arranges an extra 800,000 barrels of oil for world markets. Some or all of this may be from its tank farm reserves around the world, perhaps disguising less spare capacity than the world thinks it has.

            2003 — Post invasion, commentators speculate Iraqs oil reserves are 200 billion barrels, and will bring an era of ‘cheap oil’ once again.

            2003 — Italian Government sends in troops for humanitarian purposes. Italian troops guard a refinery and oil pipeline in Nasiriyah. 19 Italian soldiers die when a suicide bomber attacks the Italian base at Nasiriyah.

            2003 — The USA invading force’s self-appointed administration, the ‘Coalition Provisional Authority’, nullifys all Iraq’s existing oil lease contracts with any Eurasian country signed in the period 1997-2002. The contracts were worth about $US1.1 trillion.

            2003 — Rumors that the USA controlled puppet governing council intended to privatise Iraqi oil encourages insurgent attacks on oil infrastructure, presumably on the premise the invaders should be denied the prize so deeply coverted by Dick Cheney in 1999. Production of Iraqi oil does not meet expectations due to insecurity and sabotage, especially in the vunerable northern pipelines. The price of oil starts to climb again.

            2003 — USA president uses authorities in his International Emergency Economic Powers Act to confiscate the assets of the deposed Iraqi government and vest the assets in the U.S. Treasury. Combined with the Iraqi assets seized in USA. this amounts to $US2.65 billion dollars. This Iraqi money is spent on the invading forces ‘costs of occupation’, mostly in administration and ‘buying off’ local resistance.

            2003 (may) — Former CEO of Shell Oil USA takes control of Iraq’s oil production for the US Government. He delays and obstructs the USA administration scheme to sell off Iraqi oil fields and oil infrastructure to private companies of the invading nation.

            2003 (may) — United States, as the occupying power, facilitates and oversees the delivery, and distribution of gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas, kerosene, and diesel throughout Iraq. The USA occupying army uses $US2.3 billion of Iraqi money from the DFI not only to buy these products from ‘overseas’, but to pay for delivery. Army convoy tankers and guarding personnel are paid from this Iraqi fund. With most of Iraq’s electricity infrastructure and some refineries damaged, the demand for these fuels for cooking, heating, personal transportation, and private power generation rises. Iraq already limited, cannot now cope.

            2003 — Iran continues to invoice its oil sold in the Asian region in US dollars, but prefers payment in euros or alternative regional currencies. Most Iranian oil sales to europe are already in euros. 30% of Irans oil goes to European markets. Many of Irans imports come from Europe. If Iran had not switched to the euro, it would have experienced significant losses through having to pay for European imports with the depreciating USA dollar. As a result of European trade, 60% of Iran’s foreign reserves are now held in Euros.

            2003 — Strong Euro, 13% above the dollar, OECD interest rates hit a 50 year low.

            2003 (june) — export of Iraqi oil re-commences. Iraqi oil is once more sold in US dollars, not Euros. Large amounts of ‘Iraqi’ revenue foregone as a result.

            2003 — Dollar strengthens once more, treasury interest rates on bonds cut, Asian purchase of the bonds continues, USA banks with petrodollars recycling from the Middle East re-lend with few credit worthy requirements for housing and lifestyle, fueling the property bubble and fueling private debt, including purchase of gas guzzling SUV’s. Conditions for the costs of the USA invasion to be met by USA printing money are ideal and unrestrained .

            2003 — Strong resentment by Arab feudal chiefs and dictators at US seizing of Iraqi oil leads to Saudi Prince visiting Russia and the Saudi regime discussing closer cooperation with Lukoil and other Russian companies. OPEC countries reportedly are privately much more predisposed to sell oil in Euros, but are presumably too afraid of America to say so publicly.

            2003 — (july) — Chad commences pumping crude oil for the first time. The oil takes several weeks to travel through a 650-mile pipeline through adjacent Cameroon to the Atlantic coast. Production is expected to eventually reach 225,000 barrels a day.

            2003 — (july) Israel commences operation of its 1.2 million barrel a day capacity, bidirectional Eilat-Ashkelon pipeline. The pipeline links the Mediterranean with the Red Sea, by-passing the Egypts Suez canal. Initial capacity is 400,000 barrels a day. Both these Israeli ports can handle ‘very large crude carriers’ (VLCCs), but the Suez canal can’t.

            2003 — (july) Offshore drilling begins at Sakhalin 1 .

            2003 — (july) — USA — Hurricane Claudette shuts in about 18% of the Gulf of Mexico’s total gas production and about 21% of the GoM’s oil production. Production is restored within a few days after the storm.

            2003 — (july 25) — USA re-opens the Maryland Cove Point LNG regasification plant. The first tanker unloads 22 million gallons of LNG from Trinidad. The plant will eventually be able to supply 1 billion cubic feet of natural gas a day. At that point it will be the largest LNG regasification facility in the United States.

            2003 — ExxonMobils revenue for the year is $US247 billion — an income greater than the annual income of all but 6 countries in the world (USA, Japan, Germany, UK, France, and Italy). ExxonMobil also has the highest profit of any company on the surface of the planet.

            2003 — This years USA additional government debt is $US375 billion. most of which will be funded by issuing more treasury bonds.

            2003 — USA — at the year-end winter heating season, fuel oil sells for about $US1.28 a gallon.

            2003 — USA is now burning almost 9 million barrels of oil a day in motor vehicles.

            2003 — US refineries are operating at 93% — 95% percent of capacity, which given downtime for essential maintenance, is in reality full capacity .

            2003 — 40% of new passenger cars in Europe are now powered by diesel.

            2003 — global diesel supplies expected to grow by 3% next year.

            2003 — (august) — Saudi Arabia’s light and medium grade crudes sell for only US40 cents a barrel more than its heavy and sour grades.

            2003 — (august) USA — largest power blackout in USA history leaves 50 million people without power due to failure cascade in the aging USA grid. 50 billion dollars of economic damage is estimated to have been caused.

            2003 — USA electricity generation capacity troubled at the margin by some nuclear power plants possibly having to shut down over summer to repair degraded reactor heads. Nuclear power supplies 10% of USA electricity.

            2003 — (october) — Bolivia cancels plans to export more than a billion cubic feet of LNG a day through Chile to the United States following massive popular protests in the poverty ridden country.

            2003 — (december) Indonesia signs a contract with BP to export 500 million cubic feet of liquefied natural gas (LNG) a day of from its Tangguh facility to ship to USA’s Sempra Energy’s proposed LNG import and regasification terminal in Baja, California.

            2003 — (october) crude oil is $US30.35 barrel.

            2003 — (october) gasoline pump price in the UK is 81.3 pence per litre.

            2003 — China sold 2 million new cars this year — 70% more than the previous year .

            2003 — China, having lost it’s Iraqi concession signed in 1997 due to the US invasion of Iraq, now realises it cannot rely on one or two major suppliers in the Middle East. China intensifies its scouring of the world for oil fields to buy into to meet it’s rising oil imports needs. It intensifies its ‘string of pearls’ — military bases in friendly countries protecting the sea sea lanes to China’s coastal oil and gas imports terminals.

            2003 — (september) a law is drafted in the Russian lower House, the Duma, called and prevent private pipeline routes being developed outside the Russian state pipeline network. Some commentators claim that the votes in the Duma have been bought by some fabulously rich oligarchs so that it cannot be passed.

            2003 — (october) Yukos oil and gas makes a bid for its rival, Sibneft. YukosSibneft would together have control of 19.5 billion barrels of oil and gas. This company would then be second only to ExxonMobil (the largest and most powerful company in the world) in ownership of oil and gas reserves. A combined YukosSibneft would be the fourth largest crude oil producer in the world, able to produce 2.3 million barrels a day.

            2003 — (october) Russian billionaire oligarch Mikhail Khodorkovsky, controller of Yukos oil and gas, is arrested on tax fraud charges. Khodorkovsky ‘obtained’ Yukos assets from the Russian state folowing the breakup of the Soviet Union under Yeltsin. His arrest is precipitated by a meetings he held with Vice President Dick Cheney and George H W Bush (of the secretive Washington Carlyle Group), said to be to discuss the sale of somewhere between 25% and 40% of Yukos to ExxonMobil and ChevronTexaco. This would have given the US military-industrial -presidential complex control of the major part of Russian energy resources and pipelines. Unsuprisingly, President Putin is angered by the attempt to subvert Russias interests by de facto selling Russias oil and gas resources, Russias major source of wealth, into American Government hands.

            2003 — (november) Russia, China and Korea sign an agreement to go ahead with a project to develop the massive Kovykta condensate field in eastern Siberia. The plan is to pipe the gas 4,887 kilometres from Irkutsk to Manzhouli near the Sino-Russian border. Ultimately it will bifurcate to Beijing and Dalian. At Dalian, a submarine pipeline over 500 kilometres long will run gas to Pyongtaek in Korea. The Kovykta gas field contains between 1.4 — 2.1 trillion cubic meters of natural gas — enough to supply Russia, China, and Korea for more than 30 years at the rate of 34 billion cubic meters of gas per year. The project is estimated to cost US$17 billion. Russia will supply China with 600 billion cubic meters over 30 years, and supply Korea half that amount over the same time period. The three countries would like to deliver first gas supplies by about 2008.

            2003 — USA — Roughly 19,000 new natural gas wells were drilled this year .

            2003 — The year ends with Dubai medium ‘sour’ crude having sold for an average price over the year of $26.80 per barrel .

            2004 — The US military guards ‘US’ oil supplies. USA signs a miltary base agreement with Principe and San Tome, two tiny islands off West Africa’s coast. Curently Nigeria supplies around 400 million barrels a year to USA, and Angola 110 mb/yr. Offshore Nigerian and Angolan oil might contain 83 billion barrels in the long run. If it could be produced in significant volume it would probably meet demand for 3 or 4 years, according to some estimates. But there are large political and logistic problems in producing it.

            2004 — Peace discussions between rebels and Sudanese government. Bitter rebel commanders suggest Chinas oil contracts may be terminated once they share in government power.

            2004 — Sudan’s government commits crimes against humanity in burning villages, bombing, torturing, and murdering people in order to drive people from their ancestral land to ‘clear’ land for oil exploration. 4 million have been dispossessed. 2 million are dead. They use guns and planes bought from the Chinese. and sometimes use oil company airstrips and facilities. UN wonders whether or not it is ‘officially’ genocide.

            2004 — China National Petroleum Corp begins trial oil production from a field it almost totally owns in South Darfur, Sudan.

            2004 — The Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Co consortium’s (majority owned by China National Petroleum Corporation) Heglig and Unity oil fields in Sudan produces 350,000 barrels per day.

            2004 — China now buys 10% of its oil needs from Sudan, which has estimated reserves of 563 million barrels.

            2004 — (august) — China’s state-owned Shenhua Coal starts building the first phase of a large-scale coal-to-liquids plant in Inner Mongolia’s E’erduosi. The first phase will cost about $US1.25 billion. Break-even point for the plant is oil at $US22 a barrel so long as China’s coal remains around about $US10-$US12.50 per ton. Once operational, phase1 is expected to annually produce 1.08 million tons of coal-derived oil products.

            2004 — USA is now importing 60% of the oil it uses.

            2004 — Yemen passes its peak of production and starts its decline.

            2004 — Highly pressurised supergiant Cantarell complex in Mexico is now expected to decline rapidly from last years pressurised production of 2.1 million barrels a day.

            2004 — Prudhoe Bay’s production has declined to 350,000 barrels of oil a day.

            2004 — UK North Sea fields production drops by 10% as decline continues (small fields come into play, but nett of consumption there is an overall loss). Production is now 30% below the 1999 daily average.

            2004 — (january) USA — Massive spike in natural gas prices. A severe 3-day cold snap in the northeast results in sudden high demand for domestic electricity. Utility companies invoke the ability to cut supplies to industrial customers on cheaper ‘interruptible’ supply contracts so as to supply electricity to domestic consumers. Fully a quarter of the gas-fired utilities simply stopped generating electricity and on-sold their natural gas supply as an enormous profit. Many industries are able to switch to fuel oil, but as oil is largely barged into these regions, supply cannot meet the surge in demand from industry. The supply shortfall is made worse by the policy of keeping only the minimum amount of oil stocks on hand to meet ‘projected’ demand. The cost of home heating fuel oil spikes high. Some areas of New York run out of fuel oil.

            2004 — (january) Saudi Arabia opens its new Haradh oil and natural gas facility. The plant will increase Saudi natural gas production capacity by about 25%. Most of the gas will be used in the burgeoning domestic market. Like Iran, the Saudis are turning to domestic natural gas use to conserve the more easily transportable oil for export.

            2004 — (january) New Zealand — Diesel prices are NZ 65 cents/litre (US 44 cents/litre).

            2004 — (february) Japan’s Inpex Corporation signs an agreement with Iran to develop the massive Azadegan oil field. Reserves are estimated at 26 billion barrels.

            2004 — (february) France’s Total and Malaysia’s Petronas companies sign a $US2 billion agreement with Iran to build Iran using gas from Irans South Pars field. It will have a capacity of 390 billion cubic feet a year, with expected to commence in 2009.

            2004 — (March) US Department of Energy predicts oil prices to stay around $29 per barrel for the whole of 2005.

            2004 — US Department of Energy forecasts world oil production won’t peak until around 2037, asserting —

            The world production peak for conventionally reservoired crude is unlikely to be ‘right around the corner’ as so many other estimators have been predicting.

            2004 — US office of petroleum reserves report states world oil reserves are being depleted three times as fast as they are being discovered. Oil is being produced from past discoveries, but the reserves are not being fully replaced. Remaining oil reserves of individual oil companies must continue to shrink. The disparity between increasing production and declining discoveries can only have one outcome: a practical supply limit will be reached and future supply to meet conventional oil demand will not be available. Although there is no agreement about the date that world oil production will peak, forecasts presented by USGS geologist Les Magoon, the Oil and Gas Journal, and others expect the peak will occur between 2003 and 2020. What is notable. is that none extend beyond the year 2020, suggesting that the world may be facing shortfalls much sooner than expected.

            2004 — The head of the Association for the study of Peak Oil claims the massive Saudi Ghawar fields geological structure may have been damaged by pumping at full capacity, leaving some oil unable to be extracted. This field produces about 5 million barrels per day of the total Saudi output of around 9 million barrels per day.

            2004 — (early) A Texas based American oil industry group headed by the former USA secretary of state James Baker (now said to also be a paid legal representative of both Exxon-Mobil and the Saudi Arabian government.) draws up plans for the USA administration which would create an Iraqi (nominally) state-owned oil company to apparently control Iraqi oil and Iraqi oil infrastructure. As Iraqi equity in its industry has been removed and its capital base destroyed, a shrewd guess would see it likely that the company would have to ‘farm out’ all its assets to overseas companies due to capital starvation (in return for a small percentage of residual profits, probably equal to the food bill for the Iraqi people). A fair speculation would be that it would also have to borrow heavily — from plainly visible or disguised US dollar currency interests. Repayments could possibly be in oil.

            2004 — USA provides technical assistance and support to the Iraqi Ministry of Oil to define Iraq legal. policy. and investment frameworks for the Iraqi oil industry.

            2004 — Overall gas depletion in Europe is estimated at about 6% less production a year.

            2004 — UK’s Energy Institute estimates conventional global oil reserves are declining at the rate of about 4-6% a year, and staffer speculates the peak might be in 2008.

            2004 — USA gasoline stocks are at the lowest levels since the 1970’s oil shock.

            2004 — (march) Petrol prices in USA are about $1.80 a gallon. In UK petrol cost $US5.30 a gallon. A substantial part of the difference is tax on petrol. The price signal in USA is, and always has been, to buy ‘gas guzzling’ cars with big engines. The price signal in the UK is, and always has been, to buy more economical cars with small engines. Can the USA national fleet abruptly change? In time. One estimate is fifteen years to change over half the fleet.

            2004 — (March) the International Energy Association (IEA), in response to China’s sharply increased oil buying, raises their projections of the growth in demand for oil by an additional 220, 000 barrels a day, taking projected daily demand throughout 2004 to 1.65 million b/d.

            2004 — (March) US president re-signs Executive Order (12959) of 1995 prohibiting US oil companies from oil exploration or development with Iran. Presumably American plans are to take control of Iranian natural gas by any or all of — ‘precision-strike’ missile coercion (most likely); invasion; or sponsoring a coup d’etat and installing a puppet regime (least likely).

            2004 — (April) Iran signs a deal allowing Thailand to explore and develop the small Saveh oil block.

            2004 — (April) French firm CETAL commences work on Iranian gas pipelines to prevent them from freezing up in the coming winter. Iranians are heavily reliant on natural gas for domestic use, and winter freezes have interrupted supply. They now import much of their refined petroleum products as they have no real refining capacity for domestic use. Gasoline prices are heavily subsidised.

            2004 — (April) Iranian oil and energy analyst Ali Bakhtiari tells an audience at the annual gathering of the Association for the Study of Peak Oil (ASPO) in Berlin By the end of the year we will see oil at $50 a barrel .

            2004 — (may) energy advisor to George W. Bush energy investment banker Matthew Simmons says for demand for oil to be ‘controlled’, oil would have to reach $US182 a barrel. At this price, gas prices would also rise, by his estimate, to the equivalent of $US7.00 per gallon. On 2003 experience. his price for natural gas may be conservative.

            2004 — (may 1) Saudi terrorists storm the offices of a Houston-based oil company in the oil hub of Yanbu killing six west Eurasians and a Saudi man before being killed by Saudi security forces. Unlike the earlier fire at Abqaiq, production is not affected.

            2004 — (may) USA average petrol prices breach $US2 per gallon for the first time.

            2004 — (july) Shell admits it has overstated its reserves by almost 4.5 billion barrels. It is fined by the financial regulators.

            2004 — (july) China buys oil to build its reserves — some speculate it is starting to convert dollars of long term dubious value into gold — black gold.

            2004 — (july) Chinas crude oil imports for the first 6 months are up by 334.8%.

            2004 — USA ‘lower 48 states now produce 5 million barrels of oil a day.

            2004 — (august) USA drivers use over 9.2 million barrels of petrol a day in the summer ‘touring season’.

            2004 — (august) Russias privately held Yukos oil company may be forced to stop operations due to a supposed massive tax debt. Yukos supplies world market with about 1.7 million barrels of oil a day, about 2% of global oil.

            2004 — (august) Oil prices rise to $US49 a barrel, the highest price since futures started being traded in 1983.

            2004 — (september) Russian current oil production peaks at around 9.4 million barrels a day. 80% of Russian production comes from Siberia. It is uncertain what the proven reserves are in the undrilled parts of the region. No new oilfields have been found for 10 years. Russian oil companies currently pump out more oil than is replaced by new discoveries. Field production decline rates are estimated to be between 5% and 10% a year. Commentators guess that if known fields will production peak at 11 million barrels a day in 2010. Others speculate that discovered but undrilled reserves could in time make that ten times higher.

            Of the as yet unproduced fields, the largest oilfield recently sold for development is the Trebs-Titov-Central Khorever Plateau group of oilfields in Timano-Pechyora Province. This grouping might have1.68 gigabarrels of oil. While large, this is not a giant field.

            There are only two other fairly good sized fields, the Lodochnoye oilfield in Krasnoyarsk (estimated 313 million.barrels) and the Chayandinskoye oilfield ( estimated 365 million barrels). The other 50 or so fields sold are small. Another 100 fields may be sold, but there is little data on their size, but all are known to be smaller than Lodochnoye and Chayandinskoye.

            2004 — Russia’s giant Samotlor field production falls to 325,000 barrels a day. At peak, it used to produce 3,500,000 barrels a day. Production would have been even less if not for extensive use of USA companies (Halliburton and Schlumberger) to carry out hydraulic fracturing of the formation. As a result, wells are producing over 3 times what they were producing in 2000. In 2000, the wells were producing 5 times less than they were at peak.

            2004 — (september) Russias new production since 2000 has now risen to 2.7 million barrels a day, an astonishing amount. Much of the increase has come from application of new technology (such as well perforation, well ‘stimulation’, directional and horizontal drilling, fracturing of low permeability strata ) to old Soviet era western and Siberain fields, which are known to be mature. These techniques are likely to cause Russian fields to maintain high volume, but play out earlier than currently assumed.

            The increased global demand now stands at 5.88 million barrels a day. Russia now meets almost half that increased demand. Russian high volume production is now critical to global supply.

            2004 — (september) Shell Oils total reserves fall by an unstated amount. New additions to its reserve estimates equate to only about 20% of this years production. Shell predicts the company will be producing the equivalent of 4.5 million barrels of oil per day by 2014. Presumably this includes gas.

            2004 — Shell Oil finds moderate sized gas play in western Canada. While big relative to the usually shallow wells now in western Canada, expected daily production still only equates to 0.04% of total North American daily demand. Industry veterans note a field of about this size would need to be found every few months to flatten out the natural gas decline curve of fields in Western Canada.

            2004 — (october) Canada — natural gas sells for over $5 per gigajoule.

            2004 — (september) Hurricanes shut down many of the Gulf of Mexico wells and reduce production in Texas and Louisiana. Refineries in Louisiana shut. US Southern State crude oil import facilities close. Hurricane Ivan causes underwater mudslides, damaging 102 pipes taking oil and gas ashore. Seven platforms are destroyed, 20 others are badly damaged. 1.5 million barrels a day of oil production ceases. Crude prices surge. Saudi Arabia pumps at full capacity to make up the shortfall, and 11 days after the hurricane, oil is released from the USA strategic reserve.

            2004 — (september 24) Hurricane Ivan reduces USA inventories of distillate sharply. Petroleum inventories fall by about 13 million barrels. Crude oil refining is down by 1.3 million barrels overall. Wholesalers draw down their stored inventories to make up the shorfall. Wholesalers inventories fall sharply as a result, at a time of year when they would normally be rising.

            2004 — (september) Oil passes the $US50 a barrel price mark at the end of september.

            2004 — (september) OPEC is now pumping crude at a 25 year high, producing 30.5 million barrels per day, the highest production rate since 1979. It has no impact on rising prices.

            2004 — (october) crude oil prices reach $53 a barrel — a 20 year high. Only the few commentators familiar with ‘peak oil’ had predicted this level, but not this early.

            2004 — (mid october) Oil hits $US55 a barrel.

            2004 — (october) OPEC’s 11 members pump 30.54 million barrels a day — the highest pumping rate since 1979.

            2004 — (october) China signs a $100 billion memorandum of understanding with Iran for joint development of a major Iranian gas field including a 25 year supply contract for liquified natural gas to be produced from the field. Once the field is commissioned, the contract is for Iran to sell oil to China at a rate of 150,000 barrels per day for 25 years, at prevailing market prices. Iran is China’s major source of oil.

            2004 — (october) USA imports about 900,000 barrels of gasoline a day.

            2004 — (mid october) Repairs to hurricane damage now allow all but 200,000 barrels a day of oil to flow again. T here is a total production loss of 43.8 million barrels of oil from the Gulf of Mexico for the duration of the shutdown

            2004 — (october) USA strategic oil reserves have been filling at the rate of more than 100,000 barrels a day, and are now 666 million barrels. USA adminstration decides to take it to 700 million barrels before stopping.

            2004 — (november) OPEC revises its projection of oil demand growth for next year downward. It estimates likely demand for OPEC oil to average 28.2 million barrels per day over the fourth quarter 2004 and first quarter 2005. This is a 2 million bpd drop over the amount its own figures estimate as having been produced in october.

            2004 — (november) — China signs an agreement with Brazil to jointly develop undersea oilfields off Brazil’s coast, and to jointly construct a natural gas pipeline.

            2004 — (december) China imports a record high of 12.1 million tonnes of oil this month (equivalent to 145.2 million tonnes a year). Chinas total oil use, domestic and imported, was 6.38 million barrels a day — a growth in total oil demand of 15.6% for the year. Imports of oil are now rising at the rate of 9% a year. China’s rate of oil use may be higher than officials ever anticipated

            2004 — (december 31st) China suspends the export of crude oil to help meet domestic demand.

            2004 — (december) China signs a 25 year supply deal to import 3.3 million tonnes a year of liquified natural gas from Australia North West gas fields. Supply is due 2006.

            2004 — (december) Chinas government-owned China National Offshore Oil Corporation buys a 5% stake in the consortium developing Australias North West Shelf gas reserves. Australias Woodside Petroleum and BHP Billiton each have a 12.5% stake, as does England’s BP, America’s ChevronTexaco, Japan’s Japan Australia LNG (MIMI) and the Netherland’s Royal Dutch Shell.

            2004 — (late) Indonesia’s Petramina oil and gas company cancels ten LNG shipments to Taiwan.

            2004 — (december) Qatar, with the third largest gas reserves in the world (its giant field, the North field. holds 25 trillion cubic metres of proven reserves), produced 18 million tonnes of natural gas in the 2004 year.

            2004 — (december) Qatar announces the Qatargas II project to deliver gas by train to Europe and then via a contract with ExxonMobil to deliver future supplies to England starting in the winter of 2007-2008. England will fill 20% of its needs from Qatari LNG. It is described as the biggest deal in the history of the hydrocarbon industry. The Qatar government owns 70% of the project, the US oil giant ExxonMobil owns 30%. It plans to produce 60 million tonnes a year by 2010, which would make it the worlds biggest LNG exporter at that point.

            2004 — Qatar’s RasGas signs an agreement with Petronet LNG of India to supply ‘up to’ 7.5 million tonnes of LNG.

            2004 — (december) USA Congress warned in testimony by UK energy expert Dr. Daniel Yergin that The US is facing a critical five-year period in which, unless new steps are taken by consumers, industry and government, there is significantly increased risk of higher, more volatile natural gas and electric power prices, job losses, demand destruction and industry relocations. Not only is the price of gas to industry going to rise, the price of natural gas to power electricity generation plants will rise. Thus the cost of domestic and industrial energy will rise. Clearly, compressed natural gas as a substitute for petrol for domestic automotives will be more expensive than it has ever been, even if it retains a margin against petrol.

            2004 — (december) USA Congress warned in testimony by UK energy expert Dr. Daniel Yergin that while USA currently imports 16% of its gas needs from Canada, that supply is likely to slowly decline as Canadian domestic demand increases more quickly than the very modest yearly production increases.

            2004 — USA onshore gas exploration reaches record levels. Productive capacity is not expected to grow meaningfully, and in total, is expected to fall below 2003 levels.

            2004 — (december) — USA winter natural gas prices for domestic heating reach record high levels.

            2004 — (december) — Canada and USA — The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers say new Canadian gas reserves found in 2004 are the equivalent of 99.5% of 2004 production, a deficit of 0.5%. Most of the new gas is found in British Columbia, which produces only 16% of Canada’s natural gas. There are few new fields in Alberta. Alberta has 75% of Canada’s gas reserves.

            2004 — (december) the Middle East now produces over 10% of world production of natural gas.

            2004 — (fourth quarter) Trend for increasing US dependance on selling government bonds continues. This years USA additional debt is $US413 billion. most of which will be funded by issuing more treasury bonds. Total accumulated USA Federal Government Debt reaches $7.6 trilllion, funded by $4.4 trillion in publicly held Treasury bonds and T-bills. Almost half the $4.4 trillion publicly held bonds are owned offshore — double the amount held offshore in 1992. If the world is to continue to accept US dollars, all payments for oil must continue to be in US dollars only, as by itself, the dollar has little intrinsic value.

            2004 — (fourth quarter) USA Federal Government debt owed to US Social Security Trust Funds reaches an all time high of $3.1 trillion. $US1.8 trillion is now owed to the Social Security Trust fund alone via treasury bonds. Continued raiding of Trust Fund surpluses to help pay the huge USA debt means the cash in the funds is replaced with treasury bonds whose value depends on the fate of the dollar, which depends on the fate of the ‘petrodollar’. The USA Government will not be able to replace the market value of the money it has ‘borrowed’ from the funds in even the medium term, let alone the long term. Medical benefits and retirees pensions will necessarily be extremely limited when the taxpayer base shrinks as oil prices climb. Bonds must be issued to fund future shortfalls. If the US bonds are to have any value, the dollar has to be backed by oil. as in itself, the dollar has little intrinsic value.

            2004 — The USA government-run Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation administers payment of retirement benefits of nearly 500,000 workers and retirees covered by around 2,700 business sector pension plans that have terminated. The Corporation now also insures around 42 million American workers (about a third of the workforce) in more than 44,000 private-sector pension plans in case the companies fail and can no longer pay out their pension liabilities. It is funded for occasional failures in any given industries, not collapse of whole industries.

            2004 — USA has experienced the highest budget deficit in history — $US500 billion. Interest rates on US treasury bonds are at historic lows, but are raised slowly to convince Asian banks to continue buying bonds. Asian banks, and particularly China and Japan, hold 43% of treasury bonds, whose value depends on oil backing. Neither wishes to rock the boat, especially as it is uncertain how much of the Middle East oil reserves USA may ultimately control. High oil prices are in both the Asian banks interests (to support the dollar) and the USA interest (to show foreign banks that Middle East oil backing continues to make the treasury dollar bonds worth buying; thus financing the deficit and the Iraq occupation).

            2004 — USA trade deficit (cost of foreign goods imported less money received for US goods exported) reaches $700 billion per year. The largest part of the deficit is for imports of gas and oil, not Chinese and Japanese trade goods, as popularly supposed.

            2004 — USA has trillions in consumer debt — per capita, the highest in the world. Only a strong dollar, backed by oil, prevents interest rates rise, and collapse of the consumer debt bubble, with consequent recession .

            2004 — Iran signs a $70 billion energy agreement with China. China’s state oil company, Sinopec, agrees to buy 250 million tons of LNG over 30 years from Iran, and develop Iran’s giant Yadavaran gas field, and jointly build related petrochemical and gas industry infrastructure, including pipelines. The second phase will involve building a 386 kilometer pipeline in Iran to the Caspian Sea. Ultimately, the Iranian pipeline will link up with a pipeline planned to go from northwest China into Kazakhstan.

            2004 -(december 28) Iran announces plans to have an international oil trades bourse, adding to the NYMEX bourse in New York and London’s ‘International Petroleum Exchange ‘ bourse (both are owned by oil-connected USA and UK interests, and operated by an Atlanta, USA, corporation). The USA government prohibits USA companies to trade with Iran, and therefore the USA government prevents it’s domestic oil and petrochemical companies from buying or selling on the bourse. The oil trades will be denominated in euros and transacted over the internet. It solves the problem of lack of a euro-denominated benchmark standard. The three current oil benchmarks — Brent crude (UK), West Texas Intermediate (USA), and Dubai (UAE) are all USA dollar denominated. A euro denominated oil trading benchmark will significantly add to the value of the euro. It will save Europe the bank fees involved in converting US dollars back into euros. Over time, it will remove some of the dollars ‘black gold’ backing. Iran already trades with Eurasia in euros. The bourse will also make oil-for-carbohydrates barter deals easier for Iran. For example, Iran could swap oil for grain (China has bought large tracts of maize-growing land from the Zimbabwean dictator Mugabe). If it goes ahead with this commercial activity, Iran’s fate is likely to be sealed. Iran plans to start trading on March 20, 2006, the Iranian New Year.

            2004 — (november) Russias Putin publicly considers the idea of switching its trade in oil from US dollars to Euros at a summit of European leaders in the Urals. Russia is now the worlds biggest producer of oil by volume (bigger than Saudi Arabia). More than half of Russias oil trade is with West Eurasia. This follows the effective re-nationalisation of the Yukos oil company, and may be a ‘straw in the wind’ to the erosion of the petrodollar. Unlike Saudi Arabia, Russias reserves are not massive enough to allow it to remain as number one for long.

            2004 — Denmarks’ oil field may have peaked at 50% of estimated ultimate recoverable reserves of oil (around 3 billion barrels), according to one commentator using the Hubbard linearization technique.

            2004 — Ghawar, the world’s largest oilfield is now producing about 4.5 million barrels a day. One commentator estimates the decline at about 8%. Between 30% and 55% of the fluids pumped up the well are water. In a presentation to CSIS. Saudi Aramco reveal (pdf) that the Ghawar field is 48% depleted.

            2004 — Oil output from China’s domestic fields is a total of 175 million tonnes for the year, 2.9% more than 2003. Oil consumption for the year is 288 million tonnes. This is16.8% higher than for 2003.

            2004 — China imports about 113 million tonnes of crude oil.

            2004 — China’s largest oilfield in Daqing continues to decline, producing 46.4 million tonnes for the year.

            2004 — Both China’s second biggest oilfield at Shengli, and it’s third biggest, at Liaohe, continue to decline. Field-edge drilling and reservoir pressurisation are being used to maintain production levels.

            2004 — China displaces Japan as the second highest importer of crude oil in the World.

            2004 — Chinas total energy use from renewables — hydro power, solar, and wind — reaches 1%.

            2004 — China sold 2.4 million new cars to it’s citizens, 20% more vehicles than last year.

            2004 — China increases the amount of automotive fuel it burns by 20% relative to the previous year.

            2004 — There are now about 13 cars per 1,000 people in China. Bicycles are a major form of non-recreational personal transport.

            2004 — there are now about 600 cars per 1,000 people in USA. Bicycle barely register as a form of non-recreational personal transport.

            2004 — China’s total oil consumption for the year is the equivalent of 1. 3 barrels of oil per citizen.

            2004 — China’s nett oil imports for the year are about 879 million barrels (120 million tonnes), equal to 2.40 million barrels a day. This is about 40% of China’s total oil consumption.

            2004 — By years end, USA consumes oil at the rate of 19.7 million barrels of oil a day

            2004 — USA remains — by a huge margin — the worlds’s highest consumer of oil, consuming the equivalent of 25 barrels of oil per person in USA.

            2004 — By years end, global daily oil consumption is now about 83 million barrels a day, 17 million barrels a day more than earlier expected.

            2004 — Growth in oil demand in USA, originally thought to have increased by 2.4% over last year — or 484,000 barrels a day — is found to have in reality been nearly 50% greater. The USA increased its consumption by 3.5% for the year, or an additional 697,000 barrels a day more than last year.

            2004 — diesel fuel in USA averages $1.81 per gallon for the year, and the trucking industry spent $62.6 billion on diesel.

            USA now uses about 3.7 million barrels of crude per day in producing diesel.

            2004 — USA uses about 8.8 million barrels of crude a day in producing its daily petrol use. A barrel of crude contains

            159 litres/42 US gallons. Once refined, this barrel of crude oil will yeild 75 litres/about 20 US gallons of petroleum (‘gasoline’).

            2004 (december) — USA now imports about a million barrels of refined petroleum per day from overseas refineries.

            2004 — USA natural gas use is now about 15% higher than 1999, mainly due to increasing use of gas to generate electricity. The unregulated and unplanned USA ‘free’ market has resulted in more private gas fired plants being built than there is reliable gas supply.

            2004 — USA — Roughly 22,000 new natural gas wells were drilled this year. The national average per-well production is now down to about 146 million cubic feet of gas per day.

            2004 — International Energy Agency says rate of demand grew faster in 2004 than any year since 1976.

            2004 — the number of private cars on Britain’s roads is estimated at about 29 million.

            2004 — the number of private cars on Europe’s roads is estimated at about 192 million.

            2004 — small cars make up 33.4% of the European Union fleet — about 64,000,000 small cars.

            2004 — Toyota estimates it will sell 10,000 petrol-electric hybrid cars in Europe next year.

            2004 — small cars make up 14% of the USA fleet.

            2004 — Estimated ‘world car population’ is now 740 million.

            2004 — The year ends with the preferred, easily refined Dubai ‘sweet’ crude having sold for a price averaged over the entire year of $33.60 per barrel.

            2004 — by years end, knowledgeable commentators predict oil to range between $US45-$ US60 a barrel, i.e. EUR36- EUR 50 a barrel for 2005. At least one commentator suggests $US75-90 will not choke off demand .

            2004 — crude oil production prices have remained at about $US6 per barrel for non-OPEC oil producers and at about $US1.50 per barrel for OPEC oil producers.

            2004 — The International Energy Agency says non-OPEC oil producers are currently producing 50.1 million barrels a day (excluding oil condensate liquids from natural gas wells).

            2004 — Saudi Arabia earns about $US116 billion in net oil export revenues, and nearly 80% of state revenue. This is 35% higher than 2003. Oil, gas, and oil product revenue remains virtually the sole source of income for the Saudi dictatorship. Year end budget surplus is about $US26 billion. Public debt is around $US164 billion, and foreign assets about $US110 billion, making a nett negative ‘position’ of around $US54 billion. Population growth is the highest in the world and unemployment remains around 13%.

            2004 — The International Energy Agency lists countries exporting at least 1 million barrels of oil per day. These countries are responsible for exporting 38.3 million barrels of oil per day. The top three nett oil exporting countries are Saudi Arabia (8.73 mbpd), Russia (6.67 mbpd) and Norway (2.91 mbpd), a total of 18.31 mbpd. These three countries are now the ‘big three’, making up nearly half of the total net oil exports from the top oil exporting countries of the world. But Russias reserves are expected to peak in about 2012, and Norway will peak before then.

            2004 — USA — A years end survey of 32 firms (86% in the food and beverage industry) by IBM Business Consulting Services and the Grocery Manufacturers Association reveals transportation costs have risen by 23% in the food, beverage and consumer products industry since late 2001. Overall, these increased transport costs represent 6% of gross revenue for these busineses. Transportation costs have risen to an average of $US1.69 per mile. The companies include mega businesses with annual revenue of $1 billion or more such as General Mills, ConAgra Foods and Procter new efficiencies are being systemically embedded — no partial loads are shipped, and some loads are being shifted to rail, which for some commodities is becoming a cheaper option.

            2005 — Houston petroleum consultant estimates, on an inflation-adjusted basis, pump prices in USA would have to be $US5.10 per gallon to even equal the 1980 price. He does not mention the recession that followed.

            2005 — (new year) by years end, one analyst projects the possibility oil may be consumed at the rate of 86 million barrels a day by the fourth quarter. This is 3 million barrels a day more than was consumed in 2004. This would be a total annual demand for production of an additional 1,095 million barrels a year by the end of 2006 — well in excess of last years ‘cushion’ of supply over demand of about 7.2 million barrels! There is no evidence Saudi Arabia has the ‘extra’ pumping capacity of 3 million barrels a day it is claiming, and that might meet this shortfall. There is no evidence there is spare pumping capacity of refinable oil anywhere at this time. Using these projections, the implication is that there would be a theoretical supply shortfall 3 days into the new year in 2006. Even taking into account the extra oil no longer required for US strategic reserves, the supply shortfall would still appear on the third day of the new year in 2006. If true, [January 2006 — it wasn’t, supply and demand are almost perfectly matched] this would be an historic event in the very brief oil economy.

            2005 — International Energy Agency (a conservative forecaster) forecasts daily oil consumption to rise to 84.3 million barrels a day this year. This is about 1.3 million barrels a day (475 million barrels a year) more than 2004, and on last years consumption levels, this forecast implies that there would be a supply shortfall 6 days into the new year in 2006. Taking into account the extra oil no longer required for US strategic reserves, a supply shortfall would appear 8 days into the new year in 2006.

            2005 — (january) China’s vice president Zeng Qinghong visits Venezuela and signs an agreement on a number of bilateral areas of cooperation, including an agreement facilitating oil sales to China.

            2005 — (january) India signs a bilateral contract with Iran to buy 7.5 million tons of liquified natural gas a year, the contract to run for the next 30 years.

            2005 — USA almost 200,000 megawatts of gas-fired power plants have been installed [in recent years], equal to one-fourth of the country’s total installed capacity in 2000.

            2005 — Demand for LNG (liquified natural gas) has reached such heights that it exceeds current capacity to liquify it for shipping. Once sufficient liquification facilities are built to meet strong Asian, European and American demand, there will not be enough highly specialised liquid gas transportation vessels to carry the liquid gas.

            2005 — Russia’s major gas producer, Gazprom, seeks to develop new fields in the northern and continental shelf regions as its mature major fields in Western Siberia are now declining and experiencing drops in production of 20-25 billion cubic meters a year.

            2005 — (january) Gazprom signs Memoranda of Understanding with ChevronTexaco, Statoil and PetroCanada in its efforts to partner with North American companies with gas marketing and re-gasification facilities. Gazprom intends to develop a train to make LNG near its new Barents sea giant fields. It also intends to make easily-shippable synthetic oil from the gas.

            2005 — (january) The U.S. manager of Toyota’s advanced technologies group, when asked when fuel cells cars would replace gasoline-powered cars replies If I told you ‘never,’ would you be upset?. While American car makers embrace an energetically and logistically impoverished idea — hydrogen fuelling — Toyota embraces and refines high fuel efficiency hybrid gasoline-electric cars.

            2005 — (january) New Zealand — Diesel prices are now NZ 93 cents/litre (US 72.5 cents/litre)

            2005 — (january) Turkey uses 2.6 billion cubic metres of gas more than it has contracted for from its second largest supplier, Iran. How much of this extra demand is actually Israeli demand (Turkey on-sells some if its Iranian gas to Israel) is unknown.

            2005 — (january) Turkey, an American ally, expects to buy an additional 6 billion cubic metres of Iranian gas above its existing 25 year contract by 2007.

            2005 — (january) Iran raises the price of its gas exports to Turkey by 4. 5%. Turkey (?Israel) doesn’t want to pay, and goes to the International Court of Commerce for a ruling. The ruling is due in September.

            2005 — (january 31) — light sweet crude is US$48.20.

            2005 — (march) Saudi officials claim they have raised their production of oil to 9.5 million barrels a day.

            2005 — (march) USA buys oil from these suppliers, in Million Barrels Per Day (rounded) —

            Canada 1.98, Mexico 1.64, Saudi Arabia 1.62, Venezuela 1.51, Nigeria 0.95, Angola 0.67, Iraq 0.54, Russia 0.46, UK 0.44, Algeria 0.37, Ecuador 0.30, Virgin Island 0.27, Norway 0.26, Kuwait 0.20

            2005 — (february) Indonesia hit its lowest production level in 34 years of pumping — 942,000 barrels per day. Continued depletion plus increased internal consumption means that Indonesia is now a nett importer of crude. Domestic demand for oil and gas increased by around 50% in 2004.

            2005 — (february) Saudis produce 9.2 million barrels a day to meet increased world demand.

            2005 — (february) USA drivers use over 8.8 million barrels of petrol a day in the winter low demand season.

            2005 — (march) USA imports 14.6 million barrels of oil a day of the total of 20 million barrels of oil a day it consumes.

            2005 — (march) The price differential between the more difficult and expensive to refine ‘heavier’ (more viscous) oils and ‘sour’ (higher sulfur content) crudes and the easily refinable ‘light’ ‘sweet’ (low sulfur) crudes is about $15 a barrel. At this time inventories are being built for the summer driving season. In addition, new standards introduced in the last two years in USA, Europe, China, Canada, Japan, Australia and India require less sulfur in petrol. These standards reduce the yield of gasoline and diesel per barrel of crude oil, and therefore reduce the refinery profit. Heavier, higher sulfur ‘sour’ crudes yield even less gasoline and diesel, and are not preferred for that reason.

            2005 — (march) Saudis produce 9.5 million barrels a day to meet increased world demand.

            2005 — (march) US petrol still $US2 at the pumps.

            2005 — (first quarter) The president of China’s Sinopec Economics and Development Research Institute predicts China’s oil consumption will double over the next 15 years to more than 10 million barrels of oil per day. As China reserves would only last 17 years at its much lower 1999 consumption rate if it relied soley on its own oil, it is clear that China will be looking to buy up to 8% of current (Q1 2005) daily world production. But in 15 years time there will be a 739 million tonne (about 15 million barrels a day) shortfall in annual world supply if demand averages at 1999 levels in the intervening years. A worldwide 15 million barrel a day shortfall is not a good time to be looking to buy an additional 5 million barrels a day over existing (2004/5) purchases! Perhaps the intention is not to buy them at all.

            2005 — (february 15th) — Unverified ‘leaked reports’ of a second speech supposedly by China’s previous Minister of Defense and vice-chairman of China Chi Haotian, has the Chinese Communist Party worried about its continued existence, and discusses a need to emulate Hitler in the quest for more living space. He supposedly states openly that The United States, Canada and Australia are the only places large enough to accommodate Chinese needs for unpolluted air, water and land. The racist and xenophobic speech advocates a suprise attack on the USA using China’s biological weapons to depopulate USA (clean up) as a prelude to conquest, or, if that fails, implying the use of electro-magnetic-pulse from a sub-space overhead nuclear explosion to ‘jam’ USA operational electronics, followed by simultaneous explosion of ‘clean’ neutron bombs — presumably mostly ‘small suit-case sized’ devices planted in major cities, and some possibly delivered from satellites (Shen ‘cyberwarfare’ neutron device series ).

            This ‘speech’ — if true — also says China is also working on genetic bio-weapons to kill everyone except (quote) yellow people, but admits — in recent years, we have been conducting research on genetic weapons, i.e. those weapons that do not kill yellow people. But producing a result with this kind of research is extremely difficult . The supposed speech advocates multidimensional war — economic, electronic, biological and nuclear — whose chief element is surprise, copying the Japanese suprise attack on Pearl Harbour, but with either viruses or ‘clean’ neutron nuclear bombs (. We are capable of achieving our purpose of a century in which the CCP leads the world…etc.) .This may be propoganda from one side or the other. or it may not.

            In the event it is true, but not just the raging of a ‘fading star’ of the Korean war generation, then clearly the destruction of large parts of the USA infrastructure by low-yield but ‘clean’ (no residual fissionable material causing cancers for decades) neutron bombs — with or without nerve gas or anthrax attacks in every major subway — would not prevent retaliation by USA’s 56 nuclear powered attack submarines. As the USA does not possess small yeild neutron bombs, the resulting ‘ high yeild ‘ nuclear conflagration in China and decades of ‘hot’ background radiation would make China’s ‘victory’ over USA utterly meaningless. Both countries would be crippled. (The wild card is whether or not China can find and destroy USA nuclear submarines, thus making an attack on mainland USA almost reprisal-free.)

            But China would in effect be crippled forever. Paradoxically, the Chinese use of neutron weapons would mean USA’s infrastructure would remain in place, and a slow recovery would be possible. Chinese infrastructure, on the other hand, would have to be built from the ashes up.

            Even with USA and Chinese oil imports dramatically cut, the rest of the world will continue to use oil and gas at an increasing pace. The decline curve may flatten a little, but only by two or three decades. As a result, even in a post-conflagration world, building costs are likely to be much higher than today, and to increase in price over time. Chinas huge flow of overseas income would largely no longer exist, as its factories and infrastructure would have passed the ‘tipping point’ of such extensive damage it is un-financable. The cost to China of fully rebuilding its infrastructure would ultimately be so prohibitive that China would likely break up into a series of relatively rich (coastal) and poor (inland) loosely federated nation states. (Global infrastructure contains a truly enormous but ‘once only’ subsidy of decades of cheap oil. Those who ‘burn’ their lucky gift will never ever get another.)

            2005 — (early 2005) — On the 23rd of march an isomerisation unit at BP Texas City’s refinery explodes as workers try to start it up after maintainence. 15 workers die and 170 people are injured. The failure is attributed partly to mechanical failure and partly lack of a flare to safely burn off combustible material in the unit as it was being re-started. In may, at the same refinery, a different unit with thin and eroding pipes, had experienced a pipe rupture and fire in 2004. A further unisolatable weld erosion in the same unit, known to be a serious safety risk, is allowed to run for 3 days until another unit closed for maintenance is back in operation. In order to isolate the defective unit so it can be safely shut down it would be necessary to close off multiple other units. Shutting down units at this plant carries some risk. It was considered the safety standards at the refinery were not high enough that the risk presented by shutting multiple units was higher than the risk of keeping a defective unit operational for a few days. The U.S. Chemical Safety and Hazard Investigation Board calls for BP to appoint an independent panel to assess BP’s corporate safety culture, and BP’s mechanical integrity programs at BP’s five USA refineries.

            2005 — (march) US Department of Energy said it expects prices to stay near or above $50 per barrel for the rest of 2005, making their prediction of just 12 months ago wrong — a 40% error margin in only 12 months!

            2005 — (march) For the first time, a USA Government report admits what has been obvious to the rest of the world for some time World oil peaking is going to happen. [the] timing is uncertain. It advocates early governmental intervention, minimising public consultation as it delays an already overdue response. It presents three possible scenarios, depending on when oil peaks. In the worst case — which is more likely to be the actuality — they tell the truth, but couch it in dense and obscuring language — if mitigation were to be too little, too late, world supply/demand balance will be achieved through massive demand destruction. Demand destruction is a euphism for recession. a term the authors fear using. Demand for oil would be destroyed because a recession is characterised by failure of businesses (most importantly, the small businesses that employ most people), unemployment, people stop spending, and cut back in luxury activities such as travel, huge government debt as tax base erodes and welfare skyrockets, failure to repay house loans, huge increase in bankruptcy filings, and so on. [3 ]

            2005 — By years end, one estimate is that 92% of all the oil used in the USA will be imported (some domestic oil will be held in reserves for strategic reasons).

            2005 — (april) US strategic crude oil reserves have recently been filling at around 250,000 barrels a day and are now nearly full. providing a buffer in case of ‘price spikes’ in the Middle East if it attacks or invades Iran.

            2005 — Iran considers increasing exports of liquified natural gas (LNG) as oil field production declines.

            2005 — Iran produces around 4 million barrels of oil a day, 1.5 million barrels are used domestically. Iranians also use large amounts of kerosine for both heating and for cooking, resulting in high levels of air pollution. Iran imports Caspian Sea oil for its refineries in the heavily populated north, conserving part of its oil in the southern oilfields for export.

            2005 — Iranian opponents of gas exports claim by 2010 domestic demand for gas will be 42 billion cubic feet per day (bcfd) — far in excess of the present rather limited production. Critics estimate using gas to pressurise oil fields to maintain pumping rates will require 20 bcfd, 5 bcfd will be required for industrial and petrochemical use, 7 bcfd for electric power production, and10 bcfd will be needed for commercial, residential, and automotive compressed natural gas.

            2005 — Iran’s electric power consumption grows by 7% a year. It must triple electric supply capacity within the next 15 years to meet projected demand.

            2005 — Iranian natural gas production is 25 billion cubic feet per day, which includes production from the first three phases of the giant South Pars gas field. Iran’s giant gas fields are only just beginning to be tapped.

            2005 — Iranian opponents to natural gas exports claim that a CNG (compressed natural gas) program to power vehicles will need to be in place by 2010 to replace the estimated 63,000 barrels a day of gasoline that will be being consumed by then. By 2010 gasoline for domestic consumption will not meet demand. The further development of South Pars will barely keep pace with existing domestic demand.

            2005 — The population of Iran is now 70.7 million. Half of Iran’s population is now under 25 years of age. Unemployment is around 11%. Nearly a million jobs a year must be created to keep unemployment at this rate.

            2005 — Oil and gas journal reports Iran is losing oil productive capacity of 350,000 barrels day every year, with the decline rate possibly reaching 500,000 barrels day every year by 2010. The estimated decline rate of onshore fields is now 8% a year; the decline rate for offshore fields is now 13% a year. Overall, crude oil production is stagnant, despite 600,000 barrels per day being added to production from foreign investment since the mid 1990’s. New production simply compensates for decline in the aging fields.

            2005 — (april) US presidential commission into pre-war intelligence failures finds the CIA believed second hand reports from an informer described as crazy by his German intelligence handlers, and by his friends as a congenital liar without doing the usual checks on the informants reliability. The informants numerous unsubstantiated lies were the basis for the presidents spy agency to be able to say to the presidential/military administration that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction (later slyly watered down to WMD programmes). The report officially confirms that Iraq had no weapons of mass destruction (as the UN inspectors had already reported). It is officially confirmed there were no programmes involved in producing them. The given reason for USA and its minor supporters acting essentially unilaterally outside the International System (UN multilateral system) in invading Iraq was based on lies. The real reason is congruent with the 2001 energy strategy of using soldiers to invade and base themselves (or their proxies) in unstable countries with significant oil reserves.

            2005 — (april) U.S. Department of Defense will reportedly spend $100 million in the next few years to establish a network of police forces and ‘special-operations units’ that can respond to various emergencies, including attacks on oil facilities around the Caspian Sea oil and gas fields claimed by former USSR countries.

            2005 — Russia expands its Caspian fleet to defend its claims to offshore fields in the Caspian Sea.

            2005 — Tension simmer in the Bakassi Peninsula in West Africa, a narrow stretch of land claimed by both Nigeria and Cameroon, and which may contain gas and oil reserves.

            2005 — (april) Saudis offer to produce at full capacity — 11 million barrels a day — to meet increased world demand. But this extra supply is made up of higher sulphur medium and heavy crudes not easily used by many refineries, not the ‘Saudi light’ the industry had been expecting.

            2005 — (april) The price differential between the more difficult and expensive to refine ‘heavier’ (more viscous) oils and ‘sour’ (higher sulfur content) crudes and the easily refinable ‘light’ ‘sweet’ (low sulfur) crudes is about $10 a barrel. In the USA, summer ‘driving season’ petrol stocks are well in hand, and there is a respite before the build up for winter fuel oil.

            2005 — Any increase in supply of Saudi light crude simply will not be available until about 2012. In the interim, existing Saudi light crude supplies will be declining year on year. 2.5 million barrels a day nett are hoped for, by that time — relatively inconsequential in the large scale of global oil decline by that date.

            2005 — Saudis are now pumping 7 million barrels of salt water a day into the giant Ghawar field to keep the pressure up to maintain production rates — more water is being pumped in than oil was pumped out at Ghawar’s peak of production in 1981. Ghawar produces 60% of Saudi oil. The decline of pressurised fields in general principle is likely to be ‘steep’ and ‘abrupt’ rather than slow and gentle. If true, this is very troubling.

            2005 — (april) Bank of Montreal analyst predicts Saudi Arabias oil fields decline rate will be . among the world’s fastest as this decade wanes. and estimates that the Saudi Ghawar field, the biggest oilfield in the world, has already peaked.

            2005 — commentators question why even new Saudi fields are being pressurised with water. This technique is usually reserved for aging fields. The suspicion is that the fields are being pumped at a very high rate, which means they would peak earlier than would otherwise be expected.

            2005 — Saudi Aramco claims the size of its oil reserves have remained the same since 1990 ; they also claim they have increased slightly from 258gb to 259gb, due to better extraction techniques. These claims are met with skepticism by those following the Peak Oil debate.

            2005 — (april) Saudi Aramco oil company announces it has ambitious expansion plans to raise production capacity to 12 million barrels per day. Aramco claims plans to develop more crude in the long term will raise that to 15 million barrels a day. Aramco make the huge claim that oil can be produced at these rate for about the next 50 years. They produce no huge evidence to back the claim. Saudi Aramco’s own statistics show existing Saudi fields falling short of previous production by 600,000 to 800,000 barrels per day every year. If this rate of decline continues into the future, the short term expansion of an additional 3 million barrels a day that the Saudis claim (12 mbpd claimed future capacity, minus 9 mbd present production) will be eaten up by field production declines in about 5 years. Production will then be back to where it is today until — or if — the other ‘crude developments’ come on stream.

            2005 — ExxonMobil, in its ‘ The Outlook for Energy: A 2030 View ‘ presentation projects that non-OPEC crude oil and oil condensate production will plateau before 2015, thereby becoming the first oil company in history to fully publicly admit peak oil is reality. ExxonMobil, an oil company, suggests the unmet demand can be met by increased fuel efficiency in cars (!!), and by OPEC increasing production. However, as one of the founders of the Association for the study of Peak oil and Gas notes —

            This assessment [of increased OPEC production] is somewhat ominous Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, and the United Arab Emirates. For these countries, and indeed for most OPEC members, petroleum and petroleum products are their only significant export. As such, they have a vested interest in obtaining the best possible price for their non-renewable resources. OPEC nations would be quite unlikely to increase production as rapidly as needed unless compelled to do so. — Colin Campbell, ASPO.

            2005 — (april) Australian officials say new projects starting up may allow oil output to rise in 2006 for the first time The last five years have seen output decline from Australias aging fields. Production is expected to resume the decline once more in 2008, as exploration in Australia has failed to find significant new oil deposits.

            2005 — (april) Australian Treasurer Peter Costello publicly warns that Australia is running out of oil for export —

            The reason why Australia’s crude oil exports have fallen over recent years — while world demand and prices have increased to record levels and LNG exports are booming — is that some of our oilfields are approaching the end of their productive lives.

            2005 — (april) Australia needs to import 30% of the oil it burns domestically. The Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association estimates if existing consumption — and consumption increases — continue, in theory Australia will need to import 78% of its oil requirements in 2015. Obviously, recession-mediated demand fall off will reduce that percentage requirement.

            2005 — Denmark likely to reach the peak of production this year, others say within 3 years.

            2005 — industry watchers forecast Brunei to reach peak of production in 2006, others say sometime with the next 3 years.

            2005 — (april) Japanese government releases survey findings that China’s Chunxiao and Duanqiao gas fields on the Chinese side of the median line between China and Japan in the middle of the East China sea are geologically linked to untested gas reservoirs identified on Japans side of the line. Japan makes moves to accelerate test drilling for natural gas on it’s side of the line, fearful China will access Japanese gas structures. Protests in China over new Japanese school books glossing over Japans never-admitted and never apologised for large-scale crimes against humanity in China in World War 2 may be co-incidence. Or maybe not.

            On April 1, the government released survey findings that China’s Chunxiao and Duanqiao gas fields are linked to Japan’s gas fields. As a countermeasure, the government plans to begin procedures in the near future to grant private developers the right to test-drill on the Japanese side of the median line.

            2005 — (april 7th) the International Monetary Fund says the world is facing a permanent oil shock. It envisages permanent high prices for the next two decades.

            2005 — (april 19th) US president Bush admits in public what he has known since at least 2001 (and probably a lot earlier ) I mean, we’re just going to have to change our habits. And that’s one of the reasons why I funded the hydrogen-powered automobile initiative, fully recognizing that, you know, with [within] the decade we’re going to have to think about how to drive different — you know, power, power our automobiles. It’s a — the hydrocarbon society will still be with us, but it can’t be with us to the extent it is today. Of course, hydrogen power is very energy expensive, and can never ever even begin to replace petrol. Bush also notes the need for more investment in refineries — an oblique admission that the Saudis ‘excess capacity’ is not the sweet light crude the world wants, but the heavy sulphur containing crude that requires specialised refineries to be able to deal with it.

            2005 — (april 15th) Volkswagon abandons work on its extreme fuel efficient car (the prototype does better than 265 mpg). Even with a simple single cylinder diesel engine, it says it cannot produce a popular economy car for less than 000 ($US25,900), which is too expensive. Their existing production model, the VW Lupo, is a 1.2 litre (turbocharged), lightweight, small diesel car and already does a thrifty 3 litres to the 100 kms (

            78 mpg) or 33.3 kms per litre. and is significantly less expensive at 100 ($US19,500). It engine switches off automatically when stopped for longer than 4 seconds, and automatically re-starts when the foot is off the brake.

            2005 — (april) The record for going the furthest on a single tank of fuel is broken by a Fifth Generation Golf 1.9 Turbo diesel, driven in an epic fifteen hour trip from Germany, across Europe, to the Czech Republic. Fuel economy was 53.4 mpg.

            2005 — (april) work starts on the world’s longest subsea gas pipeline (1,200 kilometres), running from Norway to Great Britain. When completed in 2007, its capacity of 70 million cubic metres of natural gas a day will be enough to meet about 20% of UK’s current gas requirements. UK’s former Minister of Energy Brian Wilson predicts that by the year 2020, 70% of UK’s electricity will be generated by burning gas. 90% of that gas will have to be imported. His working assumption is that global oil and gas reserves continue to be significantly underestimated. He provides no data to explain why he makes this assumption. He provides no figures for his assumed underestimation.

            2005 — (april) Americas Secretary of State Rice tries to prevent a gas pipeline to India to meet its gas requirements, telling reporters she had communicated to the Indian government Americas concerns about the gas pipeline cooperation between Iran and India. Unsuprisingly, India’s Prime Minister Singh tells her the gas is necessary for India’s soaring energy needs, and that We have no problem of any kind with Iran.

            2005 — (february 4th) Russia abandons its de facto peg to the US dollar, and alters its exchange rate to take into account the euro as well as the dollar.

            2005 — (april) Russia announces it will build a pipeline from Taishet in eastern Siberian to Skovorodino, near the border between China and Russia — a distance of around 2,000 kilometre. It will then build a branch pipeline into China before possibly continuing on for another 2,000 kilometres to Perevoznaya, only about 600 kms by sea from Japan.

            2005 — UK now imports 50% of its domestic coal requirements from overseas.

            2005 — (april) Saudi energy minister again repeats claims Saudi Arabia has ‘spare’ capacity of 1.5 million barrels per day over the11 million barrels per day it is already pumping, and can add a further 1.5m b/d in production capacity by the end of 2009. They have previously claimed an ability to raise the capacity beyond 11 mb/d by 3 mb/d in the long term.

            2005 — (april) BP, the worlds second largest publicly traded oil company, unsuprisingly, reports a record first quarter (Q1) profit. Oil prices were 53% higher than for the same quarter last year. Exxon Mobil (largest publicly traded company), BP and Shell (#3) together made $US16.5 billion profit in Q4 of 2004.

            2005 — (april) A BP spokesman says The world holds enough proved reserves for 40 years of supply and at least 60 years of gas supply at current consumption rates. If the sentence is broken into two parts — The world holds enough proved reserves for 40 years of supply and The world holds enough proved reserves for. at least 60 years of gas supply at current consumption rates, then true; but it obfuscates the real issue. There is not enough production capacity to supply oil at the rate the market demands at the price the market demands, and no new large high capacity fields have been found, or will be found. BP must be well aware the crisis is in pumping capacity to meet demand, not absolute potential supply over time.

            And gas, of course, will be in high and increasing demand as smaller gas fields run out and electric generation plants look around for new gas in a world where piplines are non-existant, inadequate, and/or in need of repair — not to mention insufficient specialist LNG transport ships and too few or non-existant LNG terminals. In short, current consumption rates of gas will skyrocket, making the prospect of it lasting 60 years quite risible.

            2005 — (april) BP announces its production from key fields in Alaska is flat, and from its North Sea oil properties is declining somewhere between 6 and 8 per cent. This represents around 150,000 — 200,000 barrels a day less. It’s stake in Russian TNK-BP and its new output from Azerbaijan have different (unspecified) decline rates.

            2005 — (april) Exxon Mobil announces a 44% increase in profits for the first quarter. Its shares lose 4 cents. Why? Because it also reports its total stock of oil-equivalent hydrocarbon reserves have fallen by 5% (older larger fields are depleting, newer ones tend to contain less reserves than the ‘rich pickings’ of earlier decades — an overall nett loss of reserves).

            2005 — (april) CEO of the Royal Dutch/Shell Group claims . contrary to what some commentators say there is plenty of oil and gas left., but goes on to admit it is not in ‘traditional’ locations (the only ‘tradition’ is to produce from the biggest and most accessible fields with the greatest production capacity first ), and in unconventional oil (tars, shales, igniting coal mines to generate methane). He says cost of recovery of these sources has halved. All true, with caveats. None of these sources will equate to the current oil demand, or even come close to it. It may be there — but it simply can’t be produced at the rate and the price the world wants.

            2005 — (april) Shell produces 78,000 barrels a day of oil from oil sands in Q1, a 5% decline on the amount produced in Q1 2004.

            2005 — (april) Shell report crude oil production has fallen by 8% to 2.14 million barrels a day, and natural gas production is down by 2%.

            2005 — (april) USA lower 48 states (without Alaska) depletion rate now nearly 2% per year; natural gas demand has also been increasing by 2% per year. In spite record levels of drilling, and drilling in technically difficult and expensive locations, US domestic natural gas supplies are near the point of supply shortfall. Newer gas strikes have been smaller, and have a shorter production life.

            2005 — (april) study of the aggregated first quarter reports of 8 major publicly traded oil companies shows a decline of 2.8% in production compared with the previous year. This amounts to 304,000 barrels a day. The Government owned oil companies (responsible for the greatest amount of oil traded) do not make public reports, so their decline rate is not as easy to estimate.

            2005 — (april 4) jet kerosene trades at a record high of $US76.

            2005 — (april) The International Air Transport Association (IATA), representing 270 airlines, estimates fuel costs may rise by 20%. Fuel costs make up between 15% and 40% of the total operating expenses of airlines.

            2005 — (april) China Southern Airlines increases passenger numbers to 28 million, a 38% increase, but in the face of a 66% surge in its fuel costs for the last half of 2004, makes a loss. IATA estimates that if oil averages $US43 a barrel, the industry worldwide will accumulate losses of $US5.5 billion this year.

            2005 — USA Delta airlines loses a billion dollars in the first quarter. It has over 3 billion dollars of employee pension liabilities from 2006 to 2008. Delta wins court approval to be relieved of its pension funding liabilities under a bankruptcy type proceeding.

            2005 — With fuel costs high and competition intense, USA’s United Airlines also moves to bankruptcy actions and defaults on its pension plan — the largest ever US pension plan default. The USA government Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation picks up the cost .

            2005 — with General Motors still producing gas guzzling SUV’s, costs outweigh income and the pension plan (whose investments provide a very large part of GM ‘income’) is unable to pay $US17 billion of its obligations. Default is possible, and may mark a trend in cheap-oil-dependant USA industries.

            2005 — Americans, with more vehicles (around 210 million) than there are licenced drivers, drive an average of 12,000 miles a year at an average US driver fuel inefficiency of 3.2 kilometers per liter (20.8 miles per gallon).

            2005 — (april) UK truckers and farmers protest outside the UKs largest refinery over the price of diesel, which risen by about 60% in the last six months. Protesters say they were threatened with arrest under the contentious new anti-terrorism laws.

            2005 — (april) crude oil spikes to US$58 a barrel.

            2005 — (april 15) Colin Campbell, addressing Swiss financiers prior to the Peak Oil conference, estimates global peak oil —

            About 944bn barrels of oil has so far been extracted, some 764bn remains extractable in known fields, or reserves, and a further 142bn of reserves are classed as ‘yet-to-find’, meaning what oil is expected to be discovered. If this is so, then the overall oil peak arrives next year.

            2005 — (april 26) Peak Oil UK conference in Edinburgh predicts prices for crude hitting $US100 per barrel by 2010.

            2005 — (april 26) Matthew Simmons, pointing to the unreliability in oil figures reported by governments ( Our data collection system for oil is rubbish ) claims there is a big chance that Saudi Arabia actually peaked in production in 1981 and is now in decline. He commented that if that were true, most major fields are being over produced. If fields are over produced that can be damaged. If damaged, their original ‘probable recoverable oil’ estimates are too high.

            2005 — (april) The USA Governors Ethanol Coalition (GEC) promotes the desiderata of producing at least 10% of US transportation fuel from ethanol and biodiesel as soon as possible. Almost all ethanol production in the USA at the moment is from taxpayer-funded corporate welfare corn (maize) production. More gas and oil energy is consumed in producing the fuel than the ethanol so produced contains. The GEC promotes a small proportion of the ethanol to be derived from the digestion of crop waste — high cellulose corn stems, wheat stems sawdust etc — by organisms that can digest cellulose and produce alcahol as a by-product (in the same way yeast digests sugar and produces alcohol as a waste product) . This technology is experimental. Whether the cost of harvesting and transporting the waste, distilling the ethanol, and removing the sludge results in a nett energy loss or gain is yet to be determined.

            2005 — (april 27) Bush calls for fast tracking of new LNG terminals, as the existing 4 in USA are inadequate for the fast increasing dependance on imported LNG.

            2005 — (april) West Australias $11 billion Gorgon gas project finds a buyer for 2.5 million tonnes of Gorgon LNG (liquefied natural gas) a year in USA, with the gas to be shipped to a currently non-existant terminal on the west coast.

            2005 — (april 27) Bush calls for fast tracking of new specialist oil refineries to handle the poorer crudes now being produced by Saudi Arabia.

            2005 — (april 27) Bush calls for fast tracking of new nuclear power plants, tacit admission the 20% of electricity produced by nuclear cannot replace demand as gas-fired stations have an increasingly squeezed supply.

            2005 — (april 27) Bush calls for extending the subsidies for fuel-efficient cars to a tacit admission that modern diesels are highly efficient and affordable now, and fuel cell hydrogen cars are an expensive unrealistic fantasy.

            2005 — (april 29) crude oil imports into USA reach 10.9 million barrels per day — the third highest daily import rate ever recorded. Stored crude peaks at 327 million barrels — only around 2 million barrels of storage capacity is left unfilled. This is the highest levels in 6 years. This huge extra capacity filling has kept world oil pumping capacity near its limit. The stores will see the USA over the summer holiday ‘touring season’.

            2005 — USA now imports almost 60% of its oil consumption. At current crude prices this costs about a billion US dollars a day.

            2005 — (april) Chinas monthly imports of crude oil reach a new high of 2.99 million barrels a day for april (12.25 million tonnes for the whole month) .

            2005 — (june) Fu Chengyu, General Manager of China National Offshore Oil Corporation says in a news article the State Corporations annual import of LNG in 2010 is expected to reach 30 million tons, equivalent to rough 3 million tons of oil per month. This figure is expected to double by 2020, to about 6 million tons of oil per month. Most is from long term (20-25 year) ‘take or pay’ large-quantity contracts with Australia and Indonesia. China is trying to substitute for oil, and ‘lock in’ foreign LPG at a relatively low price while it explores its own coastal areas for gas over the next decade. It is aware of the relatively long lead time to bring in gas fields and their associated infrastructure.

            2005 — (june) decision on whether or not the US west coast Longbeach LNG terminal will be permitted is delayed yet again .

            2005 — (april 29) Ahmed Chalabi, described as the pentagons darling, is named as oil minister by Iraqs pro-US Kurdish president.

            2005 — (may 9) Algerian oil minister comments that OPEC will be unable to meet demand at current levels in the 4th quarter of 2005. Expected northern hemisphere winter demand can only be met if strong inventories have been built up already in the importing countries before winter, that is, in the third quarter. Look for a ‘run’ on crude starting september 2005?

            2005 — (may) The International Energy Agency says 84.75 miilion barrels a day of crude were produced. This is likely to be ‘all liquids — crude plus natural gas liquids plus oilfield condensate.

            2005 — (may) The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), calculating with updated figures in 2007, show the all-time global peak of production for crude oil plus natural gas liquids (excluding condensate) occured this month, when 82.08 million barrels a day were produced.

            Looking back from the 2007 perspective, the all-time global high for crude oil alone was 74.272 million barrels a day.

            2005 — (may) The EIA, calculating with updated figures in 2007, show the all-time peak of production for crude oil plus condensate (excluding natural gas liquids) occured this month, when 74.15.08 miilion barrels a day were produced.

            2005 — (may) gasoline futures for november delivery trade on the Tokyo Commodity Exchange at about $US65 a barrel.

            2005 — (may) Algeria is producing near full capacity of around 1.4 million barrels per day.

            2005 — (may 2) French energy economists at the French investment bank Ixis-CIB speculate that crude oil might reach $380 by 2015. They base this speculation on the ideas that crude prices increase nearly seven-fold, and annual inflation is 2.5%. However, at a certain price point recession will likely tip into deflation, due to lack of demand caused by marked collapse in industrial activity. So the 2.5% inflation may just as likely be 2.5% deflation. In addition, at a certain level of bankruptcy, it will be difficult to re-capitilise and re-open small businesses that have failed. Thus, it may be that demand for oil is simply lost, almost at any price. At least, for a decade or so. Demand might slowly recover on back of stable ‘lower’ prices, until finally oil prices increase again. The economy can be compared to a punch drunk boxer. It takes a heavy hit in the first round (peak oil), but it won’t stay down, it will get up off the canvas. But before it can ‘return to form’, it is knocked down yet again as oil prices once more rise. Each time the economy is laid out, its stays down for longer before struggling to its feet. Eventually, it cannot get up at all. At that point, the boxer analogy is no longer useful. We should then be thinking of metamorphosis, of the total re-organisation of all systems by the quiescent pupa, before finally emerging once again, but in radically changed form.

            2005 — (may 3) It’s too late to maintain a ‘business as usual’ attitude. What is required is to manage the change that peak oil will bring in a way that causes the fewest casualties. This must be done at an economic and geopolitical level, to fend off resource wars. The US invasion of Iraq is clearly a resource war — Richard Heinberg, author of ‘Power Down: options and actions for a post-carbon world’.

            2005 — commentators note that the US Federal reserve will have to raise interest rates or live with inflation flowing through from higher oil prices. If rates rise, the hugely indebted western consumers (and particularly American consumers imprudently loaned money) would not be able to meet monthly repayments or afford to roll-over loans. The consequence would be bankruptcy, recession, cut back in spending, unemployment. Petrol prices may fall with reduced consumption. but this is poor consolation to the unemployed..

            2005 — USA conventional natural gas production has now fallen to about 35 billion cubic feet per day, or 6.3 million barrels of oil-equivalent per day.

            2005 — (may) Bolivia, with the second-largest natural-gas reserves in the western hemisphere (behind Venezuela) has a law introducing a 32% tax on foreign energy companies earnings on top of an existing 18% royalty blocked by President Carlos Mesa.

            2005 — (may) Bolivia has a law partially nationalising its gas and oil — currently operated by 12 foreign firms — blocked by President Carlos Mesa.

            2005 — (may) USA sells ‘bunker buster’ bombs to the only Arab nuclear power — Israel — apparently in preparation for them to obliterate the Iranian nuclear research facility, and possibly to destroy Irans conventionally armed ballistic missiles. Pakistan and North Korea. both with unstable governments and proven to have weapons of mass destruction. are left untouched. Neither has significant oil or gas reserves. US coercion of Iran is unlikely to seriously affect oil prices. This ‘news’ item may, of course, be ‘planted’ USA disinformation to dissuade Iran from supporting the euro .

            2005 — China announces its 20 year plan to seize a window of opportunity to develop its economy and industrial base as fast as possible for the good of its people. Why is the window open for only 20 years? Presumably it knows the peak of oil has been reached, but has an optimistic scenario of 20 years, rather than the more realistic optimistic scenario of 10 years.

            2005 — (may) China, just before the anniversary of its mass murder of protesters in Tiannamen Square signs a $US600 million oil deal with the criminal president of Uzbekistan, Islam Karimov — fresh from murdering hundreds of Uzbek protesters.

            2005 — first quarter — The Asian benchmark Singapore fuel oil prices increase nearly 50%. China allows only 4% price increase in domestic diesel prices. Clearly, China is willing to hide the true cost of fuel in order to artificially subsidise business. This shields businesses from the need to be more fuel efficient, and make the inevitable recession, bankruptcies and adjustments much steeper than they would have been if part of the true costs of doing business in China was not artificially kept off the accounts.

            2005 — (may) — Norway, the worlds third largest oil exporter, cuts its forecast for 2005 oil production (inclusive of natural gas liquids), from 3.3 million barrels per day to 3.2 million barrels per day, due to ‘technical glitches’. This is the same level as 2004. Total oil production is expected to rise until 2006, and then decline. Norway is west Eurasias largest gas proucer. Gas production is expected to increase, peaking in 2011 at 120 billion cubic metres per year, then declining.

            2005 — Iran’s Ahwaz Bangestan oil fields production has now declined from 250,000 barrels a day to 160,000 barrels a day and is expected fall to 60,000 barrels a day within 1-2 years. Gas injection could increase production to 220,000 barrels a day, but gas is heavily used by the 67 million Iranians to spare oil for export and to sell to generate overseas earnings to feed a wheat dependant nation with an exploding population.

            2005 — Iran’s oil production capacity is falling by 350,000 barrels a day every year (8% onshore and 13% offshore). Iranian officials estimate the decline rate could increase to 500,000 barrels a day every year in 5 years time. Iraq currently produces about 4 million barrels per day, but imports petrol and diesel as it has little refinery capacity.

            2005 — (may) Algerian oil minister identifies a refinery capacity limitation co-inciding with demand closing with supply

            and others, including Libya and ourselves have taken decisions so you are going to see a lot of new refinery capacity but not within the next two to three years. Qatar, 9th may 2005)

            2005 — the estimated cost of building a new 150,000 barrel a day re finery in USA is around $US1.5 billion. Up to US$1 billion more is needed for pipelines to bring the crude from the port unloading facility.

            2005 — World refining capacity is about 84 million barrels per day.

            2005 — World consumption is now about 84 million barrels per day. The first tier bottleneck to producing the oil the world demands is pumping capacity. Unexpectedly, the second tier bottleneck, refining capacity. now displaces pumping capacity as the primary bottleneck to meeting world demand.

            The marginal refining capacity in the world cannot process heavy, sour crudes at all. let alone process these crudes into light, sweet products. Converting existing refining capacity to process heavy, sour crudes to produce light, sweet products is expensive and time-consuming. In the U.S. the conversion (for the refiners who are converting) is a multi-year, multi-billion-dollar project. Some refiners have elected to produce light, sweet products only from light, sweet crudes. Others have elected to retire refining capacity. In parts of the world that supply markets with only higher sulfur products or that have dropped out of the market to supply low-sulfur products, little or no conversion will take place and the demand will continue for the diminishing fraction of light, sweet crudes.

            -Harry Chernoff, in the Energy Bulletin

            The ‘marginal refining capacity’ is mostly older refineries without the ‘cracking towers’ required to split the heavier crude down into lighter oils. In some countries these refineries cannot by law add new cracking towers unless they also upgrade their entire system to effectively remove most of the sulfur. This extensive upgrade of small-throughput plant is not economically justified. The timing-trajectory of global conversion of large plants to process heavier crude is not yet documented. Even if in time most of the worlds largest refineries convert to be able to handle any grade of crude, ‘heat-cracking’ the heavy crude burns oil to fuel the process — thus hastening oil depletion. This may not have been factored into calculations of cheap oil depletion curve.

            2005 — around 8% of the oil being produced (and about 24% of all oil reserves) every day is sweet oil.

            2005 — World consumption, on current trends, expected (want) to be 86-87 million barrels per day.

            2005 — USA now consumes around 20 million barrels of world oil a day.

            2005 — (may) US military announces it is planning more permanent bases in Iraq, and sees itself remaining in Iraq for many years to come .

            2005 (may) — Italian Benito Livigni, former manager of the Italian energy company ENI and the United States claims that Iraqi far more than the known figure of 116 billion, and giving it more reserves than Saudi Arabia. The figure include under-explored areas, and there is suggestion some data of Iraqs oil potential has been held by oil companies since the 1970’s, but kept unpublished. If true, this information would likely to be known within the higher levels of the American oil/military complex .

            2005 — (may) Azerbaijani newspaper reports US and Azerbaijan have agreed to a permanent US base in the Azerbaijan (strategically important to USA for its oil and gas pipeline). The Azerbaijan government denies it.

            2005 — (may) the 1,762 kilometre long Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline (BTC) opens. due to be exporting 1 million barrels of oil a day from the Azerbaijan’s capital city (Baku) on the Caspian Sea west to Georgia (capital city Tblisi), through Georgia, then south and on to the Turkish terminal (Ceyhan) on the Mediterranean. The cost has been around $US3.6 billion dollars, the world’s biggest energy investment so far. Filling the pipeline with oil will take about 5 months as 10 million barrels of oil are needed to fill it. The pipeline is buried, and while it is relatively safe from disruption during the on-going border disputes and other conflicts in the area, Turkey, in particular, is prone to earthquakes which could damage part of it. Most importantly of all, it is the only pipeline from the Caspian oil fields that doesn’t have to go through Russian territory.

            2005 — (may) Russias daily oil production, believed by analysts to be likely to increase by 370,000 barrels a day (a 4% increase over previous years) is now estimated to increase by 230,000 barrels through 2005 (a 2.6% increase). For a variety of reasons, it is no longer expected that there will be any increase in supply in 2006, although Russian oil is not yet considered to have peaked. Russia now exports around half its oil production, almost entirely to West Eurasia, and the proportion exported is slowly increasing.

            2005 — (may) analysts suggest the claim by Saudi officials that they are producing 9.5 million barrels a day may be false. OPEC estimates — based on secondary source — put Saudi production at 8.39 million barrels a day. The International Energy Agency puts it at 8.14 million barrels a day, a 34 million barrel a day difference. The difference is very important because the world is increasingly reliant on the one producer that can pump in high volume — Saudi Arabia. The oil ‘crisis’ is a pumping crisis right now — and an absolute depletion crisis in 20 years or so. The difference is more important because there is no transparency in the Saudi figures. Saudi Arabia is not a modern democracy. It is an absolute autocracy, a feudal state run by absolute power, and the use of torture. No wonder figures are suspect. Real production must be inferred from the number of ships leaving Saudi ports and their capacity, or even from ‘tips’ from insiders. The difference may simply be the margin or error. Even if the Saudi regime is telling the truth, it may be the amount they have available to the refiners, not the amount the refiners buy. Why would there be a discrepancy? It may be that the extra production is in high sulfur crudes which few refineries can handle.

            2005 — (may 31) Iran’s OPEC governor, Hossein Kazempour Ardebili says in an interview that in summer refineries want light crude, which is easily processed into gasoline for the ‘summer driving season’, but OPEC is at the limit of its capacity to produce light crude, and there is simply no more light crude pumping capacity available. All extra levels of crude oil sent to the market stay in the oil stockpiles, since the crude oil coming to the market now has got limited refinery demand . This ‘extra’ oil fills the oil stockpiles and pumps up the statistics on oil that has been produced, but the ‘extra’ production is functionally useless due to lack of refineries to deal with this type of heavy or sulfurous oil.

            2005 — (june) Iraq will not be able to pump more than its existing production of 1.5 million barrels a day for at least the rest of this year. It had been hoped to produce an additional 300,000 barrels a day.

            2005 — (june) USA first quarter vehicle sales reveal a fall of 13.5% in sales in the petrol-guzzling ‘sports utility vehicle’ category.

            2005 (june) US airlines are estimated to be losing about $US17,000 a minute, partly due to the increased cost of fuel. More job losses are predicted.

            2005 — (june) Matthew Simons suggests, in his new book, that Saudi giant fields started losing pressure in the 1960’s and have been so heavily pumped with water since that the sustained pumping capacity is an artifact of pressurisation, and the depeletion rate is thoroughly hidden. He suggests the wells are in effect being ‘secondarily’ produced at the same instance as being primarily produced. While this is unknown territory, he point to the possibility that some of these large Saudi fields could suffer a precipitous collapse in production, rather than a stepped decline. He estimates the highly production North Ghawar field would then have to have every oil drilling rig in the world working it over a ten year period to sustain current production. North Ghawar produces about 4.5 million barrels a day.

            In addition, he suggests the two Iraqi giant fields ( Kirkuk and Rumelia) have been overproduced and may be in similar shape to the Saudi fields.

            The supergiant Cantarell complex in Mexico is highly pressurised with nitrogen gas, and is currently producing around 1 million barrels a day. If its projected steep decline is earlier than forecast. and if Ghawar collapses, then shortfall in pumping capacity may be larger than anyone may have previously projected.

            2005 — (june 17th) U.S. gasoline consumption jumps to 9.53 million barrels a day — the third highest level on record.

            2005 — (june 21) US Energy Department’s Energy Information Administration reports that crude inventories in the USA declined last week by1.6 million barrels over historic levels for the time of year; and yet demand for distillate fuels (petrol, diesel, and heating oil) was nearly 7% higher than the same time a year ago.

            2005 — (june 22) Speculators trading on future oil supplies push the price of Brent crude to an historic high of $US58.58 per barrel.

            2005 — (june 22) Oil for July delivery reaches $US59 a barrel.

            2005 — (june 22) Dow Jones Industrials fall 1.5%, Nasdaq composite and Standards and Poors 500 indices fall about 1%, US Treasury 10 year junk bonds are less palatable and are sweetened with a 0.009% interest rate rise.

            2005 — (june 22) branch company of the Chinese state owned oil company China National Offshore Oil Corp makes an unsolicited bid of $US18.5 billion for the USA oil company Unocal Corp. China continues its apparent strategy of carefully reducing its huge store of US dollars while simultaneously acquiring oil and gas assets. In this case, even although the price of the bid is close to the current asset value of the company, it would assist in small measure in putting some ‘spine’ in the ‘yuan’ (pegged by China to the dollar in order to make oil imports as cheap as possible while also making Chinese exports cheap), and allow China to denominate some oil trading in the yuan, not the dollar. The US Government will almost certainly pass laws to block Chinas acquisition, as it is a then wedge between the dollar and its oil backing.

            2005 — (may 31st) China’s government backed ‘ Sinopec Group’ buys 40% of the Northern Lights oil sands project in northeastern Alberta. The project has a capacity to produce around 100,000 barrels per day of synthetic crude oil, at an estimated total cost over five years of $4.5 billion.

            2005 — (april) Canada’s Enbridge Co and China’s PetroChina International Ltd agree to jointly build a $2.5-billion 400,000 barrels per day capacity pipeline1,160 kilometres across Canada — from Edmonton to a port in British Columbia. It will carry synthetic crude oil from Alberta’s oilsands. Half the crude would be tankered to China, the rest will probably be sold on the west coast North American market. It is expected to be ready by 2010, when it expects Canadian oilsand production to be sufficiently high to enable the pipelines use.

            2005 — (june 20) — Indonesia finally cuts an acceptable deal with USA’s ExxonMobil to move ahead with the Cepu oil project, expected to ultimately yeild 500 million barrels of oil over the life of the field. This field will make little difference to the overall decline profile of the ExxonMobil global oilfield holdings.

            2005 — (june 20) — Indonesias market-distorting taxpayer subsidies on the price of oil cause a massive blow-out in the subsidy budget as oil price rise rapidly. The cost to the taxpayers is estimated to reach $US11.4 billion this year — a sum that could only be met by debt. The Indonesian government says it will institute unspecified measures to reduce fuel consumption. It could start by removing the subsidy, a subsidy that is a form of corporate welfare to the oil companies.

            2005 — Indonesia — an estimated 105 tonnes a month of Indonesia’s heavily subsidised crude oil and oil products are smuggled out to countries China, Thailand, and other Asian countries for re-sale at closer to world prices, reaping handsome profits for the smugglers.

            2005 — (june) Taiwan’s ‘Chinese Petroleum Corporation’ signs a 25 year LNG supply contract with ‘RasGas’ of Qatar. with the 3 million tonnes per year to commence delivery from 2008. Like many countries, Taiwan is increasingly reliant on natural gas for generating electricity, but it is concerned over reliability of supply. The Taiwan government needs triple the amount of LNG it currently uses to power electricity plants recently built and being planned for completion by 2010. It’s new Tatan LPG terminal will be complete in 2009, increasing Taiwan’s import capacity from 4.5 million tonnes today to 7.5 million tonnes.

            2005 — (june) About 300 billion cubic feet a day of natural gas is used globally. LNG demand has increased 15% since 2000 as demand outstrips gas both from domestic wells and the supply capacity of pipelines from other countries. Because of this, demand for LNG shipped by tanker is expected to rise to about 20 billion cubic feet per day by 2010 (about 125 million tonnes per year).

            2005 — (june) India signs a deal with Iran to pay $22 billion for 5 million tons of liquefied natural gas (LNG) a year for 25 years, starting 2009. India signs a memorandum of cooperation to construct a $US7 billion, 2,600-kilometer long gas pipeline from Iran to India through Pakistan.

            2005 — (june) The Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) holds its summit meeting in Astana, Kazakhstan. It ignores an American request for observer status, and agrees to consider Iran, India and Pakistans requests to join the organisation. The SCO organisation, whose Central Asian members are oil-rich Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan call on the USA to set a timetable for the withdrawal of all American troops from Central Asia. China and Russia are the other members. Azerbaijan. allied to USA and European oil companies via its pipeline terminus, is not a member.

            Additionally it ignored an American request for observer status and proceeded to consider requests from Iran, India and Pakistan to join the body.

            2005 — (june) Agreement is reached to a multi billion dollar investment in re-working the declining Statfjord oilfield. This will allow for both relatively high oil and gas production levels to be maintained for longer and for maximal extraction of oil, gas and condensate — but will result in an accelerated decline in the daily production of the oil component of the hydrocarbon reserves in the field.

            2005 — (june 22) oil prices briefly reach $US60 a barrel.

            2005 — (late june) regular grade petrol at the pump in Canada ( a nett oil exporter) is now about 92 cents a litre.

            2005 — (june) Diesel prices in USA reach a record high of $US2.34 a gallon. The average large freight truck does about 6 miles to the gallon. A truck may travel 500 miles a day, and with a co-driver, around 900 miles a day. In the trucking industry, fuel is the second highest expense after wages and salaries. Two thirds of freight in USA is transported by truck, burning 35 billion gallons of diesel a year. Distillate in USA is generally expected to rise about 2 to 2.5% a year. Combined petrol and diesel consumption has been nearly 7% higher than for the same period in 2004.

            2005 (june) U.S. gasoline consumption reaches a new record of 4.4 million barrels a day in mid june, reflecting a 5.7% increase in petrol consumption relative to the same period last year. Clearly the price of gas is not yet high enough to destroy demand .

            2005 — The average vehicle in the USA domestic vehicle fleet has now achieved a fuel efficiency of 21 miles per gallon .

            2005 — (june 30) project to recover the last of the oil from the large but low producing Masjed Soleiman field in Iran (currently producing only 5,000 barrels a day) is sold to China, with Iran receiving 15% share. It is hoped to raise production to 28,000 barrels a day, and supplemental wells might add 10,000 barrels a day to that. The contract was originally with a Canadian company, but the USA government forced it to withdraw.

            2005 — (july 2) Japan becomes aware that its oil economy is fading, and money cannot substitute for actual supply based on relationships and goodwill (China’s strategy and a part of USA’s strategy), or a gun to the head (the other part of USA’s strategy) — Japan will not be able to survive an energy war unless it breaks from an idea that was valid until several years ago, in which it was believed Japan could cope with surging oil prices by growing economically strong enough to pay more. —Yomiuri Shimbun

            2005 — (july 3) In an historic first, a specialised LNG tanker berths at the United Kingdom’s new National Grid LNG terminal (owned by BP and Algerian State Oil and Gas) in Kent with a cargo of 31 million cubic metres of liquid natural gas from Algeria. This is the first time the UK has imported LNG in 20 years. The UK’s North Sea gas fields are starting to decline, and the Norwegian pipeline is not yet built.

            Planned capacity building does not happen as LNG is re-routed to more lucrative markets, such as USA, which now competes on price with UK for LNG. About 80% of UK LNG storage capacity remains unused as a result.

            2005 — (july 3) Oil industry analyst and banker Matt Simmons, author of ‘Twilight in the desert’, says . I still think that $60-a-barrel oil is a remarkable bargain. we need a pricing committee to start taking a cold shower look at what the real value is. My guess is that will be somewhere between $250 and $400. The sooner oil users begin understanding what the real long-term cost of oil has to be, the easier it will be for everyone to cope with fast-rising prices for the world’s highest-volume and most expensive commodity.

            2005 — (july 4th) American drivers hit the road in the holiday weekend in record numbers, in spite of gasoline being $US2.25 a gallon. Adjusted for inflation, this is close to the price during the first oil shock. Low wage workers move closer to their place of employment. Middle class start to trade in petrol gulping SUV’s for hybrid SUV’s. Middle class switch to ‘the wifes’ European car instead of the massive motored American dinosaur. Some people elect to vacation 400 miles away instead of 1,000 miles away. High mileage petrol dependant small businesses such as garden care businesses with high petrol cost components become marginally profitable.

            2005 — (july 5th) options contracts for December delivery at $US80 surge.

            2005 — (july 5th) the International Energy Agency forecasts global oil demand to rise to a record 86.4 million barrels a day in the last quarter of 2005 (i.e. 31,536,000,000 barrels a year, or 4,288,896,000 tonnes of crude) This now aligns with more informed analysts early new year prediction, and makes a shortfall in ability to pump the demanded motor spirits very likely early in the new year 2006. or earlier if there are significant weather disruptions to refineries in USA. or if there are ‘unexpected’ changes in pumping performance of Saudi or Mexican mega-fields.

            2005 — (july) India loses several thousand barrels a day in oil production when the off-shore drilling platform at the Bombay North High sector of the Bombay High oil field is destroyed. The Bombay High oil field is India’s sole large oil field. Only one third of Indias total oil consumption is produced by its own oil resources, currently estimated at 5 billion proved barrels. Of those domestic resources, the Bombay High field produces more than a third of Indias total oil production. Bombay High produces 170,000 barrels of sweet light crude oil a day, contributing 14% of Indias annual domestic consumption. The field had been in decline until it was ‘redeveloped ‘ (pressurised). The fire will set back the completion of pressurisation of the North field by about a year. One estimate has Indias oil needs increasing by a massive 60% by 2010, 1,392,700,000 barrels a year. Current global oil consumption is 30,660,000,000 barrels a year. In 1999 the USA alone used 6,205,000,000 barrels a year.

            2005 — China’s oil consumption for this year is projected by commentators to be 2,272,300,000 barrels for the year, or 6.2 million barrels a day. At this consumption level, 2.6 million barrels a day will now have to be imported, 6% more imports than last year .

            2005 -China estimates it will need 600 million tonnes of oil by 2020 if present growth rates continues. This is far higher than officials thought .

            2005 — China’s oil imports for the first half of the year are up by 3.4% over the huge increase for the same period last year .

            2005 — (july) China is desperate to meet a looming domestic oil shortfall exacerbated by industry needing to use diesel-burning generators due to China’s unreliable power supply. An agreement is made with Shell oil to form a joint venture to develop a successful method to extract organic matter from shale rock in the northeastern province of Jilin. This can then be converted to oil via a very energy expensive process. The shale-oil reserves have a proven 17.4 billion tons of oil equivalent, with a supposed ultimate potential to yeild 300 billion tons.

            2005 — (july) China reduces its refined product (petroleum and fuel oil) imports by 3.4% relative to the 2004 period. Presumably it is in part due to having directed its state owned refineries not to export crude oil, and also to sell petroleum to the domestic market at well below world prices.

            2005 — (july) China’s Quongang refinery in Fujian will be expanded by engineers from ExxonMobil, Saudi Aramco and Sinopec to raise its capacity from 80,000 barrels a day to 240,000 barrels a day. More importantly, it will handle heavy Middle East crudes, unusable by many world refineries.

            2005 — (july) The G8 summit is dominated by discussions on energy, despite a terrorist bombing in UK and ceaseless terrorist bombings in Iraq. The only ‘good news’ is a commitment from Russia to build up its pace of oil production and its volumes of oil exports. . Russia claims to be able to increase oil production by an additional 30 million tons, or about 602,465 barrels a day. For the moment. The G8 also established the ‘Joint Oil Database Initiative’. This database is supposed to give accurate monthly data on the oil inventories, supply, and demand in 93 countries. The International Energy Forum, in charge of the database, delays issuing the first iteration until November. Why? Difficulties in obtaining accurate information.

            2005 — (july) Indonesias state-owned oil company Pertamina finds it difficult to pay its oil bill. limits distribution to gas stations to conserve existing reserves. Gas stations run out and close. Now a nett importer, OPEC members may eject Indonesia from OPEC.

            2005 — (july) Malaysian Prime Minister admits they will soon be in a similar position Malaysia is an oil exporter, but if we do not find new oil reserves, then by 2009, we will become a net importer. Petronas, the Malaya state-owned oil company, is exploring for oil in concessions in various muslim countries overseas.

            2005 — (july) oil drilling expertise remains in short supply as the impetus to find any available gas and oil accelerates. Chinese drilling crews and rigs are brought into the United States for the first time as insufficient rigs are available domestically.

            2005 — USA natural gas prices are now about four times higher than three years ago.

            2005 — (july 13) gas for delivery in January 2006 to the UK trades at 1.07 per therm — the equivalent of $US18.65 per million Btu, or in crude oil equivalent, $US108 a barrel. The price reflects the expectation of high oil prices in Europe for the rest of 2005, and the fact that the UK will be a nett gas importer by 2006. Spring-summer water accumulation behind hydro dams has been poor this year, forcing increased reliance on gas for electricity generation. The lack of water has also reduced nuclear power plant output, as nuclear plants are major users of water.

            2005 — (july) PetroCaribe Energy Summit, in which Cuba’s dictator Fidel Castro notes that within this decade oil will reach $US100 per barrel, prohibitively expensive to impoverished Caribbean countries. A treaty is signed in Venuezuela whereby 185,000 barrels a day of discount priced oil from Venuezuela will go to Caribbean nations, financed by low credit rates. If oil reaches $100 the interest rate will be 1%.

            2005 — (july) in a clever device to limit petrol consumption under the guise of concern for ‘global warming’, the British Government announces the idea of introducing a form of energy rationing called a and this is then deducted from the free allocation in the citizens’ ‘account’. Those who exceed their alloted carbon entitlement through fuel use pay a tax. Alternatively they can buy someone elses underused allotment on the free market. Thus, those who use public transport are not penalised, and those who are profligate petrol wasters pay for the privilege.

            2005 — (july 8th) USA Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman tells reporters major oil suppliers including Saudi Arabia are right at their ragged edge in regard to their ability to meet rising global demand for oil. We are in a new situation. we are likely at least in the near-term to be dealing with a different pricing regime than we have seen before. This is US Government fog-speak for the price of gas is going to go up dramatically and there is nothing the government can do about it. From now on, the US government will be increasingly forced to admit the truth that it is bankrupt of ideas to meet the gathering crisis — a crisis it has long known was on its way. It will doubtless try to ‘unload’ the problem onto the public by hypocritically and duplicitously appealling for everyone to work together to face this new challenge.

            2005- (july) — According to a USA government report ( GAO-05-876 ‘Rebuilding Iraq’ ), after it’s 2003 invasion, the USA found the electricity, oil and refinery facilities had been damaged more than the white house and military officials planned.

            Iraqi oil exports account for 90% of its income.

            Iraq only $US3.1 was actually spent on what might generously be called reconstruction. The rest, $5.9 billion went to USA contractors, government occupying agents, and allied Iraqi employees and ‘favored sons’. About $1.2 billion has been diverted from water and electricity restoration in favor of economic and private sector development and governance activities. Presumably privatisation of oil and gas facilities. And presumably to pay for the Iraqi domestic terror agencies — proxies of the CIA — modelled on the criminal ‘need to know’ system protecting the officers of the occupying power (and the commander in chief of the military) from indictment for torture and murder (albeit USA refuses to sign the Geneva Convention banning torture, and refuses to recognise the World Court responsible for bringing those committing crimes against humanity to justice).

            An estimated $US20 billion is required to fully reconstruct the damaged Iraqi power infrastructure. $US1.7 billion has been spent. The greatest part of the $US1.7 billion spent on generation projects went on buying new turbines and generators (from the USA contractors) for existing Iraqi power plants, in order to increase megawattage available to the grid to bring it close to what it previously was. The US electricity project contractors have supplied several natural gas powered power turbines where there is no natural gas available to drive them. Natural gas pipelines have been made extremely insecure due to sabotage post-invasion. Low grade fuel-oil has had to be substituted, decreasing output by 50%, and trebling maintainance needs. Worse, the contractors admit there is a significant risk the turbines could fail.

            Many Iraqi power plants run on crude oil or diesel. Shortages of refined product will seriously impact the ability of Iraq to supply its electricity needs. Iraqs generating capacity remains seriously below the pre-war level — a level not fully recovered from the damage of the 1991 Gulf war. Supply remains limited and erratic. Some electricity is now being imported from Iran. Transmission lines remain vunerable to sabotage, and attempts to hire security staff to protect them were abandoned after the hoped for 6,000 staff complement could only attract 340 men. Repairs worth mentioning are confined largely to the stable Kurdish and southern regins.

            The USA has earmarked $US2.7 billion of USA taxpayer money to be spent specifically on ‘the Iraqi oil sector’. So far, $US1.1 billion has been spent, along with $US215 million of Iraqi money, altho’ the contractor has yet to put in all his bills. A priority has been restoring the Qarmat Ali water pressurisation plant of the Rumailah oil field (southern Iraq) to halt sliding pressure, but this has been only partially successful due to badly corroded and failing water pipes running to the wells, most of which will have to be replaced. Hoped for production increases have not materialised.

            Wells in northern Kirkuk produce more residual fuel oil than there is storage capacity, so excess is re-injected into the wells for later extraction. This practise is considered very likely to limit the amount of crude able to be recovered in the long term.

            Other completed or continuing projects are — repairing the Al-Fathah oil pipeline crossing (only half could be completed by the USA contractor), restoring a few gas-oil separation plants in relatively stable territories near Kirkuk and Basrah, and repairing some natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas plants in the safer areas of southern Iraq. The gas-oil plants take product from 15 to 50 nearby oil wells and strip out the natural gas liquids, yeilding the domestically important liquefied petroleum gas used in cooking and in heating. ( LPG cannisters are easily transported to households, and don’t require localised pipeline infrastructure.) USA contractors are being paid to repair war damaged export terminals, pumping stations, and refineries, and, above all, electricity supply for the oil fields and refineries.

            Overall, the crude oil production and export levels obtained from initial ‘quick fixes’ have not been sustained, mainly due to sabotage of pipelines and a natural decline in production resulting from years of improper reservoir management. Production remains static at about 2.1 million barrels a day (1.8 mbd from the ‘safe’ south, the rest from safe Kirkuk region). Of that, a nett of between 1.4 and 1.6 million barrels a day of crude are exported. Most of the remaining about 600,000 barrels of crude a day is refined to diesel, fuel oil or LPG for domestic use. While Iraq has a theoretical maximum refining capacity of 550,000 barrels a day, in practice it processes less than 500,000 barrels a day. Upgrading refineries to deal with heavier crude, and expanding their productive capacity would cost an estimated $US7 billion.

            Imported refined products now costs over $US2 billion annually. Iraq extremely heavily subsidises the refined fuels it imports and produces, and the price of these fuels is less than a few US cents per litre. Low cooking and heating fuel prices are essential when per capita income is extremely low and unemployment extremely high. Plans are in place to increase the price, but, understandably, officials are afraid to implement them.

            The inability to supply diesel for machinery for basic food production continues. Criminals hijack delivery trucks, domestic fuel lines continue to be sabotaged. and the subsidised cheap diesel continues to be diverted to both the local market (because supplies are extremely short) and international black market (because Iraqi diesel is extremely cheap where Turkish diesel isn’t) in large quantities. To cap it, as at may 2005, much less than 15 days of diesel fuel stockpiles remain.

            Over 14,000 Iraqi men guard oil infrastructure — mainly the fixed facilities. The cost is roughly $US340 million a year, paid by Iraq oil revenues. The force is not trained or equipped to protect the pipelines, and what attempts are made are largely ineffective. The work of contracted emergency response oil pipeline repair teams is quickly undone by repeated sabotage.

            The USA report clearly hints that the framework for the Iraqi oil industry includes foreign investment and management, which we can reasonably suppose will not be those originally contracted to the Iraqi government, but will almost certainly be American, probably Italian, and possibly British oil companies.

            In the light of these circumstances, it seems very unlikely that —

            (a) ‘foreign’ (USA and British) investment in Iraqi oil production or exploration will be promoted by any independant Iraqi government, no matter its politics,

            (b) significantly increased production from Iraq will not happen for the foreseeable future — unless the stable Kurdish region in the north announces independence, and the pipeline passing close by the Syrian border to Turkey can be protected from sabotage ( attacks on the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline that exports oil to Turkey currently cause the loss of about 200,000 barrels a day) .

            (c) Iraq will probably not have enough heating fuel for all its citizens this winter.

            2005 — (July 13th) American Automobile Association’s daily price survey shows the national average for diesel at $US2.46.

            2005 — (July 18th) Refinery shutdowns in Texas and Louisiana as precautions against possible damage from Hurricane Dennis and Tropical Storm Cindy take around 200,000 barrels of daily gasoline production off the market for that period. This is a over 4% of daily US gasoline demand.

            Facilities for crude oil imports for further refining are also hit. The biggest US petroleum import terminal — 20 miles off the coast of Louisiana — handling the receiving and storage of 1 million barrels a day, closes for 2 days.

            2005 — (July) BP’s Thunder Horse platform, the largest of its kind, suffers damage to its ballast tanks and list 30 degrees. Plans to commence pumping oil this year are shelved. Thinder Horse is estimated to contain reserves of well over 1,000 million barrels of crude.

            2005 — (July) — Europe — Netherlands — Europe’s biggest refinery, Shells Pernis oil refinery in Rotterdam, stops production of refined products (petrol and diesel) due to loss of external power. The 418,000 barrels a day refinery remains shut for several weeks. Pernis supplies both Europe and the export market, including USA.

            2005 — (july) Middle East oil states continue to repratriate money invested in USA and other western states. According to Salman bin Dasmal of Dubai Holdings, the Saudi dictatorship alone has moved about a third of their trillion-dollar overseas portfolio out of USA and some western countries. Muhammad Al-Jasser, t he Vice-Governor of the Saudi central bank, the Saudi Arabian Monetary Agency, announces Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, Oman and the United Arab Emirates are planning an Arabian regional currency similar to the Euro. The proposed regional currency could be linked to the euro, or to a basket of currencies. As the oil producers sees the USA oil-dependant and deeply indebted economy in trouble they are anxious not to be caught with too many junk bonds on hand.

            2005 — (july) quote of the month — The fed can’t print oil . — T. R. Elliott.

            2005 — (July 25th) China stops pegging its currency to the US dollar. The central bank will attempt to manage it so it stays within a band plus or minus 0.3% of the value of the US dollar. It ‘float’ within this tiny range according to the movement of a basket of currencies with the dollar as just one component. China has a tiger by the tail. It can’t afford to hang onto dollars forever. It is too scared to let go. It is positioning itself so that it can adjust incrementally or quickly, according to circumstance.

            2005 — Peugeots advanced diesel technology in a standard production sedan sets new and meaningful fuel economy records. The Peugeot 407 HDi turbo diesel crosses the continent of Australia — nearly 3,000 kilometres — and used only $A150 of fuel. The advanced diesel engine used an average of 3.45 litres of diesel per 100kms (about 70 mpg).

            2005 — Production of the Audi A2, which achieves beter than 80 miles per gallon, stops due to lack of demand.

            2005 — (july) Honda’s hybrid petrol-electric motor is redesigned for increased efficiency and greater power output. The wheels are now driven only by electricity at low speed ( as Toyota’s hybrids always have). The new powertrain is expected to use 5% less petrol than the current model, which achieves a ‘town and country’ fuel economy of less than 6 litres per 100 kms (about 50 mpg).

            2005 — (july) In Australia, the demand for small cars rose 26%, and the demand for sports utility vehicles (SUV’s) fell five%, and demand for large cars fell 13%.

            2005 — (july) A Welsh engineering company, IMP Ltd, claims to have invented a revolutionary new electric engine that produces 400% more torque than any electric motor unit currently in production. The normal bulky permanent magnets have been replaced with electric pulses transmitted across a number of rotors. It needs no gears, produces little heat, has greatly reduced size and weight (while being fully size scalable) and therefore a greatly increased power to weight ratio. The director of the company claims the acceleration of an electric vehicle based on these motors will exceed that of expensive high performance sports cars.

            It is envisaged the new electric motors could be used as the sole drive of all-electric cars. It is envisaged that each wheel could have its own drive motor, with each wheel powered by two lightweight batteries. By powering only either the front or rear wheels, the number of batteries could be cut to four, giving lower power, but longer range between recharges. As there are permanant magnets, the power can be switched off going downhill and the wheels will free-wheel, acting as generators to top up the batteries.

            2005 — (august) Chevron Oil Company launches a public community involvement initiative, in response to the truth of the fading of cheap oil becoming better known, overwhelmingly via the internet and via European newspapers —

            Energy will be one of the defining issues of this century, and one thing is clear: the era of easy oil is over. What we all do next will determine how well we meet the energy needs of the entire world in this century and beyond. Many of the world technically, economically, and politically. When growing demand meets tighter supplies, the result is more competition for the same resources. We can wait until a crisis forces us to do something. Or we can commit to working together, and start by asking the tough questions: How do we meet the energy needs of the developing world and those of industrialized nations. Whatever actions we take, we must look not just to next year, but to the next 50 years. We call upon scientists and educators, politicians and policymakers, environmentalists, leaders of industry and each one of you to be part of reshaping the next era of energy.

            All major oil companies are faced with ‘finessing’ the fact of declining oil products — and therefore greatly increased prices — to the consumer. BP ( Beyond Petroleum ) was the leader. Eventually all companies (and governments) will have to accept the public worry about the future of supply as well as the outrage over price increases and shortages. and deflect it with some public display of apparent concern, while drawing attention away from the windfall profits made, and the effect on low income families.

            The truth, well known to the industry and its political-military complex. is that transition — fiercely difficult even in the very best of circumstances — is now 20 years or more too late. As the oil economy steadily, irrevocably, fades, severe physical and emotional dislocation becomes increasingly manifest.

            Huge amounts of capital are needed to start the transition to decentralisation, canalisation, re-railing, hybrid power shipping, solar power via photovoltaics, massive scale wind and wave power, and all the other massive infrastructural changes. Huge capital will surely be in very short supply within 20 years. Only feudal and corrupt Middle East oil producers will have this quantum of capital. And oil companies .

            2005 — (august 1) The Pentagon, acting under instructions from Vice President Dick Cheney’s office, has tasked the United States Strategic Command (STRATCOM) with drawing up a contingency plan to be employed in response to another 9/11-type terrorist attack on the United States. The plan includes a large-scale air assault on Iran employing both conventional and tactical nuclear weapons. Within Iran there are more than 450 major strategic targets, including numerous suspected nuclear-weapons-program development sites. As in the case of Iraq, the response is not conditional on Iran actually being involved in the act of terrorism directed against the United States. Several senior Air Force officers involved in the planning are reportedly appalled at the implications of what they are doing that Iran is being set up for an unprovoked nuclear attack but no one is prepared to damage his career by posing any objections

            Philip Giraldi, Nuke Iran, August 1, 2005

            This may of course be ‘planted’ disinformation to dissuade Iran from the euro. Or maybe not .

            2005 — august — India is warned by the USA not to proceed with the Iran to India gas pipeline. and that all trade with Iran is under USA embargo of 1985, re-confirmed in 1997. All USA trade is embargoed — USA law, on the face of it, does not apply in other sovereign countries.

            2005 — mid august — USA — the strategic crude oil reserve now has 600 million barrels in it, and Bush re-states his intention to continue to fill it to capacity, about 700 million barrels.

            2005 august 14th — USA accuses Iran. based on its ‘intelligence ‘ sources, of sponsoring terrorist attacks in Iraq.

            2005 — august — Iran threatened with sanctions unless it halts its nuclear energy programme. The USA government is worried Iran, although a signatory to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty and fully monitored by the International Atomic Energy Agency (as required by the treaty), ‘might ‘ develop nuclear weapons (or even develop programs to develop nuclear weapons). Iran is not yet producing enough gas to meet the existing and projected requirements for gas-fired electricity plants. In 2002, over 70% of total government revenue was from selling oil and gas. Iran’s economy is deeply dependant on selling gas and oil. It needs foreign currency from gas sales to meet the needs of its out of control growth in population. Even in the medium run, it cannot rely on gas or oil fired electricity generation. These hydrocarbons need to be sold for national income. It has it’s own uranium ore deposits that can be used in nuclear power plants to generate electricity. Of more interest to foreign countries, it has huge and barely tapped natural gas reserves. It’s fate is sealed.

            2005 — (august) USA Bush agrees to cooperate with India, agreeing to work to achieve full civil nuclear energy cooperation with India. India, like Pakistan and Israel, has nuclear weapons of mass destruction. India, like Israel, refuses to sign either the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (which requires monitoring of the countries nuclear facilities by the International Atomic Energy Agency), or the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty.

            2005 — (august 2) The United Arab Emirates disputes the border between itself and Saudi Arabia at the point where it over-lays the giant Shaybah oilfield, with proven reserves of 15.7 billion barrels currently remaining. At stake is the belief that new techniques could raise recoverable oil to 18 billion barrels. More importantly, the field contains 25 trillion cubic feet of gas.

            2005 — (august) ExxonMobil completes a joint venture with Qatar to build one of the world’s largest LNG manufacturing facilities.

            2005 — (august) The world conventional LNG tanker fleet is now 180 ships.

            2005 — (august) As oil becomes more expensive and production rates decline from old wells, attention turns to expensive to access deep water oil. The cost of the relatively few specialised offshore exploration rigs is now between 30% and 50% higher than last year — demand for these specialist rigs is now high.

            Suprisingly, Saudi Arabia this months hires five ‘jackup’ oil rigs to drill offshore. Some commentators ask, if Saudi reserves are as large as their unsubstantiated claims say, why do they need to explore the very expensive offshore drilling option? There have been no Saudi offshore fields of any size found in Saudi Arabia since 1978. Why are the Saudis looking for relatively small fields (by their standards)? The answer may be an estimate in 2000 that saw a possible 2 billion barrel of oil oilfield likely offshore Saudia Arabia, mostly, but not entirely, in Iranian waters. Clearly, an ally with strong marine firepower would be needed to protect the drillers in this contentious area.

            2005 — In many countries motorists are saving money on high petrol costs by turning to regular gas for their cars. Automotive experts claim using lower octane ‘regular’ ( typically 87 octane ) in modern computer-controlled engines does no harm, as the timing is automatically adjusted to the richness of the fuel-air mix. The possible exceptions are turbo-charged and high-performance engines. The only drop in power in most cars is when the vehicle is being driven hard and fast — not a likely scenario for those watching their petrol consumption. In some vehicles mileage even improves when regular is used. Older vehicle, especially those with carburettors rather than fuel injection, may experience pre-ignition or ‘pinking’ when the car is under load. Well tuned and driven carefully, pinking may not necessarily occur, even in carburettor-fueled autos. Premium petrol is typically 91 octane, although some 98 octane fuels are now being introduced. The main benefit is to the oil companies and the gas stations, which have a higher profit margin on the so-called premium gas.

            2005 — (august) Mexico’s state owned oil company, Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) says it expects its second biggest oilfield, the offshore Ku-Maloob-Zaapto complex, containing mostly heavy oil, to more than double crude output to 800,000 barrels a day within five years. A total of 18 platforms are hoped to be in place by that time (barring hurricane damage). The size of the production increase means it is likely to be pressurising the field from the start, hastening its ultimate decline.

            Mexico’s massive Cantarell field continues to decline at a rate of 2%-5%, with a retired Pemex oil engineer claiming decline may be as much as 15%-20% by 2008. Even if the Ku-Maloob-Zaapto complex reaches this level, it will be barely replacing the dropping production from Cantarerell. The conventional wisdom is that Cantarell will drop production to about 1 million barrels a day within about 3 years. It may drop more steeply than anticipated.

            2005 — (august) Mexico’s 56,000 kilometres of oil pipelines, many built in the 60’s and 70’s, are 20 years beyond obsolete. 40% are either damaged or corroded. The Mexican government has supplied only a third of the estimated capital amount needed for repairs and replacement. About 60% of Pemexs’ revenue goes to the Mexican government. Pemexs debt has more than doubled in the last five years, and is now a massive $US48 billion. There is little cash left to invest in exploration, refineries, or in natural gas production. As a result, Mexico now imports around 25% of its gasoline (from USA), and 20% of it’s natural gas.

            2005 — (august) Iraq’s oil production remains low (currently only 1.6 million barrels a day exported), partly due to the dilapidated state of it’s infrastructure and lack of material and capital for repair (it already has excellent oil engineers) and partly due to the 257 acts of sabotage on its oil infrastructure since the American invasion to have a look around for ‘weapons of mass destruction’.

            2005 — (august 28) — USA and UK legal and governmental teams bully and bargain away the original Iraqi draft constitution produced by the Iraqis because it diverted Iraqs oil resources to collective ownership by the Iraqi people and required the money to be spent on social justice — a right to state provided health care, housing, education and so on.

            After the occupying powers have finished, the final draft of the Iraqi constitution is stripped of all elements of social justice as the basis for the economy, and code words for privatisation and sell off to foreign interests inserted — in a way that ensures complete investment of its resources, diversifying its sources and encouraging and developing the private sector. usually to rich foreigners.

            The most important element is that the proposed constitution (article 110) strips Iraqis of 100% ownership of their oil, as it presently is, in favour or allowing multinational companies to develop it. It also means privatisation of the state owned oil company. -. federal government and the governments of the producing regions and provinces together will draw up the necessary strategic policies to develop oil and gas wealth to bring the greatest benefit for the Iraqi people, relying on the most modern techniques of market principles and encouraging investment . with federal governments controlling their ‘share’ of the oil revenue. By co-incidence, the Shiite south and the Kurdish north will ‘do’ very well out of this. The Sunnis in the centre will have to hold out their hand to the central government for whateveer can be got from taxes. This is an effective partitioning of Iraq.

            The wheel has turned full circle. and in spite of the circumstances on the ground, the oil multinationals dream of exploitation of Iraq’s ‘high profit’ oil with ‘protection’ of an assorted band of religous gunmen and other thugs, along the Nigerian model, looks very likely.

            2005 — (august) Kuwait, supposedly with 99 gigabarrels of oil reserves, is accused by Iraq of tangential drilling across the border and into Iraqi fields. Kuwait is also now developing small northern fields, suggesting their reserves may be closer to Dr. Colin Campbells recent estimates of 55 gigabarrels, and that Kuwaits main Burgan field is likely to be heavily depleted.

            2005 — (august) while the approximately 160 US refineries have been shown as operating at less than full capacity, it is increasingly apparent that this is because they can’t operate at full capacity, not because they lack crude to refine. Planned annual maintenance closures may have been shortened or even deferred in order to allow production to continue. Plants may have been over-pushed to try to meet demand. This may be part of the reason for unexpected shutdowns due to plant failure and accidents. The latest refinery forced to shut down is Sunoco in Philadelphia, closed following a fire. It would normally produce 200,000 barrels a day of distillates. Large capacity refineries that have recently experienced interuptions to operation include those of BP, Exxon Mobil and Valero. BP’s Texas City refinery recently had their second fire in four months, and then had to shut the gasoline cracking unit for ‘maintenance repairs’. As the US refineries age. corrosion and breakdown become increasingly problematic. The problem is made worse by the large numbers of refineries which were closed down in the era of cheap oil in the 1980’s. Some of these refineries specialised in producing fuel oil for electricity generation plants that could run on either gas or fuel oil.

            The end result is USA’s remaining 132 oil refineries now have a reduced capacity of 16.8 million barrels a day at a time of historicaly large demand. Any further shutdowns or damage to these refineries will seriously compromise USA ability to fully supply it’s domestic market, meaning USA must import, and therefore bid up international refined product to be the preferred purchaser.

            2005 — (august 12th) oil is $US66 a barrel.

            2005 — (august) USA energy legislation comes out directing the strategic reserve be increased to 1 billion barrels of crude oil.

            2005 — (august 13th) — China is experiencing a refinery-limitation supply crunch in some cities, supposedly partly due to tankers not being able to dock due to typhoon Haitang. Previous decisions to curtail imports of refined product may also be to blame. Guangzhou, with a shortfall of about 2,200 barrels per day of distillate is now rationing gasoline and diesel. Chinese oil refiners have lost around Rmb4bn to 6bn in the last 6 months as the Chinese government orders the refineries to ‘absorb’ half the higher cost of oil in order to artificially shield Chinese businesses from having to bear the true market cost of oil.

            2005 — China — an estimated 1,200 tonnes a month of China’s heavily subsidised crude oil and oil products are smuggled out to Hong Kong from Guangdong for re-sale at closer to world prices, reaping handsome profits for the smugglers.

            2005 — (august 15th) — USA — petrol averages about $US2.48 nationwide. In a few places (19 of 92,792 gas stations) regular sells for $US3 a gallon a record high.

            2005 — (august 9) — UK — The average price of unleaded petrol reaches its highest ever point — 91p a litre. Diesil is almost 94p a litre. This increase translates to motorists paying an additional 7.4 million a day above the price paid at the start of 2005.

            2005 — (august 15th) Venezuela, the world’s fifth-largest oil exporter, prepares to offer its oil development blocks in it’s Orinoco oil belt, which may contain as much as 300 billion barrels of heavy crude, to oil companies in Latin America — such as Uruguay’s state oil company, and Brazil’s Caribbean Petroleo Brasileiro SA. The objective is to secure the benefits of South American oil developement for South Americans and ensure economic stability. President Chavez says In the first place oil will be for the Venezuelan people, and then the people of Latin America and the Caribbean rather than oil benefits ‘flooding up’ to private US companies from the outside the region.

            2005 — Private companies continue to make massive profits from historically high oil prices.

            2005 — (august 19th) Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez accuses USA presidential office of planning attacks against the people of Venezuela. The energy minister reportedly says if the U.S. shows any signs of aggression toward Venezuela the Venezuelan government is ready and willing to stop selling oil to the United States. The minister noted that the US market is not indispensable to us and that there were other markets that oil could be sold to, notably China. Venezuela currently exports about 1.5 million barrels a day to the US. and supplies about 7.5% of USA oil, the fourth biggest single supplier in the mix. (Mexico and Saudi Arabia supply about 1.6 million barrels a day each, and Canada supplies nearly 2 million barrels a day.)

            2005 — (august) Venezuela announces plans to expand its fleet of oil tankers. The fleet will go from the current 21 tankers to 58 over the next seven years. The objective is to sell to new clients around the world, including Asia, which is around 40 sailing days away from Venezuala — far more than to the USA. The USA is Venezuela’s largest customer at the moment. Venezuela currently sends oil to its own petrol station chain in the USA. The USA is unlikely to allow Venezuela to sell oil to whom it wants, or to give favorable deals to impoverished neighbouring countries, or to promote corruption-free democracy in South America. Venezuela has sealed its fate .

            2005 — august — Venuzuela’s wealthy kleptocrats (20% of the population) use their total control of the media to make hysterical propoganda against the democratically (by the poor 80%) elected president, and continously publish calls by various commentators to murder the elected head of government. Astonishingly, unlike USA, Britain, Canada, or any European democracy, this treasonous call for terrorism is not a crime — and goes unpunished!

            2005 — (august) — an exteme propogandist closely allied to president Bush uses his media position to suggest that the USA engage in terrorism — the murder of a democratically elected head of state. Not the head of North Korea, an extremely dangerous dictatorship publicly and clearly involved in building weapons of mass destruction, but Venezuela, an open and participatory democracy. But peaceful Venezuela has oil, whereas insane and dangerous North Korea effectively has none. The US government pointedly declines to arrest the offender under the homeland security law on a charge of promoting terrorism. The US government uses its ‘beholden’ television and print media to use biased and loaded language full of ‘trigger words’ (muslim, infiltrate, rogue, leftist, communist, antidemocratic) to characterise the Venezuelas democratically elected government as a regime, a rogue state and as a launching pad for communist infiltration and Muslim extremism . The american media reports the US governments ‘concerns’ about his committment to democracy and non-specific propaganda about spreading instability in Latin America and funding antidemocratic groups . Chavez is said to be influenced by the ideas of the French revolution and the European enlightenment, which bought democracy, liberty and brotherhood to Europe once the unelected dictators (‘royalty’) and kleptocrats had been removed. Chavez uses barter to trade oil to poor countries, recently swapping oil to Cuba in return for hire of 20,000 Cuban medics to treat the poor in Venezuelas impoverished shanty towns. Chavez offers to direct-sell discounted fuel oil for winter to USA citizens below the poverty line.

            Clearly, the democratically elected government of Venezuela is being propogandised by the USA to ‘justify’ USA state terrorism in order to control Venezuelan oil for USA benefit. The US is yet to publicise its price estimates for the job.

            2005 — US securing of the Iraqi oilfields/ middle east military base, and guarding of the Afghan pipeline route now costs US taxpayers $US5.6 billion a month.

            2005 — Fiat announces it will launch an economical new version of its tiny 1957 ‘bubble car’, the Fiat nuova 500. The original was a rear-engined ‘micro mini’ with a small two cylinder 479cc air-cooled 13 horsepower engine, coupled to a four speed manual gearbox. It had a canvas roll-back sunroof, and carried at least 2 people. The new version will be a front-engined, front wheel drive, 4 seater hatch 3.3 metres long, powered by a four cylinder 1,000 cc engine. A new, low emission, thrifty sub-1 litre, two or three cylinder engine will be developed by 2010.

            2005 — UK — British scientists develop plastics that are light, six times stronger than normal, and fully recyclable. Plastic parts can now be as much as 50% lighter than conventional parts, safer to handle than glass fibre reinforced plastics, and cheaper to produce. The high strength lightweight plastic can now allow lighter — and thus more fuel effcient — cars to be designed.

            2005 — Fuji heavy industries and NEX develop a manganese lithium ion battery with a claimed 15 year or 200,000 km life. This is significantly more than the nickel-metal hydride battery used in most hybrid cars. These batteries have a guaranteed life of 8 years or 160,000 kms.

            2005 — (august) Australian sales of 4 wheel drive SUV vehicles are down by 20% compared to the previous year. Owners are reportedly looking for more fuel economic vehicle. While the there are only about 860 hybrid electric-petrol cars in New South Wales (the most populous state) the Australian Consumers Association cautions that hybrid electric-petrol vehicles may not be the cheapest solution in the long run, pointing out that the A$20,000 premium to buy petrol-electric would not be covered by the weekly fuel saved when compared with an small car with a high fuel efficiency. The Association spokesperson also notes it is unknown how long the battery will last and how much it will cost to replace it in 10 years’ time.

            2005 — (august) Auto Bilds magazine tests the state of the art Mercedes-Benz M class CDI diesel against the hybrid petrol-electric Toyota Lexus RX 400h in a drive from New York to San Francisco. The merc is a 3 litre V6 turbo diesel, the Toyota is a 3.3 litre V6 combined with the dual electric motor/generator system. The M class had an overall fuel efficiency of 9.1 litres per 100 kms (31 mpg ), the Lexus used 10.2 litres to travel 100 kms (27.7 mpg). Given the slightly larger engine of the Lexus, it would be fair to say that petrol-hybrid big-engine expensive luxury cars are no more fuel efficient than their diesel equivalent.

            2005 (august) — Nigeria faces having to now charge the true price of oil to its domestic consumers. Until now, petrol pump prices have been fixed by the government. But Nigeria must import refined product, and as the cost now far exceeds the sale price, the state-run energy company that handles oil exports and distillate imports is near bankruptcy. Nigerias out of control population growth to 130 million people, coupled with industrial scale corruption, has seen its $US340 billion oil revenue from the last 40 years squandered. As a result, the lost productive-investment opportunities have kept its people as poor as any any other impoverished African state without oil resources. When the vast majority of people are locked out of the benefits of their own indigenous oil wealth by corruption officials or by foreign control (or a combination), people eventually reach a tipping point and demand justice. In Ecuador strikes in the oil industries have reduced production by 50%, and possibly permanently damaged some wells.(Venezuela stepped in to cover the lost production for the Ecuadorian government for free). In deeply impoverished Bolivia similar strikes and blockades of overseas controlled extractive industries have happened. However, interruption to oil supply by popular outrage in Ecuador and Bolivia makes little difference to global supply. But Nigeria is the world’s eighth largest producer. The Nigerian government is currently negotiating to try to avoid a strike.

            2005 — (august 16th) French prime minister Dominique de Villepin warns citizens that refinery capacity in France cannot cope with demand — we know, is likely to last. All the factors have come together for oil to remain expensive in the years and decades to come. Our refining capacity is saturated and cannot adequately cope with French demand.

            2005 -(august 30th) — Oil is $US70.85 a barrel as refinery bottlenecks continue and as concern mounts for the effect of the looming category 5 Hurricane Katrina on the US Gulf oil refineries and offshore crude reception terminus.

            2005 — August — Hurricane Katrina causes refinery shutdowns, and closes the US crude oil reception terminus (the Louisiana Offshore Oil Port) for 7 days. Around 10% of the total USA refinery capacity is temporarily lost; but some, including Exxon Mobils refinery at Baton Rouge, one of the largest, remain in production or quickly return to production. Eight refineries in Loisiana and Mississipi are damaged and stop operations. After the shutdowns in July. USA lost ability to supply 4% of its daily demand.

            Oil fields in the Mexican Gulf waters stop pumping. Total US domestic oil production at the end of august was 5.4 million barrels a day. Mexican Gulf oil provides roughly 1.5 million barrels of the USA current daily requirement of 20 million barrels a day, i.e. roughly 7.5% of total (domestic plus imports) USA national daily requirement (G of M oil share of USA domestically produced oil is about 29%).

            Taken together, Mexican Gulf overseas oil terminus import facilities. plus Gulf oil fields, are directly responsible for about 25% of the USA oil supply. Bush says he will use oil stocks from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve if necessary to keep undamaged refineries operating as continuous feedstock (oil) is required for smooth operation.

            At least 46 oil and natural gas production platforms are destroyed. A further 20 are extensively damaged. The larger platforms have around 25 production wells on them. The wells must now be abandoned. The platforms act as receving points for oil piped from adjacent derricks. These numerous ‘satellite (caisson) wells around the platforms have severely bent derricks and are now unproducable. Bent structures bend the pipe, meaning the well has to be re-drilled. Some of those re-drilled will no longer have a platform hub to pump the oil to, so will not be re-drilled. At least 30 underwater pipelines are damaged by mudslides. Damage is more severe than that caused by hurricane Ivan. Oil industry engineers estimate it will take years, not months, for Gulf oil to return to existing production levels.

            The Mexican Gulf represents about 30% of USA current domestic oil production .

            Bush releases 30 million barrels of crude oil from the strategic reserve until the Louisiana offshore Oil Port can return to service. The Louisiana offshore Oil Port is the only place that oil supertankers are able to berth, and is reported as being relatively undamaged. The mainland terminus (Port Fourchon) for the oil pipe from offshore suffers considerable damage.

            There are no reserves of refined petroleum available in USA to compensate for reduced refinery capacity.

            International Energy Agency executive director Claude Mandil suggests Europe will need to send some of its emergency stockpiles of gasoline to USA if USA refinery damage is severe. The USA crude oil stockpiles are nearly full, but it is crude that has been refined down to gasoline that is in short supply. USA uses about 20 million barrels of oil a day (with about 12.6 million barrels a day consumed in refining down to petrol and diesel for use in cars and trucks ). There is no shortage of refinable crude in the USA. If 7.5% of the USA oil supply is interrupted for many months, and the strategic oil reserve is used to replace the lost 1.5 million barrels a day (giving Iran a reprieve but endangering Venezuela ), the strategic reserve will last for over a year. The reduction in Mexican Gulf oil production — of relatively modest importance to overall USA oil reliance — can be compensated by reduced demand. Demand will fall due to inevitable high oil prices as USA competes on the international oil market for increased supply, and by a temporary refinery supply bottleneck which is occuring now. Recession is inevitable, equilibriating reduced supply with reduced demand in USA.

            The shortage is of refined gasoline, due to refinery damage and temporary shut-down. Part may be unrelated to the effects of the hurricane. The global refinery bottleneck is causing shortfall in supply, and the hurricane may be partly a convenient excuse. as happened in China.

            Most of the large capacity refineries that can handle more sulfurous crudes are in the USA. And these are the refineries damaged in the storm. If USA cannot take as much sulfurous oil, the Saudi sulfurous oil becomes very difficult to sell in quantity. And as there are few other refineries handling sufurous oil, when USA turns to the market for gasoline and diesel to replace lost refinery production, it is largely taking gasoline and diesel refined from ‘sweet’ light oil, increasing pressure on global supplies.

            it is really a short-lived but uncomfortable phase. As USA ‘sour crude’ refineries are repaired, others around the world modified to handle sulfurous ‘sour crude’ crude, and people cut back their consumption, supply will once more meet the (reduced) demand.

            Of much more importance than the lost oil production — it can be readily replaced by tankers bringing in more from overseas — is the 16% of USA gas production that has been lost. Nearly 75% of the remaining theoretically operative Gulf Of Mexico gas wells are, for the moment, unavailable (destroyed wells are not yet enumerated). The winter heating season starts in october, and the winter refill season usually runs until the end of october. Around half of USA households are heated with natural gas. Gas is essential as additional electricity generation capacity for demand peaks. Dual fuel gas/fuel oil generation plants are no longer common, nor are small regional fuel oil refineries. Coal (50% of USA electric power) and nuclear plants are constant suppliers, without additional capacity to meet additional demand. While gas storage is sufficient for a mild winter (but 12% below the 3 winter average), full ‘high demand’ (markedly cold) winter storage re-fill is now unlikely. Additional supplies cannot be brought in from the global market. There are only 4 terminals for specialised natural-gas tankers (LNG tankers) in USA, and none have spare capacity. Gas prices spike 20% over a four day period. Commentators predict price increases for gas of between 50%-80% in winter. A winter supply crisis is possible. The USA government is well aware of the risk. and in an eerie echo of its inaction over New Orleans city levees, does nothing .

            August — USA — natural gas prices spike to near double their mid year price.

            2005 — (august 31st) USA now has an excess of crude oil (5 million barrels), an atypical situation for the pre-winter season. Usually this crude would have been converted into heating oil and petroleum. Refinery bottlenecks means crude is accumulating steadily and available, but is unusable. Reduced heating oil availability drives its price up to around $US2.67 a gallon. Demand for firewood in eastern USA exceeds supply, wood prices increase dramatically.

            2005 — (august 29) light sweet crude prices hit US$69.25

            2005 — (august 31st) A poll in Canada shows 49% of those polled wanted petroleum geological resources nationalised.

            2005 — (august) USA power grid researcher Roger Anderson says if the trend identified starting 1998 of increasing frequency of blackouts due to electricity distribution failures continues a blackout affecting half the continental USA while not likely, is certainly possible.

            2005 — (september) Electric power supply fails at the pumps moving gasoline in the two major pipelines feeding petrol to the southeast and mid-Atlantic USA. Petrol stations run out as consumers panic and ‘stock up’.

            2005 (september) USA environmental protection agency ‘suspends’ rules of sulfur emmission levels in fuels. This ‘temporary’ suspension allows more refineries without advanced sulfur stripping technology to now produce diesil transport fuel, helping with the refinery bottleneck. This move is likely to remain in force until recession drives down demand to the point it can be met by sulfur complying refineries alone. Industry insiders pick the regulations forcing refineries to alter their plants to be able to produce ultra-low sulphur ‘clean burning’ diesil (due in 2006) are likely to be postponed indefinitely.

            2005 — (september 1st) Europe — traders betting on a heavy demand from USA for gasoline and diesel supplies from west Eurasian refineries bid up the price of 91 octane unleaded petrol to $US801 a tonne. This new ‘market rate’ will flow through into prices paid in western Eurasia, with pump prices in the UK expected to hit 1 per litre.

            2005 — (september 2) Europe-based International Energy Agency agrees to release 2.1 million barrels a day of emergency oil reserves to USA for up to 30 days, including product from the west Eurasian-based 50 million barrel emergency petroleum store. It is planned to release only 369,000 barrels a day as refined of petrol. the remaining 1.73 million barrels a day being unrefined crude oil.

            The USA, with its fleet of huge-engined, heavy, energy-wasteful personal transport, has now increased its daily petroleum consumption to about10 million barrels a day. The damage to refineries, coupled with ever-increasing demand, means it can now only produce 9 million barrels of petroleum a day. USA has ample crude, but is facing a petroleum shortage, and will have to buy the shortfall of about 630,000 barrels a day of refined petroleum gas on the international market.

            2005 — (september 4th) Venezuela’s US-based Citgo Petroleum Corporation increases output at its four refineries from 810,000 to 834,000 barrels of refined gasoline a day in order to help alleviate USA gasoline shortages. President Chavez undertakes to send an additional 1 million barrels of gasoline direct from Venezuelan refineries. Chavez also donates $US5 million to the hurricane relief programme.

            2005 — (september 3rd) Dr. Colin Campbell of the Association for Study of Peak Oil and gas suggests that as Europe consumes 10.6 million barrels of oil a day, and yet only produces 5.2 million barrels a day, the chief European oil-export nation, Norway, could be paid by Europe to keep its oil in the ground. In the face of economic crisis in the coming decades, Norways existing $US120 billion government oil fund could be seriously eroded by failure of conventional investments. The best investment may be not in USA or Euro denominated bonds and stocks, but is underground reserves of oil that increase in value and will give a yield far beyond any available on the market today. This idea could escalate. Investors could buy shares in a proven well that will not be produced for a defined period of time, helping both conserve oil and increase the value of their below ground investment! Governments might shift some ‘retirement’ social security investment money from stocks and bonds to 50:50 partnerships with contract drillers to find, prove, and plug gas and oil reserves as an absolutely secure national asset increasing in value faster than anything else on the market.

            2005 — (september 6th) Iraq with the world’s third largest oil reserves, introduces petrol rationing due to shortages of refined petroleum, a problem made worse by rampant corruption. Petrol intended for gas stations has been diverted to the blackmarket, where it sells for ten times the official subsidised pump price. Worse, refined petrolem product continues to be sold abroad when Iraq’s needs are still not met.

            2005 — (September 6th) — petrol in Ireland is around $US5.30 a gallon. A large part of the price is government tax. As a result of the cost, owning and using any car is expensive; and using a very fuel inefficient car is a privilege. The population benefits by historical large government investment in public transport in a geographically small country.

            2005 — (september 6th) — USA — only one of the 8 refineries shut due to hurricane damage has re-opened. One other is progressing toward reopening. The two largest refineries of the 8, the Pascagoula (ordinarily capable of 325 million barrels a day) and the Belle Chasse refineries, have been extensively damaged. Industry commentators say it may be months before they are able to re-open.

            2005 — China’s second largest auto maker. Shanghai Automotive Industry, announces plans to begin commercial production of both its own and foreign-branded hybrid-powered vehicles by 2008.

            2005 — India’s state-owned Coal India Ltd and Oil India Ltd form a joint venture to build a coal-to-liquid fuel plant (synthetic gasoline). India is the world’s third largest coal producer. The proposal is to use high-sulfur coal from Assam’s north eastern coalfields.

            2005 — (september) India announces decides to go ahead with the Iran-Pakistan-India gas pipeline, in spite of USA calls for UN sanctions against Iran of suspicion of one day possibly developing a weapons of mass destruction programme. India announces plans to develop an indigenous natural gas powered small vehicle.

            2005 — Mazda has developed a sub-compact ‘concept car’ that has an idle-stop system similar to that used in petrol-electric hybrids. The system stops the engine when the car stops at the lights, and restarts it automatically when the accelerator is depressed.

            2005 — (september 7) USA warns China that entering energy supply contracts with a middle eastern energy seller will be shaky if the USA doesn’t like that country. He says you can’t lock up energy resources in a global marketplace. According to a USA functionary, from a U.S. perspective. it looked like Chinese companies had been unleashed to try to lock up energy resources. The spokesperson says even when governments think they own the resources of another country. that country could nationalize the assets. Of course, if China bought direct from the seller, it may pay in currencies other than the US dollar.

            In the clearest statement yet that USA considered that it owned exclusive rights to global oil, the official said [China had to decide whether it] want(ed) to be against us and perhaps others in the international system as well. Curiously, USA points accusingly to China’s links with murderous regimes such as Sudan and Burma, while USA has the closest links to Saudi Arabia. an autocratic regime of extremist fundementalist that gave rise to terrorist attacks against the USA.

            2005 — (september 8th) — Russia’s President Putin and Germany’s Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder sign a $US5 billion deal to build a 1,200 kilometre natural gas pipeline from the Russian port of Vyborg under the Baltic sea direct to Germany. The gas will come from the yet-to-be-developed Yuzhno-Russkoye gas field in West Siberia. The consortium is 51% owned by Russia’s state gas company, Gazprom, and two German companies, BASF and E.On each hold 24.5%.

            Other adjacent EU countries accuse Germany of putting its needs first. Germany claims the gas should be open to later participation by third parties. Germany has few oil and gas resources, and relies on Russia for about 30% of its oil and gas supplies. (In fact, about 47% of German gas supplies now comes from Russia.) Russia currently supplies 25% of west Eurasia’s gas needs. West Eurasia is Russia’s major market for oil and gas, with around 66% of Russia’s production being sold there.

            2005 — (September 8th) energy consultant warns official projections of UK gas production of between 85 and 100 billion cubic metres per year from 2005 to 2007 are unlikely to be met as the latest statistics on decline rate, at 9%, are higher than government officials or the industry expected. Not only will winter in the next three years experience gas shortages in spite of imports. but electricity generated from gas will be more expensive. as will LNG for UK’s increasingly large fleet of dual fuel vehicles.

            2005 — (september 9th) Royal Dutch Shell, the major oil producer in the deeper waters of the Gulf of Mexico admits hurricane damage to platforms in the Mars field and adjacent locations means there may be no production from this field for the remainder of this year.

            2005 — USA electrical engineer ‘tinkering’ with his1.5 ltre Toyota Prius with 18 additional batteries claims to be getting 80 mpg/28 kms per litre in short range driving. In addition, a further modification allows the vehicles batteries to be trickle charged overnight from a domestic power point. The 18 batteries add around 32 kms to the normal Prius range (about 50 miles per US ‘short’ gallon. 17 kms per litre ) where motive power is around 50:50 petrol:battery. At this point the ‘home-made’ modifications are not cost efficient.

            In rough comparison the following much older ‘fleet cars’, with multiple users and indifferent driving gave —

            1996 1600 cc Pulsar (not stated whether auto or manual) did 11.1 kms per litre, presumably around town.

            1999 1000 cc Daihatsu Mira (not stated whether auto or manual) did 16.6 kms per litre

            1994 1000 cc Daihatsu Charade (not stated whether auto or manual) did 13.7 kms per litre

            1999 1500 cc Daewoo Lanos did 12.3 kms per litre

            2005 — (September 11th ) An interplay of factors cause intermittent petroleum and possibly diesel shortages. The USA shortfall of 630,000 barrels a day of refined petroleum can theoretically be compensated for by drivers slowing down, tuning their cars, using their second (smaller) car, car pooling etc — better than 10% savings can, in theory, be made by these conserving behaviours; (albeit USA now imports close to a million barrels of gasoline a day, presumably to build stocks prior to the winter switch to less gasoline production). But in Europe, refineries are now running at full capacity, so refined product sent to USA is at the expense of availabilty of refined product in Europe. While much petrol use in USA and Europe is discretionary, diesel use in USA is not.

            Diesel is used almost exclusively in commercial trucking and rail in USA. A significant component of European diesel use is for personal transport, and thus discretionary to an extent. USA absolute infrastructural transport needs are likely to bid up diesel prices, possibly causing refineries to consider whether some petrol fractionation should be cut back in favor of diesel fractionation — further shortening petroleum availability. This is the reverse of march this year, when refineries cut back diesel production in favor of producing extra petroleum — driving up diesel prices. The equation now weighs heavily on diesels critical importance to world economies versus petrols use for discretionary, frivolous, personal transport.

            As USA refineries are repaired and non-USA refineries slowly convert to handling sulphurous heavy crude, and as high prices and intermittant shortages (made worse by outbreaks of panic buying suddenly shifting petrol storage from oil company tanks to constantly full vehicle tanks) force temporary measures. changes in driving habits and put more people on public transport, supply once more will meet demand. Increasing small business failures and unemployment will also help. But the beginning of decline in sweet light crude supply will from now on ‘chase’ the reduced demand, and overtake it once more. Barring giant field collapse, the next five years or so are likely to be a rollercoaster ride of periods of small-scale localised absolute shortage and relative plenty, before fading into the long decline.

            2005 — (september 11th) USA reports of a draft policy formulated in march to attack real and imaginary so-called rogue states with nuclear bombs without warning. This may be USA propoganda to try to scare Iran into abandoning its plan to engage in international commerce. or it may be a genuine terrorist threat. At stake is a partial shift from the dollar to the euro (and gold) as currencies of value. This would seriously weaken the dollar, and make USA oil and gas imports more expensive. Given the huge stakes, this may not be just a threat. A speculative scenario would see the USA presidential/business/military complex exploit the known temporary gas and fuel shortages likely at the end of this year and early in the new year as an excuse to ‘pre-emptively’ bomb Iran’s nuclear facilities and sign over the marketing of its ‘global resource’ so that it is ‘regular’. And in USA dollars only.

            2005 — (september 11th) The public do understand that stability is all-important here and what we need to do is deal with an oil shock which is as big as the oil shock of the 1970s in terms of its effect on the economy . — UK Chancellor Gordon Brown is telling the truth. He then blames OPEC for the oil prices rise. Which is not true, as he almost certainly knows. Only Saudi Arabia (supposedly) has spare capacity, and this is unusable heavy crude, not ‘light’. UK sells oil from its territorial waters. If it wanted, the UK could mandate a drop in price via nationalisation and control of the resource. Brown is being disingenuous.

            2005 — (september 12th) — Due to taxes (67% of the pump price in the UK, some claim 80%), many countries pay far more than the most energy hungry country in the world —

            UK — some petrol station now charge 1 per litre for unleaded 91 octane — equivalent to US$6.92 per US gallon.

            Norway — some petrol station now charge 11 koner per litre for unleaded 91 octane — equivalent to US$6.57 per US gallon.

            Netherlands — some petrol station now charge 1.45 euro per litre for premium octane — equivalent to US$6.76 per US gallon.

            Turkey — with the average wage only $US4,642 a year, petrol is $US2.01 a litre — equivalent to US$7.60 per US gallon.

            USA — popular outrage as petrol climbs to US0.79 cents per litre — equivalent to US$3.00 per US gallon.

            There is currently a shortage of refined product. Demand is higher than supply. Prices ration the supply to those who can pay most, regardless of speculators .

            2005 — September — USA congress takes away a large part of the poor’s winter’s fuel oil and energy assistance subsidies for the coming winter and gives it to victims of of the ‘unforseen’ levee collapse due to the ‘unforseen’ Hurricane Katrina in the Gulf of Mexico.

            2005 — (early september ) — Desperate for refined product, USA’s president Bush calls for USA refineries defer all maintenanc e and to operate to the absolute maximum. Candadian refineries mull over deferring maintainence to maximise production. The main petroleum pipeline from Canada, the Enbridge 2 million barrel a day pipeline from Canada to the USA midwest, is pumping at near full capacity. Canadian refineries have no spare capacity to max the pipeline out anyway.

            2005 — (september 12th) quote of the month from Jim Kunstler :

            Another Big Thought still clogging the collective imagination is the idea that if only we switch to alternative fuels we can run the interstate highway system, Disney World, and WalMart just like before. The country is full of people now who want gold stars for running their household car fleet on discarded Fry-Max oil from the local Dunkin Donuts. or on oil squeezed from hemp seeds. Notice that the premise of a drive-in society remains.

            Now the scary part of this is that these ideas are coming generally from the smarter people in our society. The dumb ones are are praying for the Rapture, or waiting for the market to magically fix everything, or sitting around the suburbs of Houston oiling their riot guns in front of the Nascar telecast.

            2005 — september — global oil and gas exploration is now greatly increased. There are 422 offshore drilling rigs working, with only 4 rigs not yet committed. To build a rig to meet additional demand takes between 3 and 5 years. Skilled rig operators are in short supply. Because oil exploration and development infrastructure is limited, the daily chargeout rates for exploration rigs double. Saudi Arabia is pushing exploration hard to compensate for declining mega-volume flows — desperate for experienced petroleum engineers and drilling supervisors, it places full page advertisements in Dallas, Texas, newspapers.

            Virtually every rig and every petroleum engineer in the world is already working. Materially increasing the level of activity beyond the current level is not feasible over the coming 3-5 years

            — senior private sector analyst giving evidence to USA Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee sept 6 2005

            2005 — As the North Sea fields continue to decline, closing platforms and pipelines as significant fields play out is economically essential in the difficult arctic environment. Small oil and gas fields at a distance from platforms are not tapped as they too infrastructurally expensive to develop relative to the return. The UK’s share of North Sea oil production is now about 10% less than the previous years production, despite eight new fields coming on line.

            2005 — Global new car building capacity is 55 million new cars per year. Industry experts predict that will have to double to meet the demand in China. Pity they are not also oil experts.

            2005 — (september) Toyota announces it aims to boost petrol-electric hybrid car production by 60% to 400,000 in 2006, and to eventually run all its vehicles on this power system. The cost of components for hybrids makes them $US3,000 to $US5,000 more than an equivalent petrol model. Toyota is working on cutting the cost differential by half. Toyota, owner of Daihatsu, a company expert in small car technology, is now responsible for half the global growth in new car building. It builds about 1.5 million new cars a year.

            Daihatsu announces shows a concept car, the ‘HVS’, a lightweight hybrid sportscar. It combines a 1.5-litre petrol engine with a 4 wheel drive hybrid system. Daihatsu claims the performance will be similar to a 2 litre engine, but with fuel economy better than of a 1 litre engine. Why it is bothering is unclear.

            Honda Motor Co. has produced a new version of its Civic compact hybrid.

            Ford contunues to buy hybrid technology from Toyota for its a sport-utility vehicle.

            Nissan Motor Co, controlled by Renault France, plans to release a hybrid in the USA in 2006.BMW announces it will work with General Motors, and DaimlerChrysler in an effort to develop a petrol-electric power system for their models by 2007. Volkswagen and Porsche plan to jointly develop petrol-electric versions of their SUV models.

            Suzuki announces it will manufacture under licence Fiat and Opels 1.3 litre diesel engine for its new small car, the new ‘Swift’. The Swift will do 51 miles per US gallon, 21.7 kilometres per litre, better than the much more expensive hybrids, but not as good as the most efficient small diesel car .

            2005 — (september 13) Canadian oil exploration company EnCana sells its 75,000 barrels a day oil fields in five blocks in Ecuador to China. The fields sold for the mid-range price (1.42 billion) that EnCana wanted. The oil fields’ proved reserves are said to be143 million barrels. (About 5 years of supply if pumping rates remain at the present extraction rate. Which they won’t.). It sells China it’s 36% stake in the new 450,000 barrel a day export OCP pipeline. Impoverished Ecuadoreans have recently protested at the lack of benefit from oil exploration to local communities. EnCana had thought that Ecuadorean state owned oil companies would buy the offering.

            2005 — (september 14th) — China announces it has shelved plans to start filling their newly developed strategic 90-120 day strategic oil stockpile. due to have commenced by the end of this year. China’s more long term view may see it buying heavy crude no other nation can easily process in quantity, and fill stockpile with this lower priced commodity. Or it may be simply converting its massive holdings of US dollars to a different store of value.

            A Chinese government spokesman claims following a recent survey of China’s oil and gas resources China is able to maintain production of crude oil at around 180 million tonnes a year over the next 20 years. This is 1,319,400,000 barrels a year, or 3.6 million barrels a day — about half Chinas current oil consumption of 6.2 million barrels of oil a day. Given that Chinas oil production may have peaked (as far as can be told), and China’s Sinopec Economics and Development Research Institute predicted this year that Chinas oil consumption will reach 10 million barrels a day within 15 years, the spokesman seems extraordinarily optimistic.

            2005 — (September 16th) Saudi oil sells for about $US52, where US light crude sells for about $US65. Saudi has dropped its price by $3 in about a month. Why the larger differential? Saudi Aramco’s crude oil blend has a relatively high suphur content, and the major refineries that handle this type of oil have had their output reduced by hurricane Katrina. The Saudis are finding it difficult to sell oil. Commentators observe that there is a lot of, in effect, ‘unrefinable’ crude in the market at the moment, and the Saudis and other high sulfur producers may have to drop their prices even further. Competition for Texas light, Brent sea light, and Nigerian Bonny light is certain to increase. There are, at the moment, two oil markets — the market for sour suphurous crude is oversupplied, the market for sweet crude is undersupplied. The spread between the prices is likely to increase.

            2005 — (September 16th) — USA 44% of Gulf of Mexico oil production is still ‘off-line’, partly due to damaged onshore infrastructure. Nearly 34% of the USA G of M’s gas remains ‘off-line’.

            2005 — historic first delivery of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by Gazprom (Russia’s state owned gas major) to USA arrives at Cove Point, Maryland. The 60,000 tons of liquid is 80 million cubic meters of gas when re-gasified.

            The director of Gazexport said which signifies the beginning of stable, reliable and regular deliveries of our energy resources to the United States. A relevant contract basis was established for this and next year we and be a both a wholesale and retail seller in the USA. Gazprom expects to build its own network of regasification terminals in USA. Gazprom may deliver LNG from the huge Barents Sea Shtokman field (Shtokmanovskoye gas condensate deposits), so long as USA does not veto Russia’s entry to the World Trade Organisation. While USA also ‘expects’ to be allowed to go into Russia and on-sell Russian gas to Europe via USA oil companies based within Russia, the power is with the Russians. USA companies are unlikely to be given a slice of the cake. USA needs Russian gas more than Russia needs USA as a market.

            2005 — (September 18th) trend to start selling-off huge big-engined gas slurping SUV’s is just starting in USA. Dealerships are finding it hard to sell them, with sales down by a third relative to september 2004. Sales of new small and fuel-efficient Toyota, Nissan and Honda models are up 10% relative to the same time last year. There are almost no buyers to be found for older SUVs on sale in USA. In New Zealand, where — as in Europe — petrol has been heavily taxed for many years (now $1.53 per litre, $US4 per gallon), and the majority of the national fleet is already small-engined (from 1500cc to 2.2 litres) some dealerships are flat refusing to accept SUV’s as trade-ins. The demand for second hand 1500cc small cars can barely be met. There is very little demand for large engined cars — except by the relatively wealthy.

            2005 — (September 16th) — OPEC predicts demand for oil will fall because of a combination of bottlenecks in global refineries that are limiting petrol and diesel production and damage to refineries that handle sour crude. Both situations drive up prices and reduce demand. OPEC predicts that if the trends continue, global consumption will average 83.5 million barrels a day for the year. This is an increase over last years consumption, but not as dramatic an increase as some commentators predicted .

            2005 — (September 18th) — Iran’s demand for gasoline continues to surge, growing by 10% in august to about 0.4 million barrels of gasoline a day (70 million litres a day). Domestic refineries can provide only a little more than half the gasoline demand. Gasoline imports will cost Iran $US4 billion by march 2006, and is expected to cost $US20 billion over the next four years. The government rejects rationing to drive down consumption, but will bring in a ‘smartcard ‘ to regulate consumption. Details are unclear.

            2005 — (September 18th) — USA — Venezuelan President Chavez promises to ship both heating oil and diesel fuel to poor communities and schools in USA at below market price, by cutting out the middle man . A pilot programme is set to start in Chicago on October 14th in a Mexican-American community, then the oil-for-the-poor program expanded to New York’s south Bronx and Boston some time in November. The aim is to supply to use 80,000 barrels of crude at Venzuela’s 8 USA refineries to produce distilled product for shipping directly to schools, non-profit organisations and religious organizations that help the poor.

            2005 — (September 19th) — sudden one day spike in price of light sweet crude from US$63 to US$67.39.

            2005 — (September) — France’s ‘Total’ oil and energy company outlines a programme to spend US$3.4 billion ( hurricane Rita, hits the Gulf of Mexico, further damaging oil platforms and rigs. Of the 155 drilling rigs in the Gulf, about 18 jack-up and semi-submersible rigs are either seriously damaged or destroyed; of the 1,600 platforms in the storm path, 66 production platforms are destroyed, with another 32 extensively damaged or detached from their moorings. A total of 28 pipelines are identified as damaged. There is relatively little new refinery damage, with only one refinery in Port Arthur down in the short term, estimates are for about the next one or two months.

            2005 — (september 27th) — All of the Gulf of Mexico’s oil production (about 1.5 million barrels per day) remains ‘shut in’. About 78% of the GOM’s natural gas production (about 7.8 billion cubic feet per day) remains lost. The Gulf of Mexico shutdown since the previous hurricane to date is equivalent to a loss of about 6% of the Gulf of Mexico’s total annual oil production, and nearly 5% of the total annual gas production. Natural gas stocks are claimed by the USA Energy Department to be down by only about 4% relative to the same period last year. Gas prices are about $US14 per million British thermal units. Gas is now an increasingly important source of electricity generation due to numerous free-market gas-fired plants being built without total-nation energy-security oversight. A winter gas and possibly electricity supply crisis in USA now depends on the severity of the weather.

            2005 — (september 27th) — USA bulk wholesale heating oil contracts for january delivery now sells for just over $2 a gallon .

            2005 — (september) UK gas crisis — energy Minister admits that Britain now has a reserve cushion of only 11 days of gas use as it comes into the colder weather and as gas supplies run short. The UK was a nett exporter of energy, and has insufficiently prepared reserve facilities for the decline in gas production. Most imported gas comes in LNG tankers from Russia. Many of the electricity generation stations are run on gas. Domestic users, not business, have first call on electricity in shortfalls in supply. The Meterological Office issues an ‘amber alert’ to the UK government contingency planners that UK is likely to have a colder than average winter.

            If we have a cold winter, we are going to throw the switch, businesses will shut down, people will lose their jobs

            Sir Digby Jones, director-general of the Confederation of British Industry

            Both USA and UK may be in the same boat this winter.

            2005 — September — Russia — Gazprom shortlists US owned Chevron and ConocoPhilips, Hydro and Statoil from Norway, and the French Total for the development of the Shtokman natural-gas field in the Barents Sea shelf. Reserves of natural gas are estimated at 3.2053 trillion cubic meters, and include 30.98 million tonnes of gas condensates.

            USA pressures Russia to make a decision, as 25% of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) is provisionally earmarked for export to the US, with 75% intended for export to Europe (Russia supplies 25% of west Eurasia’s gas). The USA wants Russia to pass special laws for the USA to be allowed access to Russias oil and gas resources. Russia wants the US to allow Russian oil companies reciprocal rights to freely trade and compete in the US domestic retail gas marketing network.

            2005 — (september) Saudi Arabia announces it will remove 235,000 barrels per day of gasoline, LPG, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil production from its Yanbu refinery. Yanbu’s current gasoline production is about 40,000 barrels a day. The one month shutdown due in november is both for maintainance and to increase gasoline production to 60,000 barrels a day. It will also enable a lower sulphur diesel to be produced.

            2005 — (september 27th) About 15% of USA refinery capacity remains out of action, and is likely to remain out of action until at least mid november, now removing about 1.7 million barrels a day of refined product (petroleum, diesel, jet fuel, heating oils) from the market. Stocks on hand are 6%-7% higher than the same period the previous year. when stocks were sharply lowered by hurricane Ivan. An increase off an historically low base, in other words.

            2005 — (early october) about 20 supertankers. holding about 40 million barrels of crude, remain at anchor in the Gulf of Mexico, waiting for refineries to re-open so they can discharge.

            2005 — (september 27th) A 325,000 barrels of petroleum a day refinery owned by French energy company Total is closed by striking workers. Total is the largest European gasoline exporter to the USA.

            2005 — (september) — Petrol prices in Russia have risen 15% since the start of 2005. Russian oil companies TNK-BP, LUKoil, Sibneft, Surgutneftegas, and Tatneft agree together to freeze the retail price of petrolem at least until the end of the year. The Russian Federal Antimonopoly Service launches proceedings for ‘price fixing’.

            2005 — (september 30th) light sweet crude is $66.79

            2005 — (september) Japans imports of middle distillates — mainly kerosene for heating and gas oil — now cost about $US80 a barrel to Japanese companies — a 45% increase so far this year. Nippon Oil, with a refining capacity of 1.217 million barrels per day ( 25% of Japans refining capacity) plans to increase kerosene production in october by about 18% more than the last october (to 485,000 barrels a day) and increase octobers gasoline production by about 7.5 % (to 233,000 barrels a day). A Nippon Oil company official says We plan to build kerosene stocks now to meet local demand because importing (kerosene) later is expected to be ridiculously expensive.

            2005 — (october 2) Japan beats more than 60 oil companies from various countries to win the right to explore and develop the most promising 6 oil fields in 26 oil zones in Libya. Libya, with the 9th largest conventional oil reserves in the world, has a significant number of undeveloped oil fields. The fields, mostly onshore, will be developed by Inpex Corporation (with the French company Total), Japan Petroleum Exploration Company, Mitsubishi Corporation, Nippon Oil Corporation, and Teikoku Oil. First production at these sites is expected about 2012. The only other Japanese interests in the middle east are minor interests in Algeria, Egypt, its Iraq reward, and Sudan. It’s largest deal is with Iran. but USA is unlikely to allow this to progress.

            2005 — (october) USA now imports about 1.4 million barrels of gasoline a day.

            2005 — (october 3rd) — USA president Bush, learning from the Katrina debacle, announces the ‘Northeast Heating Oil Reserve’ in New York and Connecticut will be used if necessary this winter. It contains 2 million barrels, and has never before been tapped. The price the USA Federal authorities will offer it at has not been disclosed.

            2005 — (october) two hurricanes (hurricane Opal, then hurricane Roxanne) that hit the Gulf of Mexico reducing oil output by nearly 770,000 barrels a day compared with September levels. Production for the month of october averages between 1.9-2.0 million barrels a day. Offshore production (mainly from the Gulf of Campeche fields) was about 2.08 million barrels a day in september. Offshore fields produce around 75% of Mexican crude oil, and six of the seven largest fields are in the Campeche Gulf. These fields suffered extensive damage from hurricane Roxanne in October 11. Around 11 million barrels of oil production was lost in the four days of complete shutdown of the offshore fields. The Cantarell platform, lost production of about 23 million baresl in total by the end of october.

            2005 — India — Reliance Industries Ltd announces plans to double the refining capacity of its Jamnagar refinery, which currently processes 660,000 barrels of crude per day. Costs are estimated at about $5.8 billion. Jamnagar currently exports refined product as well as selling in the local market. More importantly, its recent shutdown of some units at the refinery removed 300,000 tonnes of LPG from the domestic market, creating a total shortfall of 565,000 tonnes of LPG. 84 million Indian households are expected to be affected by the shortfall, about 1 in 12 households. E asily distributed cylinders of LPG are essential for cooking — an LPG gas-cylinder dependance similar to many middle Eastern countries with poor and erratic electricity supply and distribution and little domestically reticulated gas. India imports roughly 2.7 million tonnes of LPG, mainly from Saudi Arabia, but the amount is likely to increase (and the source become more diverse ). The shut-down will also create a shortage of kerosine.

            A proposal for a new 300,000 barrels per day refinery in Visakhapatanam (close to relatively new off-shore oil and gas fields) in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh is announced by the State owned Hindustan Petroleum. BP is considering an equity stake in return for permission to establish a refined fuels distribution network in India. Shell has recently been given permission to open 2,000 gas stations in India. BP wants to export Indian refinery products such as diesel and petrol to China and possibly the west coast of USA.

            India imports about two thirds of its crude oil requirements and a large part of its LPG requirements, but at this time has relatively low gasoline requirements. India is one of the few countries in the world with surplus refinery capacity.

            2005 — Volvo and the USA Department of Defense build an experimental ‘mild hybrid’ diesel-electric truck, based on the frame of Volvo’s ‘Mack’ model. The diesel engine must be used to overcome the weight-inertia of a heavy vehicle when moving from standstill, but the electric power train can then be used, mostly at lower speed around town driving. If a ‘full hybrid’ can be developed that is capable of moving forward from standstill, the diesel engine can automatically shutdown whenever the vehicle is stationary, with the potential to save 20% or more of the diesel fuel costs.

            2005 — (october) — First quarter production of most of the major oil companies falls — ExxonMobil is down 3%; Chevron is down 6%; Shell is down 8%; Repsol YPF is down 7%. Only Phillips-Conoco and BP report an increase, of 2%. Wall St energy analyst John S. Herold estimates that worlds 7 largest publicly traded oil companies (Total S.A. Exxon Mobil, ConocoPhillips, BP, Royal Dutch/Shell Group, Eni S.p.A. ChevronTexaco) will all have reached peak of production of their global oil field assets within the next 2 years, and that production from all 7 will decline year on year thereafter. Nation-owned public-capital companies exploiting their indigenous oil resources in the public good produce about 77% of the world oil supplies. These include the mega fields of the Middle east whose peak is further out. The balance of about 23% is produced by private-capital global corporate oil companies operating in concessions.

            2005 -(october 12) — Iran shuts down two offshore oilfields, the Soroush and Nowruz fields, with a combined potential capacity of 190,000 barrels a day. These two fields produce heavy oil, which, due to lack of refineries able to handle it, has a limited market. The fields will undergo repairs and maintenance, and presumably re-open when major refineries increase their capacity to handle heavy oil.

            2005 — (october) Brazilian state oil company Petrobras makes an exclusive offer to three Japanese trading companies ( Mitsui, Sumitomo and Mitsubishi) to bid for the chance to buy 15% of the 600 million barrel reserve Jubarte heavy oil field. The first phase, due 2006, is expected to produce 60,000 bpd, and by 2010 about 180,000 bpd. Japan has no oil reserves, and trading houses have been investing heavily in global oil. gas, coal, and metal assets.

            2005 — (october 13) — Bangladesh, with more than a dozen natural gas fields, produces 1,515 million cubic feet of gas a day, but demand has risen to a daily demand of about 1,625 million cubic feet. The government is forced to ration supply, alternating shutting off supply to fertiliser plants and power plants. These two industries use 67% of the gas produced. The shortfall is expected to continue until late 2007, when new gas fields are expected to begin production. At the current rate of use, gas fields are expected to be effectively used up by 2017. All gas is conserved for the domestic needs of the nation of 140 million.

            2005 — (october) Contract price for deep-water drillships is now a third higher than 2004, at $US300,000 a day. Land based drilling rigs have increased from about $US35,000 a day in 2004 to around $US95,000 per day. High prices bring high exploration once more. but with low yeild. Very expensive drilling costs leads to extensive geological survey before the drill bit even touches the earth. The extensive and sophisticated surveys find no giant oil fields (albeit the Southern Antarctic Oceans have not been extensively surveyed).

            2005 — (october) Iran’s sale of 5 million tonnes of LNG to India by 2009 is delayed because USA’s General Electric refuse to supply the compressors that convert natural gas into liquid to allow export by ship, due to USA sanctions. German liquification technology has also been refused. Unproven technology developed by the French firm IFP will be trialled instead. As a result, France has been rewarded with development and export of a large block of the vast gas reserves of the southern Pars field. Iran is also considering importing less efficient Ukranian compressors. The end result will be increased Iranian-Eurasian co-operation and interdependance — except UK, Italy, and possibly Germany might reasonably expect to be left out in the cold. USA is unlikely to allow Eurasia to have good relations with Iran, as it would mean the end of USA dollar dominance. and therefore USA domestic depression .

            2005 — (october 5) USA — Natural gas spot prices on the the New York Mercantile Exchange reach a record high of $US14.75 per million British thermal units.

            2005 — (october) Canada — natural gas sells for over $12 per gigajoule .

            2005 — (october 24) USA — A landmark ‘peak oil’ bill is filed in the USA House of Representatives with the support of the newly formed ‘Peak Oil Caucus’, founded by Rep. Roscoe Bartlett and co-sponsors:

            Resolution

            Expressing the sense of the House of Representatives that the United States, in collaboration with other international allies, should establish an energy project with the magnitude, creativity, and sense of urgency that was incorporated in the ‘Man on the Moon’ project to address the inevitable challenges of ‘Peak Oil.’

            • Whereas the United States has only 2 percent of the world’s oil reserves; Whereas the United States produces 8 percent of the world’s oil and consumes 25 percent of the world’s oil, of which nearly 60 percent is imported from foreign countries;
            • Whereas developing countries around the world are increasing their demand for oil consumption at rapid rates; for example, the average consumption increase, by percentage, from 2003 to 2004 for the countries of Belarus, Kuwait, China, and Singapore was 15.9 percent;
            • Whereas the United States consumed more than 937,000,000 tonnes of oil in 2004, and that figure could rise in 2005 given previous projection trends;
            • Whereas, as fossil energy resources become depleted, new, highly efficient technologies will be required in order to sustainably tap replenishable resources;
            • Whereas the Shell Oil scientist M. King Hubbert accurately predicted that United States domestic production would peak in 1970, and a growing number of petroleum experts believe that the peak in the world’s oil production (Peak Oil) is likely to occur in the next decade while demand continues to rise;
            • Whereas North American natural gas production has also peaked;
            • Whereas the United States is now the world’s largest importer of both petroleum and natural gas;
            • Whereas the population of the United States is increasing by nearly 30,000,000 persons every decade;
            • Whereas the energy density in one barrel of oil is the equivalent of eight people working full time for one year;
            • Whereas affordable supplies of petroleum and natural gas are critical to national security and energy prosperity; and
            • Whereas the United States has approximately 250 years of coal at current consumption rates, but if that consumption rate is increased by 2 percent per year, coal reserves are reduced to 75 years:

            Now, therefore, be it Resolved. That it is the sense of the House of Representatives that:

            1. in order to keep energy costs affordable, curb our environmental impact, and safeguard economic prosperity, including our trade deficit, the United States must move rapidly to increase the productivity with which it uses fossil fuel, and to accelerate the transition to renewable fuels and a sustainable, clean energy economy ; and
          • the United States, in collaboration with other international allies, should establish an energy project with the magnitude, creativity, and sense of urgency of the ‘Man on the Moon’ project to develop a comprehensive plan to address the challenges presented by Peak Oil.
          • The challenge has been officially and publicly placed on the USA government table by courageous representatives. Will other democratic governments confront the issue in their congresses and parliaments?

            2005 — (october 26) In an unbelievable stroke of luck for USA president Bush, Iranian president Mahmoud Ahmadinejad is reported in the westrn media as calling for Israel to be ‘destroyed’ (in fact he called for the political entity of Israel to be destroyed and all the Arab tribes of Palestine — including the Jews- to be re-united once more). USA now have the excuse they need to prevent Iran from selling oil and gas on the open market in any currency the buyer chooses. Over half Iran’s foreign exchange reserves are now euros.

            2005 — (october) Russia Lukoil fails in a bid to buy Kazakhstan’s state-owned PetroKazakhstan Inc.

            2005 — (october) China pays $US4.18 billion for state-owned PetroKazakhstan Inc. Kazakhstan has around 35 billion barrels of oil reserves, and may have considerably more if preliminary reports of a highly prospective offshore oilfield in the Kazakhstani Caspian sea are true. A new 200,000 barrel a day pipeline being built will take Kazakhistani oil to northwest China.

            2005 — (november) — China courts Venezuela, securing an agreement for the supply of 100,000 barrels of heavy crude and 60,000 barrels of fuel oil per day for two years. Heavy oil is a difficult crude for any country to sell, as not many refineries are configured to handle it.

            2005 — (november 1st) USA — about a million barrels of crude oil production from the Gulf of Mexico remains unavailable due to storm damage. Many pipes are still to be leak tested. About 5 billion cubic feet a day of gas is unavailable. Gasoline imports to USA continue to rise. World gasoline markets are tight worldwide, especially in Europe and Iran. The IEA vote not to supply USA with additional gasoline from depleting Eurasian reserves.

            2005 — (november) Dick Cheney. USA vice president, claims that the true purpose of the USA invasion and occupation was not aimed at to securing Iraqi oil. He deliberately ‘labels’ anyone who points to contrary evidence as ‘unpatriotic’, echoing the shameful quasi-Nazi anti-democratic, anti-free speech propoganda of the McCarthy era in USA.

            Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel. — Samuel Johnson, 1775.

            2005 — (november 6) — Kuwait Oil Company announces the Burgan oil field, the second largest in the world, has peaked at 1.7 million barrels per day. It had previously been forecast to produce 2 million barrels per day at peak, and maintain that level for up to about 30 years, presumably by water flooding to maintain pressure, but engineers could only force 1.9 mbd from it, at some risk to long term production.

            2005 — (november 23) — American and British civil rights groups produce a report on the re-colonisation of Iraq’s oil, based on official documents and analysis. Returning Iraq’s oil to foreign multinationals will require a heavy ‘sweetener’ due to the dangers posed by Iraqi civil war, even although Iraq’s oil is the cheapest in the world to produce. The usual industrial rate of return of capital invested is 12-13%, but (based on analysis of existing oil multinational production sharing agreements in seven countries) it is expected that the multinationals will demand from 42%-162%. At a price for oil of $US40 per barrel — unrealistically low — and over the low end of the usual term — 25 years — the Iraqi people will be deprived of $US127 billion dollars, relative to if the previous state firm produced it, as happened prior to the US and UK invasion.

            The invasion did not secure civil society because inadequate troop numbers were sent. In-fighting and continuous sabotage was inevitable. As a consequence USA and UK troops are ‘unable’ to exit, and must maintain military control of all ports and airports. The Iraqi provisional government needs large amounts of oil sales to pay US businesses to re-build the Iraqi civil and oil infrastructure that the USA military destroyed — via munitions and weapons provided by US contractors. Only large multinationals might be able to provide relatively fast infrastructure — so long as the Iraqi government pays out vast amounts of money to US contractors and their sub-contractors and further proxy agents to protect the oil work.

            On balance, the invading countries strategy of the dividing of Iraq into self-contained ‘strongman-headed’ tribal states that collect their own oil revenue and whose power is protected by local militia/gangsters (complete with arbitrary arreest, detention and torture) under USA patronage — plus destruction of civil infrastructure and creating chaos to require Iraq to sell oil cheaply, and create an urgent ‘need’ for multinational ‘investment’ to produce oil in the volume required may well work; albeit world rig and crew shortages mean ‘fast production’ is difficult, even if Iraq was peaceful.

            . the federal system will facilitate the long-term domination of the weak central government by the Kurdish and Shiite parties that won the majority of the seats in the January 30 election. The regional governments — not Baghdad — will have jurisdiction over internal security and the power to establish security and regional guards with their political opponents facing systematic repression. The Bush administration. wants a regime that has the power to carry through a sell-off of the oil industry and to sign agreements sanctioning the permanent US military bases that are being built in key areas of the country. After months of horse-trading, the deal with the Kurdish and Shiite factions has emerged as the most viable way of transforming Iraq into an American client state. Tens of thousands of Kurdish peshmerga and Shiite fundamentalist militia, loyal to their respective parties, have already enlisted into the army, police and paramilitary units. They are being accused of extra-judicial killings, arrests and intimidation of opponents of the [USA] occupation.

            James Cogan, august 2005.

            In the interim, sabotaged and bombed facilities, combined with the internal Iraqi power struggle mean the required production for Iraqs civil needs can’t be met domestically, fullstop. There are likely to be critical domestic fuel shortages in Iraq this winter, and oil products purchased from abroad are likely to be very expensive. The multinationals and their complicit governments are likely to re-take their old ‘concessions ‘.

            It remains to be seen how large the Iraqi oil (and more importantly, gas) reserves really are, and how quickly the multinationals can return production to pre-invasion levels.

            2005 — (november 22) — UK liquified natural gas prices reach $US20.15/ 17 per million British thermal units (Btu’s) — a world record for LNG prices on the spot market. (Last month LNG on the spot market was about 3 per million British thermal units). Industries that use gas switch to other fuels where they can; other restrict production; some shut down. Chemical, steel making, and heavy engineering businesses are hit hard. By 2020 supposedly 70% of Britain’s electricity will be from gas powered generation stations, and 90% of the gas to run them will be imported. This in theory is possible; but it shows culpable ignorance of the reality of expected life of global gas reserves in the face of increasing world competition for the same limited resource. There are now proposals for 70 LNG-based projects in USA, around 30 projects or proposals in west Eurasia, and others in India. China. other parts of east Eurasia. the Middle East. Until the 2007 pipelines and terminals are built, the UK will experience gas shortages and power shortages in winter.

            Russia’s Gazprom has charged western European countries an average of US$135 per thousand cubic meters in the first nine months of 2005. Gazprom expects the average price to reach US$255, nearly twice that, in 2006. Gazprom expects European demand to be 151 billion cubic meters in 2006, up from an estimated 145 billion cubic meters to end of 2005.

            2005 — (november) — Russia213 kilometers and costing $US3.2 billion, the pipeline takes gas overland from the Krasnodar gas fields, then underneath the Black Sea, re-emerging at the Durusu Terminal near Samsun, on the Turkish Black Sea coast. The pipeline continues overland to Ankara. At full capacity (estimated to be reached in 2010) it can carry around 16 billion cubic meters of natural gas a year.

            2005 — (november) Global oil consumption, according to IEA figures, is now 85 million barrels a day. This is not quite the consumption rate predicted by some at the start of the year, but is not far off. Barring recession, supply/demand mismatch is likely around early 2006, with refinery expansions and upgrades still not complete, decreased production from the ‘mega’ fields, USA Gulf of Mexico oil still ‘shut in’ until march 2006, and the US dollar still too cheap. IEA predictions of increased oil production from non OPEC sources are not likely to be especially reliable, if history is a guide.

            Increase in oil from non-OPEC countries in 2005 has proved to be less than 0.1 million barrels a day (still being revised downward), whereas one prediction by the International Energy Agency during 2004 was that growth in non-OPEC oil would be 1.31 million barrels a day. Their predicted non-OPEC growth of 1.31 million barrels a day failed to materialise in 2005. They now predict it to appear in 2006. This is unlikely to be true —

            The IEA’s estimate for 2001 non-OPEC oil was revised down by 500,000 barrels per day;

            The IEA’s estimate for 2002 non-OPEC oil was revised down by 400,000 barrels per day;

            The IEA’s estimate for 2003 non-OPEC oil was revised down by 900,000 barrels per day;

            The IEA’s estimate for 2004 non-OPEC oil was revised down by 700,000 b/d.

            Others in the oil business calculate non-OPEC oil production will be nearly static until about 2010, when it will commence to decline.

            2005 — Novembers quote of the month from William R. Clark. author of ‘Petrodollar Warfare: Oil, Iraq and the Future of the Dollar’ —

            It is now obvious the invasion of Iraq had less to do with any threat from Saddam’s long-gone WMD program and certainly less to do to do with fighting International terrorism than it has to do with gaining strategic control over Iraq’s hydrocarbon reserves and in doing so maintain the U.S. dollar as the monopoly currency for the critical international oil market. Candidly stated, ‘Operation Iraqi Freedom’ was a war designed to install a pro-U.S. government in Iraq, establish multiple U.S military bases before the onset of global Peak Oil, and to reconvert Iraq back to petrodollars while hoping to thwart further OPEC momentum towards the euro as an alternative oil transaction currency ( i.e. petroeuro).

            Petrodollar Warfare: Oil, Iraq and the Future of the Dollar

            2005 — (november 2) — In the last 2 months the USA treasury has issued around $US100 billion in new debt. Medicare committments make taxpayers now liable for around $US65 trillion.

            2005 — (november 25) — Russia’s central bank announces it will double its gold reserves by buying on the open market and from domestic suppliers. As Russia is receiving large quantities of USA dollars for its oil, it appears to be converting the dollar (and to a lesser extent the euro) to physical metal equivalent as a more certain hedge — tending to drive gold prices back towards its historic link with oil, to the chagrin of the USA presidential/financial/military complex.

            In that the USA dollar is backed by oil, a movement by the Russians to be paid in Euros or in gold is effectively a devaluation of the USA dollar. This will make the price of oil imported into the USA higher.

            2005 — (november 22) — Oil rich United Arab Emirates opens the first ever gold and ‘commodities’ exchange in the Middle east, based in the city of Dubai. There is huge interest in gold in the middle east — Dubai imported $US10 billion of gold in 2004. Apart from gold and other precious metals, the exchange will also trade in commodities such as cotton — and marine fuel oil.

            2005 — (november 13) — The German Bundesbank, supposedly holding the second largest gold reserves in the world (about 3,427 tons), has resisted government efforts to sell 600 tons of reserves over the next five years. The Bundesbank refuses to reveal how much physical gold it has, and how much is ‘out’ somewhere.

            2005 — (november) — as oil prices in India continue to rise and currencies to inflate, Indians turn to transforming paper money into gold. Gold purchases in the first half of 2005 have increased by 50% to about 500 tonnes. India’s Central bank predicts inflation will be about 5% this year, mainly due to increased oil prices.

            2005 — China gives its citizens permission to buy and hold gold. This may assist China to quietly convert US dollars into physical metal value, and help maintain maximum purchase power for middle east oil and gas (except USA’s-Iraq).

            2005 — China now produces and sells 6 million new cars a year.

            2005 — (december) — contrary to earlier expectations, Norways oil production is now 2.7 million barrels a day — production is now declining at a relatively high rate of around 7% a year.

            2005 — (december) The International Energy Agencies prediction of 85 million barrels of crude a day is not quite correct — about 84.73 million barrels are now being produced.

            2005 — (november 28) — Mexico may have to begin importing oil by 2012, according to officials of the state-owned Pemex oil and gas company. The last proven reserves are now being developed, which, on current use, would allow Mexico to be more or less self sufficient until about 2012. But, as replacement of reserves is only about 22% of the amount being pumped out of the ground, then barring new discoveries of substantial size, Mexico will become a nett importer of oil products by this date. Given Pemex is the de facto guarantor of large amounts of Mexican government debt, where the money to import oil will come from as oil ‘debt backing’ declines is unsure.

            2005 — Mexico’s Pemex produces almost 3.4 million barrels of oil equivalent (oil + gas condensates + natural gas) a day, the largest part of which comes from the super giant Cantarell field.

            2005 — A report from Pemex experts ( Ing. Amando V. Astudillo, Administrator Cantarell Integral Assets. Dr Fernando Rodriguez Fields Development Manager, Dr Jose Lus Sanchez Bujanos Explorations Manager, and Dr Francisco Garci’a Hernandez, Operations Manager, Deposits) says the decline in the field will be dramatic. As a result, Mexico’s oil production will face a steep production decline within 3 years. They estimate todays 2 million barrel a day production at Cantarell will fall to an average of 1.7 million barrels a day in 2006, falling further to 1.1 million barrels a day in 2007, 800,000 barrels a day in 2008, and 520,000 barrels a day by the beginning of 2009. Cantarell produces around 60% of Permex’s oil.

            2005- (december 8th) In response to this report, Petroleos Mexicanos (Permex) releases a statement saying production from the giant Cantarell field, currently producing 2 million barrels a day, will drop to 1.91 million barrels a day next year, a drop of 5%. They omit to mention this is the predicted production for the start of 2006. By the end of 2006, production is expected to have fallen to 1.5 million barrels a day. By 2008 it is expected to have fallen to 1.43 million barrels per day. To reach this level, the field would have to decline by more than 12% in 2006, and by a further 12% of the lower 2006 production in 2007.

            2005 — (december 2) — Saudi Arabia plans to increase its existing refining capacity of about 4.1 million barrels per day to nearly 4.9 million barrels a day, by building two new 400,000-bpd refineries capable of handling sour crude. It is hoped to have them in production by 2007. Much remaining Middle East oil is now sour crude. which can’t be handled by most refineries. Saudi Arabia does not plan to build refinery ‘overcapacity’, as that would drive down the profit margin.

            2005 — (december) — against all expectations. the 1,776 kilometer long Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline has still not completed filling, and now is not expected to spew any oil from the Turkish Ceyhan end until may 2006. The ramped up production from the Caspian Sea Azeri-Chirag-Guneshli block of 380,000 barrels a day (mostly crucial Azari light oil) must be exported via Georgia’s Black Sea ports of Supsa and Batumi, with a portion also used to continue filling the pipeline.

            The pipeline was built on the assumption that it would carry a large part of the oil from offshore Kashgan fields, as well as Baku oil. Kazakhstani oil is now more likely to go east, to China, rather than west, to Turkey and the Mediterranean. The pipeline may end up being underused.

            2005 — (december) — China inaugorates its new pipeline from its newly acquired oilfields in Kumkol, Kazakhstan to northwest China. The pipeline intersects a pipeline taking oil from Kumkol to Russia. Production from Kumkol is insufficient to fill the pipeline, so half the oil will be imported from Russia into Kumkol, and then into the empty Chinese sector of the pipeline. If a new link is added to reach an existing Kazak pipeline running to the Kazakhstan territorial part of the Caspian sea in the western part of Kazakhstan, China will access the developing offshore Caspian Kashagan prospect, said to be bigger than the North Sea. Currently its is being explored by a consortium of mainly USA and European oil companies. They are pushing for a pipeline from the field to run under the Caspian to link up with the $US2 billion BTC oil pipeline sponsored by USA. China has invested over $US2.6 billion in Kazakhstan since1997. China is also considered by Kazakhstan to be a major market for its developing oil and gas, lessening its dependence on exporting to Russia. Current Kazak production is around 1.3 million barrels of oil a day. Ultimately, China expects to import over a million barrels of oil a day from Kazakhstan, about 15% of its current needs.

            2005 — (december) — Russia’s Lukoil says it will not accept a discount of $US7 for its Ural oil over the benchmark UK Brent crude. Currently there are no ‘benchmarks’ for Russian oil traded in Europe, benchmarks, the nearest being the Brent crude benchmark. As Russia has many Eurasian joint venture partners, it can commence trading oil for euros amongst its own local country subsidiaries at any time.

            As Russia is, with Saudi Arabia, the overwhelming ‘high volume’ producer in the world today, it is in a position to ‘call the tune’. The marked drop in value of the US dollar versus the Euro in late november has meant the ruble has appreciated against the dollar, creating an even greater incentive for the ruble to be weighted against the increasingly valuable euro, especially as much of Russia’s oil and gas export business is done in west Eurasia.

            2005 — (december) — USA — As warned. the cost of heating continues to climb. Natural gas is expected to cost householders an average of about 38% more than last winter. USA domestic gas prices are now around $US15 per million Btu’s. Heating oil is expected to cost around 20% more than last winter. Over 80% of USA households depend on natural gas and oil for winter heating. Gas heats about 50% of homes, fuel oil heats about 30% of homes. The average household in colder states uses from 850 to 1,200 gallons of fuel oil over winter. Only around 9% of heat supply comes from electricity (generation capacity is also partly gas-dependent), and a tiny 2% comes from burning wood. These prices rises cannot be afforded by the large number of poor in USA. Federal heating costs assistance is given to only 15% (about 5 million households) of those actually eligible. No increase in funding is available. Apart from Citgo Petroleum. no assistance has been offered from the record profits of the oil companies. Some small businesses are likely to have to close. USA consumes all its own production, and relies on Canada to meet its ever increasing demands.

            2005 — (december) USA coal production is totally committed. heralding higher coal prices as long term contracts begin to roll over.

            2005 — (december) USA gasoline demand experiences the highest ever recorded weekly increase — a demand increase of an additional 600,000 barrels. USA must now repay the strategic gasoline reserves it borrowed to tide it over the refinery damage due to hurricanes Rita and Katrina.

            2005 — (december 22) — USA Congress votes not to drill for oil and gas in America’s Alaska Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. This decision will inevitably be overturned in years to come. Alaskas North Slope as a whole has an estimated 37 trillion cubic feet of gas, and is the USA’s single biggest largest undeveloped gas resource. There is currently no pipeline in place to exploit the gas reserves, or any funding to build one.

            2005 — (december 18) Iraq. The Beiji refinery in the Sunni area of Iraq — Iraq’s largest and most important refinery, producing around 2 million gallons of gasoline a day — is closed by the government after insurgents threaten to kill anyone loading fuel there. The refinery tanks are full, but the fuel is now undeliverable. Tanker drivers refuse to risk their lives loading it out. Iraq, with some of the worlds largest reserves of crude oil, will have to buy more petroleum from countries such as Kuwait.

            2005 — (december 30) — Iraq. Iraqi president signs a deal with US dominated ‘world’ bank to impose austerity measures in return for debt forgiveness.

            Part of the deal hinges on Iraq accepting contracts with major USA and European oil companies that are highly disadvantageous, and used almost nowhere else in the world.

            Part of the deal hinges on the effective irreversible privitisation of Iraqi oil and gas exploration, extraction, and sale.

            Part of the deal hinges on Iraq accepting world bank ‘austerity measures’.

            Subsidies will be removed not only from from petrol (which the majority of now impoverished Iraqis have little use for) and tripling its price but off a low base (and increasing the price of diesel by 900%), but also the kerosene used for heating. and the natural gas most Iraqis use to cook their grain and bean based food. About a quarter of Iraqi households live on less than than US$1 per day. The three southern Iraqi provinces refuse to implement the USA’s IMF price rises/privatisation attempt .

            2005 — (december 30) — Iraqs oil minister is reported as taking leave, with the intention of resigning. It seems he was actually suspended by the Prime Minister for vigorously objecting to the rise in cooking fuel and gasoline prices. His officials say there is an impending oil supply crisis in Iraq due to sabotage and logistics problems. Production in the north, centre and south is about to suffocate. Deputy Prime Minister Ahmad Chalabi is once again appointed head of the oil ministry.

            2005 — (december 30) light sweet crude is US$60.32

            End of 2005

            Oil prices for the year average out at around about 37% higher than 2004.

            Oil consumption around the world is up, at the equivalent of around 84.7 million barrels a day (84,787,000 barrels a day) by december (conventional and unconventional, i.e. all liquids), about 1.7 million barrels a day higher than end of 2004. By the end of 2005, virtually all the world’s spare capacity has been eaten up by this larger than expected growth in world demand for oil by years end.

            Looking back from november 2006, it is now the case that december has seen a peak of world oil plus condensates production (according to EIA data).

            Average conventional oil production for the year is estimated by ASPO to have been (in million barrels a day)

            29 mbd from other countries — Mexico, Venezuala, Nigeria (about 2.5 mbd). North Africa, China, India etc

            26 mbd predicted for 2010

            20 mbd from Arabian Gulf states (mainly Saudi Arabia)

            20 mbd predicted for 2010

            9.2 mbd from Russia

            8.4 mbd predicted for 2010

            5.2 mbd from Europe (mainly Norway, whose 2005 production was 3 mbd)

            3.6 mbd predicted for 2010

            3.6 mbd from USA lower 49 states

            2.8 mbd predicted for 2010

            Average unconventional oil production for the year is estimated by ASPO to have been (in million barrels a day)

            2.3 mbd from h eavy oil, shale, oil sand and bitumen

            3 mbd predicted for 2010

            3.6 mbd from deepwater oil

            12 mbd predicted for 2010

            0.9 mbd from polar oil

            1 mbd predicted for 2010

            6.9 mbd from gas liquids

            9 mbd predicted for 2010

            ASPO calculates total oil production (all sources) to have been 80 million barrels a day (annualised) for 2005.

            ASPO predicts total oil production (all sources) will be 86 million barrels a day (annualised) in 2010

            ASPO predicts total oil production (all sources) will be 80 million barrels a day (annualised) in 2015, mainly due to decline in Russia and ‘other countries’ — Mexico, Venezuala, Nigeria, North Africa, China, India etc.

            Saudi Arabian production is pretty much flat. Domestic oil consumption is up 13% over year end 2004.

            Saudi Arabia produced 9.55 million barrels a day of crude + condensate, and 1.55 million barrels a day of other liquids, according to the EIA. This represents almost 100% of their capacity. As Saudi Arabia consumed 2 million barrels a day of their own production, 9.1 million barrels a day was available for export.

            Russia’s production is up about 2.5%. Domestic oil consumption is also up 13% over year end 2004.

            Mexico’s production is probably flat or declining slightly.

            Iraq produced less oil than in 2004.

            The North Sea produced about 400,000 barrels of oil a day less than in 2004.

            Norways oil production decline was 7%.

            Dubai is now producing only around100,000 barrels a day

            China imported 130 million tonnes of crude oil — 3.3% more than in 2004. About 43% of China’s oil needs are now met from imports. It is now the second largest oil importer in the world, after the USA.

            China is yet to start filling its strategic reserves.

            China exported an average of 466,386 tonnes of gasoline a month, mostly to Southeast Asian markets.

            USA has authorised the increase its 727 million barrel strategic reserves of crude to 1 billion barrels.

            USA produced about 400,000 barrels of oil a day less than in 2004. Of this, about 300,000 barrels a day reduction is attributable to damage from hurricane Katrina. That which is not now back on line or under current repair will be permanently lost.

            USA is the most intensively explored and drilled country in the world. USA produces about 8% of the worlds oil. There are now 506,000 producing oil wells in USA. Average production per well is a little over 10 barrels of crude a day.

            Canada, the USA’s first equal major supplier of oil (with Mexico) had static production averaged over 2005 relative to 2004, but increased production in Q4 2005.

            USA imports 10.126 million barrels of crude oil a day — the highest annual amount ever recorded.

            USA now imports around about 60% of the oil it uses.

            USA now imports about 584 million barrels of oil from Canada every year.

            USA now imports nearly 584 million barrels of oil from Mexico.

            USA imports a little less (548 million barrels a year) from Saudi Arabia.

            USA imports around 475 million barrels from Venezuela.

            USA imports about 400 million barrels a year from Nigeria.

            USA’s Iraq gives 256 million barrels a year,

            USA gets nearly 110 million barrels a year from Angola and UK.

            Smaller amounts come from Algeria and Kuwait.

            USA is heavily dependant on Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia for its imported oil.

            Of these countries, Canadian production cannot be increased, Mexico’s giant Cantarell field has started to decline, Saudi Arabia is sound, Venezuela is sound, and Nigeria may well become so unstable oil exports are severely cut.

            The European Union countries now import 9.8 million barrels of oil per day.

            Natural gas prices were 18.6% higher than in 2004.

            UK moves from being a nett gas exporter to being a nett gas importer.

            USA used 22 trillion feet of natural gas — a lower consumption rate than a decade ago. Even so, demand remains strong, but production from larger fields is declining. More wells than ever have to be drilled to keep up supply, but new finds are small, and relatively low volume. Roughly 27,000 new natural gas wells were drilled this year .

            Key volume oil suppliers. Russia and Saudi Arabia, both with mature and declining giant and supergiant fields, are the key volume producers on the world market. Both are squeezing the sponge hard — Russia is squeezing hardest, and have a smaller sponge.

            Oil companies — Exxon Mobil makes a net profit of $US10.7 billion for the last quarter. This is the highest quarterly profit in history for a USA company. Exxon Mobil is the world’s largest publicly traded oil company.

            Nuclear Fuel — Current rates of use of low-cost uranium mean reserves will be exhausted in 20 years. Breeder reactors, which create dangerous fissible material, would have to be used after that.

            Renewable energy — according to the United Nations Environment Program, global investment in renewable energy — particularly solar, wind and biofuel — was $US80 billion.

            References

            ‘Secret US plans for Iraq’s oil’ story reported by Greg Palast.

            Published by BBC NEWS: 2005/03/17 15:41:31 GMT

            news.bbc.co.uk/go/pr/fr/-/1/hi/programmes/newsnight/4354269.stm

            Aleklett, K,Campbell, CJ. ‘The Peak and Decline of World Oil and Gas Production’

            published by the Association for the Study of Peak Oil and Gas. www.asponews.org .

            Bakhtiari, AM. 2002. ‘2002 to see birth of New World Energy Order’

            Oil and Gas Journal, January 7, 2002.

            Campbell, CJ. 1999. ‘The imminent Peak of World Oil Production’.

            Presentation to a House of Commons All-Party Committee on July 7 1999.

            BP Ltd ‘Petroleum Review of 2004’

            Deffeyes, Kenneth S.2001. ‘Peak of world oil production’

            Engdahl FW.2003. ‘A New American Century? Iraq and the hidden euro-dollar wars’

            www.currentconcerns.ch/archive/2003/04/20030409.php

            Hirsch, Bezdek and Wendlings report ‘The Peaking of World Oil production: Impacts, Mitigation, in a March 2005 report to the US Department of Energy.

            Simmons, MR. 2002. ‘The World`s Giant Oilfields’

            M. King Hubbert Center for Petroleum Supply Studies, Colorado School of Mines, January 2002.

            Simmons, Matthew. 2004. ‘The peak oil debate: crisis or comedy?’ Presentation at the SPE Annual Technical Conference September 27, 2004, held at Houston, Texas, USA.

            U.S. Department of State. Foreign Relations of the United States. 1945, viii, 45, cited in Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The limits of power. Harper 1972

            Multinational Oil Corporations and U.S. Foreign Policy. report to the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate, 2 Jan 1975

            Copyright 2005 Sustainable Living Organisation

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